Skip to main content

Full text of "Memorial volume of the semi-centennial of the Theological seminary at Columbia, South Carolina"

See other formats


(Cot- 



MEMORIAL VOLUME 



OF THE 



SEMI-CENTENNIAL 



OF THE 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



AT 



COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLII^A. 



COLUMBIA, S. C. 

PRINTED AT THE PRESBYTERIAN PUBLISHING HOUSE. 

1884. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



PAGE 



Minutes of Alumni Association ix 

PART I. ADDRESSES. 

Opening Address. 

By B. M. Palmer, D. D., LL. D 3 

Congratulatory Address to Dr. Howe. 

By Eev. James H. Saye 8 

Dr. Howe's Eesponse 11 

PART II. DISCOURSES. 

The Spirit op Presbyterianism. 

By T. E. Peck, D. D., LL. D., Professor in Union 

Theological Seminary, Va 17 

The Old Testament in History; or, Eevelation and 
Criticism. 

By Henry M. Smith, D. D., Pastor of the Third Pres- 
byterian church. New Orleans, La 39 

The Pulpit and the Pasto.iate. 

By C. A. StjHmai), D. D , Pa^toi ot the Presbyterian 

church, Tn.skiiloo8a, Ala 84 

The Federal Theology,: Jto Import and its Regulative 
Influence. 

By John L. Gira^-deau, D. D., LL. D., Professor in 

Columbia Theological Seminary 96 

PART III. HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

History of Columbia Theological Seminary. 

By George Howe, D. D., LL. D 131 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PACK 

History of Foreign Missions, as hklatkd to the South- 
ern Preshvterian Cihrch and Columbia Seminary. 
By J. Lfiyliton Wiisou, ]). I)., Sccretuiy of Foivii^n 

Missions 157 

PAKT IV. MEMORIAL SKETCHES OF DECEASED 
PROFESSORS AND STLDE>.TS. 

rr.oFESsoiiS: 

Thomas Goulding, D. ]). 

By Bev. F. B. (Joiilding 181 

James Henley Tiiornwell, D. 1)., LL. I). 

By John B. Adger, D. D 188 

Charles Colcock Jones, D. D. 

By John Jones. 1). J) 195 

Aaron Whitney Leland, D. D. 

By Joseph Bardwell, D. D 205 

William Swan Plumer, D. D., LL. I). 

By Moses D. Hoge, 1). D 210 

STUDENTS : 

James McFwen Hall Adams 217 

William Hooper Adams 211> 

William Alcorn 2:^0 

Donald John Auld, M. D 221 

Aiigu.stus O. Bacon 22S 

Henry Howard Banks 224 

AVilliam Bank's..., 226 

John Andrew Baikv:,vi. ;..{.„. '..^i\ '.,'•. •..•.% 228 

James Seott Ban'..'..'..'...'.'...: '...V... •.•.•,!*..• 229 

Samuel James Bingham .;. !...;.■!•;.:.. •.%*; 230 

Bobcrt Manton Brea rley .'. '. .\*. !:.\ .'.''. ..': 233 

William Howard lirool^n;..//^. .•,.I.*v.i:...r 235 

Samuel Bobins Brown, D.'D*.*..*..'.*.!.*.!?.* 236 

Edward H. Buist 238 

John B. Cassells 239 

Edwin Cater 240 

Samuel Edward Chandler 242 

George Ifenry Coit 243 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. V 

PAGE 

James Cooper Cozby 244 

Jtmu's Arcliil)ul(l Cousar 24(! 

AVilliain Banks Crawfoixl 247 

Thomas H. Cunningham 248 

William Curtis, LL. D 250 

AVilliam Coombs Pana, J). D 251 

Edward Chaffin Davidson 252 

Thomas J. Davidson. 253 

James Adams Davies 254 

Thomas Lockwood DeVeaux 255 

Henry Robertson Dickson 257 

Samuel Donnelly 258 

John Douglas 2G0 

Eobert L. Douglas 262 

John Elbert DuBose 263 

Julius J. DuBose 264 

J. DeWitt Duncan 265 

Albert M. Egerton 266 

William Curdy Emerson 268 

Adolphus H. Epstein 269 

David Finley 270 

Malcolm D. Eraser 271 

S. R. Friersou 272 

Savage Smith Gaillard 274 

James Finley Gibert 275 

Joseph Gibert 278 

James Euet Gilland 279 

Francis R. Goulding 280 

William Allen Gray 282 

Matthew Greene 283 

George Cooper Gregg 283 

Robert W. Hadden 285 

Henry Hardie , 286 

John Stitt Harris 287 

Homer Hendee 289 

Thomas Hobby 290 

W^illiani Inge Hogan 290 

Richard Hooker 291 

Franklin Merriam Howell 293 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



"Willitun L. Huo;hes 294 

John C. Humphry 295 

William Meriwether Ingram 298 

Thomas Chalmers Johnson 299 

Eoltert Crawford Johnston 300 

E. C. Ketohum 301 

Elmore Kinder 302 

A. L. Kline, D. D 303 

Barnubus Sfott Krider 305 

George Whitfield Ladson 306 

Eobert Harvey Lattert}- 307 

Bazile E. Lanneau 309 

I. S. K. Legare 310 

Andrew Eutherford Liddoll 311 

G. C. Logan 313 

A. J. Loughridge 314 

William LeConte 315 

Thomas Magruder 317 

John Boyd Mallard 317 

Charles W. Martin 318 

William Mathews 318 

John F. Mayne 319 

Thomas Livingston McBryde, D. D 320 

James E. McCarter 321 

Eobert Warnoek MeCormick 322 

William J. MeCormick 324 

William McDuffie 326 

Duncan E. Mclntyre 326 

John Blue McKinnon 327 

Job n McLees 328 

Eobert McLees 330 

Daniel Milton McLure 331 

Peter McNab 332 

John Calvin McNair 333 

Donald McQueen, D. D 335 

James Lyman Merrick 337 

TelcmachuK F. Montgomery 337 

William H. Moore 339 

Hugh A. Miinroe 339 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII 

PAGE 

Thomas Marquis Newell 340 

Eben Newton 341 

Samuel Orr 342 

M. A. Patterson 343 

Richard Peden 345 

Abner A. Porter, I). D 345 

David H. Porter, D. D 347 

Joseph D. Porter 348 

Rufus Kilpatrick Porter 349 

Joseph Melanchthon Quarterman 350 

John Winn Quarterman 352 

Charles Malone Richards 353 

H. W. Rogers 354 

AV. H. Roane 355 

Isaac Hadden Salter 356 

"William Edward Scriven 357 

Lucius A. Simonton 358 

Arthur Melville Small 359 

Robert Robertson Small 360 

Angus Ferguson Smith 362 

Robert L. Smyth 363 

W. R. Stoddard 363 

Wallace Howard Stratton 364 

Philip H. Thompson 365 

Edward R. Ware 366 

John Franklin Watson 367 

Winslow Brainard Watts 368 

Samuel Park Weir 369 

William Wiley 370 

Albert Williams 371 

A. W. Wilson 372 

Charlton H. AVilson 375 

John D. Wilson 376 

Leighton B. Wilson 377 

William W. Wilson 379 

Peter Winn 380 

John Alfred Witherspoon 381 

Arthur McDow Wrenn 383 

William Black Yates 383 



VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART r. 



r.MiK 



El'locjy on Professor George Howe, D. 1)., LL. D. 

]iy Prof. John L. Girardciui, J). D., LL. I) 387 

APPENDIX. 

Catalogie of the Faculty and Students of Colt'mbia 
.Se.minary. 

Faculty 421 

Students 422 



MINUTES OF THE ALUMNI "ASSOCIATION. 

Columbia, S. C, Nov. 4, 1881, 7^ p. m. 

The Alumni of the Theological Seminary met in the First 
Presbyterian church, and were called to order by the Rev. Dr. 
B. M. Palmer, who requested the Rev. Dr. I. S. K. Axson, chair- 
man of the meeting held in Charleston, May 2oth, 1880, to take 
the chair, and Ret. T. H. Law, Secretary of that meetinor, to act 
as Secretary of this until the organisation of an Alumni Associa- 
tion, to be assisted by Rev. J. W. Flinn, Seci'etary of the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements. 

The exercises of the evening were opened with the singing of 
a hymn ; after which the meeting Avas led in prayer by the Rev. 
James Beattie, one of the original students of Rev. Dr. Gouldinc^ 
at Lexington, Ga., before the establishment of the Seminary here, 
and subsequently a member of the first class in the institution. • 

The Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer then delivered a discourse intro- 
ductory to the celebration of Rev. Dr. George Howe's fifty years' 
services as Professor in the institution, his entrance marking the 
beginning of the Seminary as an organised school of theological 
training. 

At the close of the discourse, the graduates and former stu- 
dents present proceeded to organise an xllumni Association. The 
roll was called class by class, and the following responded to their 
names, which were enrolled in classes according to the year of 
graduation of the classes to which they respectively belonged : 

1833. James Beattie, J. Leighton Wilson. 

1834. I. S. K. Axson. 
. 1837. J. H. Saye. 

1839. John Jones. 

1841. S. H. Hay, Neill McKay, B. M. Palmer. 

1842. D. E. Frierson, Z. L. Holmes. 

1844. E. F. Hyde, C. B. Stewart, C. A. Stillman. 

1848. J. L. Girardeau. 

1849. R. H. Reid. 

1851. Donald Eraser, A. A. James. 



X MINUTES 

1852. D. L. Buttolph, James Douglas. 

1853. S. C. Alexan'ler, R. A. Mickle. 

1854. Douglas Harrison, H. M. Smith. 

1855. N. W. Edmunds. 

1856. James McDowell. 

1857. J. E. Dunlop, W. A. Wood. 

1858. W. F. Pearson. 

1859. R. B. Anderson, Robert Bradley. 

1860. Jno. R. Riley. 

1861. E. H. Buist, J. B. Mack. 

1862. W. E. Boggs, G. R. Brackett, J. D. A. Brown, J. H. 
Colton, James S. Cozby, Thos. H. Law, Wm. McDonald, Hugh 
McLees, C. S. Vedder. 

1863. R. E. Cooper, E. :M. Green. 

1864. W. P. Jacobs. 

1868. W. W. Mills. 

1869. A. P. Nicholson, W. C. Smith. 

1870. L. K. Glasgow, John G. Law, J. L. Martin. 

1871. H. C. DuBose, G. T. Goetchius, E. L. Leeper, Jas. S. 
White. 

1872. A. R. Kennedy, T. C. Ligon, R. W. Boyd. 

1873. C. E. Chichester, W. J. McKay. 

1874. J. G. Fair, J. G. Hall, R. A. Miller, R. D. Perry, J. 
H. Thornwell, L. R. McCormick. 

1875. J. W. Flinn, H. B. Garriss, R. C. Ligon, W. E. Mc- 
Ilwain. 

1876. J. Y. Allison, D. A. McRae, S. L. Morris. 

1877. E. P. Davis, J. E. Fogartie, G. A. Trcnholm. 

1878. D. L Craig, H. G. Gilland, T. P. Hay, J. L. William- 
son, J. C. McMullen. 

1879. H. C. Fennel, E. G. Smith, J. L. Stevens. 

1880. J. T. Plunkett, L. H. Robinson, C. L. Stewart, R. A. 
Webb, S. L. Wilson, A. M. Sale, T. B. Craig. 

1881. VV. G. Neville, J. L. McLin. 

The Committee appointed in Charleston to prepare and pre- 
sent at this meeting the draft of a Constitution, reported through 
Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer. The Constitution proposed was taken 



OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. XI 

up article by article, and each one was unanimously adopted; 
after which it was adopted as a whole. 

The Association, on motion, proceeded to complete the organi- 
sation by the election of officers, the following officers being chosen 
to serve for the next year: 

President, B. M. Palmer. 

Vice-President, John L. Girardeau. 

Secretary, Thomas H. Law. 

Treasurer, Joseph B. Mack. 

The President then took the chair, and according to a pro- 
gramme previously arranged, the Rev. James H. Saye, a vener- 
able member of the class of 1837, delivered an address to the Rev. 
Geo. Howe, D. D., LL. D., congratulatory upon the completion 
of fifty years' services in the Professorship of Biblical Literature 
in the Seminary. This address was responded to in appropriate 
terms by Dr. Howe. 

The Committee of Arrangements having invited the Faculties 
of the several Theological Seminaries of the United States to be 
represented in this Semi-centennial celebration, letters which had 
been received in response, were read from the Faculties of the 
following institutions : Union, Va., (which was also represented 
in person by the Rev. Prof. Thos. E. Peck, D. D.,) Princeton, 
Western, Northwest, Danville, Auburn, and San Francisco. Due 
West Theological Seminary was represented by the Rev. Prof. 
James Boyce, D. D., who was personally welcomed by the Presi- 
dent and addressed the Association. All these letters and ad- 
dresses were full of kind interest and congratulation in view of 
this pleasant occasion. 

The following resolution from the Synod of North Carolina 
was also communicated to the Association : 

^^ Resolved^ That the Synod of North Carolina, in session at Salisbury, 
N. C, November 4th, 1881, extend fraternal greetings to the Semi-Cen- 
tennial Association of the Columbia Theological Seminary, which is soon 
to convene in the city of Columbia, S. C. ; rejoicing with them in the 
success of efforts to re-endow that venerable 'School of the Prophets ;' 
and praying the richest blessing of the great Head of the Church to be 
upon them, and the great work in which they are engaged. And that 
the Rev. J. T. Plunkett be commissioned to bear this resolution to the 
'Semi-Centennial Association.' " 



XII iMINUTES 



After prayer l)y tlie Rev. Dr. Axson, the Association ad- 
journed till U a. m. to-morrow. 



Lecture Koom, Presbyterian Church, 

CoLUMRiA, Nov. o, 1881, 9 a. ni. 

The Association met, according to adjournment, and was 
opened with prayer by the Rev. Dr. John Jones. 

The minutes of last evening's session were read and approved. 

The Committee of Arrangements for this Semi-Centennial 
Celebration reported through its Secretai-y, the Rev. J. \V. Flinn, 
turning over to the Association the Minute Book of said Com- 
mittee. The arrangements which the Committee had made were 
approved and the Committee discharged. 

The Rev. C, E. Chichester, of the Committee appointed at 
Charleston to procure portraits of the deceased Professors of the 
Seminary, reported that a portrait of the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Goulding had been kindly presented by his daughter, Mrs. Wil- 
liam M. Reid; one of Rev. Dr. A. W. Leland, by his son, Col. 
John A. Leland; and one of Rev. Dr. James IL Thornwell, had 
been loaned by Mrs. Thornwell, and probably would never be 
recalled. He further reported that efforts had been made to se- 
cure a fresh portrait of Dr. Howe, which is now in the hands of 
an artist and expected to be ready for this occasion, but the artist 
had disappointed the Committee at the last moment. 

On motion of Dr. Boggs, the diligence of the Committee was 
approved, and the same Committee was continued, with instruc- 
tions to confer Avith Dr. Howe, the Librarian of the Seminary, 
in regard to the preservation and use of the portraits obtained, 
and to draw upon the Treasurer for such funds as may be neces- 
sary to purchase a frame for the expected picture of Dr. Howe, 
and such other expenses as may be required in order to the pro- 
per preservation and use of these portraits. 

On motion, it was further resolved that the Secretary be 
directed to convey the thanks of the Association to Mrs. Reid, 
Mrs. Thornwell, and Col. Leland, for the portraits so kindly put 
into our hands. 



or ALUxMNI ASSOCIATION. XIII 

The Rev. Dr. Mack, of the Committee appointed in Charles- 
ton to raise $30,000 for the endowment of the " Howe Memorial 
Professorship of Biblical Literature," reported that the Commit- 
tee had been earnestly at work in this matter, and that the 
amount of $26,200 had been raised toward the object. 

The Rev. J. W. Flinn proposed the following resolutions, 
recommended by the Committee of Arrangements, which Avere 
adopted : 

Resolved, 1. That all the proceedings, sketches, addresses, and dis- 
courses of this Semi-Centennial Celebration be published in a substan- 
tial Memorial A^olunie, of which copies shall be issued. 

2. That a Committee be appointed to edit the various papers and 
superintend their publication, and take steps to raise the necessary 
funds to defray the expense of printing and binding. 

3. That a subscription circular be printed and sent to all the Alumni, 
former students, and other friends of the Seminary who might aid in 
the matter, for the purpose of obtaining subscribers to the volume, 
and raising money to pay the cost of publication. 

It was further resolved, upon the recommendation of the same 
Committee : 

1. That copies of the Memorial Volume, when published, be presented 
to the following Theological Seminaries, Universities, and Colleges, viz. : 
Columbia. Union (Va.), Princeton, Union (N. Y.), Auburn, Lane, West- 
ern, Northwest, Danville, San Francisco, Due West, and New Bruns- 
wick Seminaries; South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia. Alabama, 
Mississippi, Virginia, Southwestern Presbyterian, Vanderbilt, Furman, 
Washington and Lee, Cumberland, Trinity (Texas), Johns Hopkins, 
Missouri, and Central Universities; and Davidson, Adger, Erskine, 
King, Austin, Arkansas, Hampden Sidney, and Westminster (Mo.) 
Colleges. 

2. If any surplus remain from the sale of the Volume after the cost of 
publication has been paid, it shall be applied to the Lectureship contem- 
plated in the Constitution of this Association. 

On motion, the Alumni of the. Seminary, resident in New^ Or- 
leans, La., the same who served on the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, were appointed a Committee to take charge of the publi- 
cation of the Memorial Volume and carry out the above resolutions. 

On motion of Dr. Boggs, it was resolved that a Committee on 
Finance be appointed, consisting of Rev. Messrs. J. B. Mack, E. 



XIV MINUTES 

M. Green, and J. W. Flinn, to devise and report some plan for 
raising funds to meet the expenses of the Association. 

A Committee, consisting of Rev. Drs. Palmer, Jones, Stillman, 
and Mack, was also appointed to consider and report to the Asso- 
ciation on Monday, as to the propriety of forming a Southern 
Presbyterian Historical Society. 

On motion of Rev. Dr. Jones it was resolved that some brother 
be appointed to prepare a memorial sketch of the Rev. F. R. 
Goulding, lately deceased. Rev. D. L. Buttolph, D. D., was 
appointed to perform this duty, and hand over the sketch to the 
Committee on the Memorial Volume. The same was also ap- 
pointed to read, in the Memorial Exercises of this afternoon, the 
Memorial prepared by the late Rev. F. R. Goulding, of his father, 
Rev. Thomas Goulding, D. D., the first Professor of the Seminary. 

Pending the consideration of a motion in regard to limiting the 
length of the memoirs of deceased alumni in the preparation of 
the Memorial Volume, the hour for the public exercises of the 
morning arrived, and the Association took recess to assemble 
again to-day at the call of the President. 



Repairing to the church, the Association, in connexion with 
the congregation there assembled, listened to a discourse upon 
Preshyterianism, delivered by the Rev. Professor Thomas E. 
Peck, D. D., of Union Seminary, Va., and a discourse historical 
of the Columbia Theological Seminary, by the Rev. Professor 
George Howe, D. D., LL. D. 

At the close of these deeply interesting and instructive exer- 
cises, the Association met again for business in the church. 

The unfinished business being taken up, on motion of Dr. 
Mack, it was 

Resolved, That in the preparation of the Memorial Volume, which is 
expected to contain all the public proceedings of this Serai-Centennial 
Celebration, the memorif\l sketches of the deceased Professors and Alum- 
ni, and the discourses delivered on this occasion, the Committee on Pub- 
lication be invested with discretionary power in the matter. 

On motion of Dr. Boggs, the officers of the Association were 



OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. XV 

appointed a special committee to propose to the Association on 
Monday nominations for a lecturer Jfor the year 1883, and for 
members to serve on the Executive Committee. 

The Association then adjourned to meet again for business at 
9 a. m., Monday. 



This afternoon was devoted to memorial services. In the pres- 
ence of the Alumni and many friends assembled in the church, 
sketches of the five deceased Professors of the Seminary were 
read: of Thomas Goulding, D. D., prepared by his son, the late 
Rev. Francis R. Goulding, and read by the Rev. D. L. Buttolph, 
D. D. ; of Aaron AY. Leland, D. D., prepared by his son-in- 
law. Rev. Jos. Bardwell, D. D., and read by the Rev. John L. 
Girardeau, D. D. ; of Charles Colcock Jones, D. D., prepared 
and read by his brother, Rev. John Jones, D. D. ; of James 
Henley Thornwell, D. D., LL. D., prepared and read by the 
Rev. John B. Adger, D."D. ; and of William Swan Plumer, 
D. D., LL. D., prepared by Rev. M. D. Hoge, D. D., and read 
by Rev. J. Wm. Flinn. 

After the reading of these sketches, the roll of the deceased 
Alumni was called. 

All these exercises were peculiarly solemn, impressive, and in- 
teresting. 

In the evening, the Rev. Henry M. Smith, D. D., of New Or- 
leans, delivered before a large congregation of Alumni and others 
a discourse upon "The Old Testament in History, or Biblical 
Criticism and Inspiration." 

Sabbath morning, November 6th, the pulpit of the church was 
filled by the Rev. Dr. Palmer, of New Orleans. But in the af- 
ternoon of that day the Semi-Centennial exercises were resumed, 
the Rev. Charles A. Stillman, D. D., of Alabama, delivering a dis- 
course upon "The Pulpit and the Pastorate." And in the even- 
ing, the Rev. John Leighton Wilson, D. D., delivered a Sketch 
of our Church's Foreign Missionary Work, and the Connexion 
of the Seminary therewith. This was followed by an address 
upon the Mission Work in China, by Rev. H. C. DuBose, a 



XVI MINUTES 



niembor of tlie Soocliow Mission — though this ■was not a part of 
the regular programme of 4;he Serai-Centennial celebration. 



Lecture Room, Presbyterian Church, 
Columbia, Monday, Nov. 7th. 1881, 9 a. m. 

The Association assembled, and was opened witii prayer by 
the Rev. A. A. James. 

The minutes of Saturday's meeting were read and approved. 

The Committee on the nomination of a lecturer for 1883, 
reported, recommending that the Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer be ap- 
pointed, and that the subject be "The Theology of Prayer." 
The report was adopted. 

The same Committee reported, recommending that Rev. C. E. 
Chichester, G. T. Goetchius, and J. L. Martin, be appointed on 
the Executive Committee. This too was adopted. 

Rev. Dr. Mack, of the Committee on a, Southern Presbyterian 
Historical Society, reported as follows : 

"That a Committee of three be appointed to correspond with the 
Faculty and Alumni of Union Theological Seminary, Va., with reference 
to the formation of a Southern Presbyterian Historical Society ; and 
that the said Committee report tiie draft of a suitable Constitution and 
by-laws to a mcctinii; of the friends of such a Society to be held durini;; the 
sessions of the next (ieneral Assembly in the city of Atlanta." 

The rei)ort was adopted, and tlie following were appointed to 
constitute the Committee contemplated, viz. : J. L. Girardeau, 
J. B. Mack, and John Jones. 

In behalf of the Finance Committee, Dr. Mack reported, 
recommending that each member of the Association pay oue dol- 
lar annually to provide the necessary funds for the Association. 
The report was adopted. 

On motion of Rev. E. M. Green, it was 

"Re.wlfcd, That the thanks of the Association be tendered to the breth- 
ren who have prepared papers for this Semi-Centennial occasion ; and 
that Rev. Professor James Woodrow, P. D., bo requested to prepare the 
discourse appointed to him in the proj^ramme, and that it be published 
in the Memorial Volume." 



OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. XVII 

On motion, it was 

. '■'■Resolved, That the thanks of the Association be returned to the Com- 
mittee of Arrancjements for their services in connexion with this cele- 
bration." 

On motion, the Secretary of the Association was instructed, 
that, upon hearing of the death of any alumnus or former stu- 
dent of the Seminary, he should request some suitable person to 
prepare for the Association a memorial sketch of the deceased 
brother for publication. 

On motion, a Committee, consisting of Rev. Drs. C. A. Still- 
man, J. Leighton Wilson, and John Jones, was appointed to 
prepare and publish an address upon the condition and prospects 
of the Seminary. 

The Association then took recess to meet again this evening at 
7| o'clock in this room, and repaired informally to the church, 
to hear the last of the discourses upon the programme of the 
Semi- Centennial celebration. This discourse was delivered to an 
earnestly attentive and deeply interested audience, by the Rev. 
Professor John L. Girardeau, D. D., LL. D., upon "The Federal 
Theology : Its Import and its Regulative Influence." 

Lecture Room, 7^ p. m. 
Upon the reassembling of the Association, the Rev. Dr. 
Palmer presented, with some remarks in regard to it, the follow- 
ing paper, which was unanimously adopted by a rising vote : 

"The Alumni of the Seminar}^, associated to celebrate the fiftieth an- 
niversary of their Alma Mater, respectfully and earnestly suogest to their 
beloved brother, the Rev. J. L. Girardeau, whether he can render any 
service to the Southern Church more important than to take up and com- 
plete the system of theoloj^y beo;un by the late and lamented Dr. Thorn- 
well, and arrested by his death ; ^ivino; to the world a complete work 
issuini; from this Seminary, and the lasting testimony borne by it to the 
immutable truth of God." 

The evening Avas spent in free and pleasant remarks from many 
brethren, calling to mind numerous reminiscences of their Semi- 
nary experience ; and also expressing ardent hopes and strong 
confidence as to the future of the institution. 



XVIII MINUTES 

Salutations from several brethren who had been providentially 
hindered from being present, Avere received. 

It was also announced that the Rev. S. E. Axson, an alumnus 
who was prevented from attending by the illness of his wife, has, 
since our assembling here, been called to mourn her death. 
Whereupon the Secretary was directed to address to him a letter 
assuring him of our fraternal and hearty sympathy in his sore 
bereavement. 

The further announcement was made that the Board of Di- 
rectors had this day fixed September 20, 1882, for the reopening 
of the Seminary — Avhich information was received witli hearty 
applause. 

On motion, the thanks of the Association were returned for 
kind hospitality and other favors extended to the members. 

The Secretary was instructed to publish the proceedings of this 
meeting of the Association in the several weekly religious news- 
papers of the Church. 

The Association then adjourned with prayer by the President 
and the singing of the long metre doxology. 

B. M. Palmer, President. 

Thomas H. Law, Secretary. 



OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. XIX 

CONSTITUTION, 

ADOPTED AT COLUMBIA, NOVEMBER 4tH, 1881. 

Article I. The name of this Association shall be "The 
Alumni Association of the Theological Seminary of the Synod 
of South Carolina and Georgia." 

Art. II. All who have been students in the Seminary shall 
be regarded, if they please, as members of this Association ; and 
seven members shall be necessary to constitute a quorum. 

Art. III. The objects of this Association shall be to promote 
the interests of the Seminary, by bringing annually together, in 
fraternal union, all the classes that have graduated from the insti- 
tution, either in whole or by representation ; and to make contri- 
butions to theological science in its various departments, by lec- 
tures — one or more of which shall be delivered on an assigned 
topic, at each annual meeting, by a member selected at the pre- 
ceding meeting. 

Art. IV. The Professors, ex-Professors, and Directors of the 
Seminary, shall be regarded as ex officio members of this Asso- 
ciation. 

Art. V. The officers of this Association shall be a President, 
a Vice-President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer ; who shall be 
elected annually, and continue in office until others are chosen to 
succeed them. 

Art. VI. The officers, with three other members to be annu- 
ally chosen, shall be an Executive Committee, with power to 
attend to the business of the Association, in the intervals of its 
meetings. 

Art. VII. The stated meetings of the Association shall be 
held annually, in Columbia, on the same day with the regular 
annual meeting of the Directors at the close of the Seminary 
year, at such hour as may be appointed from year to year. 

Art. VIII. Special meetings of the Association shall be called 
by the President, on the written request of five members ; notice 
thereof being given in all the religious papers of our Church, at 
least one month in advance. 



XX MINUTES 



LETTER FROM THE REV. DR. A. T. McGILL. 

TiiE()LO(;icAL Seminary, 
Princeton, N. J., October 28, 1881. 
Rev. Dr. B. 31. Palmer: 

My Dear Sir: If I should fail to appear at Colinnbia on the 
3d prox., at the interesting assembly, convoked for the purpose 
of celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of Dr. George Howe's in- 
duction as Professor there, I beg in advance to explain the hind- 
rance -which prevents me, notwithstanding the appointment of 
our Faculty here to represent them. The lionor of tiiis appoint- 
ment was coveted by me, and it Avas made by unanimous vote. 
But the advance of age fetters the alacrity of my wislies. The 
journey is long, and the time is short, that I could spend in this 
the season of my throngest duties here. The grating of Railway 
travel would compel me to go and return slowly, by way of stop- 
ping over at several stations on the road, and my interview with 
brethren beloved at the destination would be hours instead of days. 

We all send greetings to Dr. Howe and the Alumni and other 
friends of your time-honored Seminary. It is a happy coinci- 
dence that the first and the second jubilee of this kind on our 
continent have been vouchsafed to the Presbyterian Church, 
North and South. And still happier, that the objects of such 
commemoration have been so much alike in character and accom- 
plishment. Probably no man living resembles more than Dr. 
Howe does our own Charles Hodge, now honored over Christen- 
dom, and nowhere so much as in the place of his late home, 
where he was best known. A winter spent in the hospitable 
home of Dr. Howe, brought me into the most intimate observa- 
tion of his manner of life, as well as the learning, piety, candor, 
and good sense, combined with which he conducted the exegeti- 
cal instruction of the Seminary. The breadth of Ids knowledge 
also, extending to History, Theology, and Ethics, filled me with 
admiration. And all the more, that the simplicity of a child, 
unpretending and unobtrusive, adorned the greatness of his mind, 
and charmed the intercourse with which both teachers and pupils 
approached him at all times. 



OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. XXI 

May his precious life be prolonged, as Dr. Hodge's was, be- 
yond the semi-centennial congratulations, and extend through 
another decade his long-loved usefulness, in the "consolation of 
Christ, and comfort of love, and fellowship of the Spirit." 

Your conferences on this occasion will, doubtless, have much 
reference to the reorganisation of the Seminary for another era, 
which I do earnestly hope will be like the clear shining after the 
rain, to freshen the truth as it is in Jesus, and spread a greater 
influence than ever, to the ends of the earth. - We should not 
anticipate, in the remotest future, another calamity like that 
which is overpast, coming to toss your foundation or dismantle 
your outfit. The lesson of this jubilant crisis must be, that new 
and greater things than ever should be done for the Seminary at 
Columbia. "Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it." One of the 
most memorable features of its life in the past is the sanctity of 
its officers and students. This was manifested peculiarly in the 
devout attention of all together, at the daily exercise of worship, 
in the prayer hall ; a particular ornament of godliness, in which, 
it has never been excelled by any other Theological Seminary I 
have known or heard of. In my time, the venerable Dr. Leland 
was there, in majestic form and mellow voice, to read the Scrip- 
tures with tones and emphasis which no commentary could rival 
in pressing every shade of divine thought contained on the ear 
and the heart of his auditors. The young Bazile Lanneau, Tutor 
in Hebrew, took his turn with the Professors in conducting 
pi-ayers for the week, with singular pathos and heavenly unction 
which cannot be forgotten. It Avas, indeed, a privilege to be there, 
and that sacred school was a revival of religion for me all the 
time I communed with teachers and scholars at Columbia. 

Its traditions of the past should be treasured up for an earnest 
of the future. Its men of God, before and after that sojourn of 
mine — Goulding, Jones, Leland, Thornwell, and Plumer — who 
have gone to the "church of the first born, which are written in 
heaven," shed a lustre on your institution which the Church on 
earth should be glad to perpetuate on the same spot and with the 
same, surrounding of good and foithful men, like Gilbert T. 
Snowden, the Crawfords, and others, who chewshed it with so 



XXII MINUTES 

much zeal in the past generation of that beautiful locality. The 
conservative character of Columbia Seminary cannot be spared 
from the visible Church at this day. The true inspiration of 
God's word, the cardinal doctrine of atonement by substitution, 
the full development of scriptural polity in the structure, govern- 
ment, and discijdine of the Church, indispensably need this pure 
light, where it was kindled at the first. 

We are situated at Princeton, between two great cities, the 
largest in America, and probably the richest also ; one of these 
being cosmopolitan as well as metropolitan, to which our South- 
ern brethren miglit come freely and fairly for help and means, in 
rehabilitating such an institution. Assuredly we could not grudge 
the munificence you might find near our own doors, but would 
rejoice to favor and second every such appeal for a new endow- 
ment. And we rejoice to know that the sunny and fertile South 
is rapidly recovering her own resources, which were once liberally 
sent here to help this mother Seminary in its infancy and long 
struggle to secure an adequate foundation. Beloved brethren of 
the South, be of good cheer. God will not forget your work of 
faith and labor of love and patience of hope in ministering to 
the wants of Princeton more than half a century since. Your 
prayers and alms went up as a memorial to him in seeking our 
good at the North, and our hearts are now gratefully with you, 
and sincerely prompt in agreeing with you touching this thing 
that we implore the God of all grace to give, and to hasten it in 
his time, greater prosperity than ever to the Seminary at Co- 
lumbia. 

We pray with you, and sing with you, "Return, Lord, how 
long?" "Make us glad, according to the days wherein thou hast 
afflicted us, and the years wherein we have seen evil. Let thy 
work aj)pear unto thy servants, and thy glory unto their chil- 
dren. And let the beauty of the Lord our God be upon us ; and 
establish thou the work of our hands upon us ; yea, the work of 
our hands establish thou it." 

With much fraternal love, and great respect, yours, 

ALEX. T. McGILL. 



OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. XXIII 

MINUTES OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 
COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Columbia, S. C, May 9, 1883, 5 p. m. 

The Alumni Association of the Theological Seminary con- 
vened in the chapel of the Seminary, the President in the chair, 
and was opened with prayer by Rev. Dr. Stillman. 

The folloAving members were present : B. M. Palmer, J. L. 
Girardeau, C. E. Chichester, J. B. Mack, W. J. McCormick, 
Robert Bradley, E. P. Davis, W. G. Neville, C. R. Hemphill, 
I. S. K. Axson, W. E. Boggs, J. L. Stevens, G. T. Goetchius, 
J. S. Cozby, J. C. McMullen, J. L. Martin, C. A. Stillman, Jas. 
McDowell, T. H. Law, W. J. McKay, James Stacy, J. R. Mc- 
Alpine, R. A. Webb, A. M. Sale, J. G. Richards. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read for information. 

Dr. Palmer, on behalf of Committee on the publication of the 
Memorial Volume, presented a report, which was referred to a 
special Committee, consisting of W. E. Boggs, J. L. Martin, C. 
E. Chichester, J. B. Mack, and T. H. Law. 

Dr. Mack, Treasurer, presented a report, which was approved. 

Rev. C. E. Chichester, of Committee on Portraits, reported 
that the portrait of Dr. Howe, referred to in the last report, has 
been obtained and placed in the Library, and also one of Dr. 
Plumer. The Committee Avas continued, with a view to obtain- 
ing other portraits. 

Dr. Girardeau, of the Committee on the formation of a South- 
ern Presbyterian Historical Society, reported that steps had been 
taken at Atlanta, during the session of the last Assembly, look- 
ing to such organisation. 

The Secretary reported that he had requested brethren to pre- 
pare memorial sketches of deceased Alumni. 

On motion of Dr. Mack, the Rev. Dr. J. L. Girardeau was 
requested to deliver, in the First Presbyterian church this even- 
ing, a discourse memorial of the late venerable Dr. George Howe, 
who departed this life on the 1 5th of April last. 

On motion, the lecture of Dr. Palmer, appointed for this year, 



XXIV MINUTES 

was appointed to be delivered in the First Presbyterian church 
to-morro^v (Tlmrs(hiy) evening, at 8 o'ckjck, the lecturer having 
first explained how he had been led to change his subject from 
that of "The Theology of Prayer," to "The Certainty of the 
Evidences of Christianity." 

The following were elected officers for the next year : Presi- 
dent, C. A. Stilhnan ; Vice-President, J. L. Girardeau ; Secre- 
tary, T. II. Law ; Treasurer, W. E. Boggs. 

On motion, the Association took recess till 8 o'clock, to meet in 
the church. 

First Church, CoLUMiaA, May *.<, 8 p. m. 

The Association assembled with a large congregation in the 
church, and heard a memorial discourse upon Dr. George Howe, 
delivered by the Rev. Dr. Girardeau. At the conclusion of the 
discourse, the Association resumed business. 

The Committee on the Memorial Volume reported, recom- 
mending: 1. That the Volume be published as speedily as pos- 
sible. 2. That a Committee, consisting of J. B. Mack, D. D., 
W. E- Boggs, D. D., and Prof. C. R. Hemphill, be appointed to 
edit the work and carry out the above resolution. The report 
was adopte<l. 

On motion of J. S. Cozby, it was 

Resolved, Thiit tlie tiianks of tlic Association be tendered to Dr. Girar- 
deau for the discourse delivered this eveninji, and that it be inserted in 
tlie ))roposed Memorial Volume. 

It was also 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the former Committee on Publication, 
J. W. Flinn, be refunded, out of the funds of the Association, any ex- 
pense to which he has been put in this matter. 

On motion, the Association adjourned till 8 oclock to-morrow 
evening, to meet in this place. 
Prayer by J. L. Martin. 



of alumni association. xxv 

First Church, Columbia, 
Thursday, May 10, 8 p. m. 

The Association assembled and listened to the lecture of Dr. 
B. M. Palmer, upon "The Certainty of the Evidences of Chris- 
tianity," delivered before a large congregation. 

At the close of the lecture, the Association entered upon the 
consideration of business matters. 

On motion of Dr. Mack, the New Orleans Committee was in- 
structed to hand over to the new Committee on the Memorial 
Volume, all the funds paid in for subscriptions, with the under- 
standing that the funds be returned to subscribers if the book 
should not be published. The New Orleans Committee was, on 
motion, discharged. 

On motion, the Treasurer was authorised to turn over to the 
Committee on the publication of the Memorial Volume, to be 
used for that purpose, any funds in the treasury not necessary for 
the expenses of the Association. 

On motion of Dr. Girardeau, the thanks of the Association 
were returned to Dr. Palmer for the able and eloquent lecture 
to which the Association has listened with much pleasure this 
evening. 

The Committee on nominating a lecturer for 1884, presented 
the name of Prof. James Woodrow, D. D., principal, Avith Rev. 
J. F. Latimer, Ph. D., as alternate ; and the report was unan- 
imously adopted. 

The names of the graduates of to-day were added to the roll 
of members, viz. : W. C. Fleming, T. F. Boozer, H. B. Zernow, 
and T. C. Whaling. 

On motion, the Treasurer was directed to correspond with all 
absent members of the Association, and invite the payment of 
the annual fee of $1. 

On motion, the Constitution was so changed as, in Art. VII., 
to fix the time of the annual meeting /or the Wednesday of the 
week in which the Board of Directors holds its annual meeting. 

The desire of the Association was expressed that Dr. Palmer 
complete and publish the lecture delivered this evening. 

On motion of G. T. Goetchius, the members of the Associa- 



XXVI MINUTES OF ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

tion, resident in Columbia, with Dr. Boggs as Chairman, were 
appointed a Committee of Arrangements for the next meeting. 

All the minutes of this meeting were read and approved. 

On motion, the Association adjourned to meet again on the 
Wednesday before the second Thursday in May next. 

Closed with prayer by Prof. C. R. Hemphill. 

C. A. Stillman, President. 

Tiios. H. Law, Secretary. 



PART I. 



^IDIDie.ESSES. 



I. OPENING ADDRESS. 

BY B. M. PALMER, D. D., LL. D. 

II. CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO DR. 

HOWE. 

BY THE REV. JAMES H. SAYE. 

III. DR. HOWE'S RESPONSE. 



OPENING ADDRESS. 

BY B. M. PALMER, D. 1)., LL. D. 

The pleasant duty devolves upon me as Chairman of the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements, fellow Alumni, of welcoming you to this 
fiftieth anniversary of our venerable Mother, and to this golden 
wedding of the senior Professor who was married to her in his 
youth, and has given to her the affection and toil of his life. The 
tender words Avhich are to fdl his ear Avill be uttered by another, 
chosen as our representative to express the reverence and love in 
wdiich we hold both his person and his work. It is enough for 
me simply to allude to the double character of this festival, which 
commemorates at once the founding of an institution that has 
been a source of blessinf; to the Church of God, and the life-long 
labors of this revered father in our Israel, beginning almost with 
its birth and running through its history to the present hour. 

When this celebration was first suggested, our beloved Semi- 
nary appeared to be moving forward upon an even and prosper- 
ous career. With a corps of instructors nearly complete, and 
with a fair proportion of students, to those who watched her from 
a distance she seemed a goodly bark speeding with fjivorable 
winds over a smooth sea. But before a meetinsr of the Alumni 
could be held to authorise our present assemblage, she had struck 
upon a hidden reef, and threatened to founder beneath the shock. 
Causes, to which I need not here refer in detail, led to the sudden 
suspension of all the offices of instruction. The tidings fell upon 
the Church like a fire bell in the night, and roused from their slum- 
ber the whole constituency upon whose support the Seminary more 
immediately depends. None who were prbsent can forget the gloom 
which settled over the meeting of the Alumni in the city of 
Charleston in the month of May, 1880; nor the clarion call which 
sounded out from that gloom and summoned to the rescue. With- 
out the contradiction of debate, it was resolved to raise the sura 
of at least ^30,000 to repair the shattered endowment; and this 
was consecrated to a memory that will ever be dear in our his- 



4 OPENING ADDRESS. 

torv as "The Howe Memorial Fund." Under tlie stimulus of 
this high purpose, it was further resolved to go forward with the 
proposed Semi-centennial, though it should be under the shadow 
of a cloud. Hoping that the month of September would find the 
doors of the Seminary reopened, this celebration has been ad- 
journed almost to the close of 1881. Alas, we find those doors 
still sealed against approach, and the halls still silent which used 
to echo with the voice of worship and of song. We behold these 
reverend teachers still seated before the gates, in painful expect- 
ancy of the dawn when busy feet shall again tread these lonely 
courts, and the sons of the prophets again catch the inspiration 
of wisdom from their lips. 

It is impossible for us not to feel the depression of the hour; 
an 1 to some desponding heart we may seem to gather here for 
funeral obsequies rather than for marriage festivities. My breth- 
ren, I speak nothing new to Christian pastors, when I say that 
faith does not know the meaning of the word despair. In the 
exactions of his adorable providence, God sometimes draws upon 
that faith down to the very bottom of its strength ; yet in its 
mighty rebound it will spring above the stars and lay hold upon 
the power that is divine. In the old mythology the giant wres- 
tler rose from every fall to renew the stru^iifle, receiving strenijth 
from the contact with his mother earth ; but in our better theo- 
logy, faith refreshes itself by looking into the face of its Father, 
God, and is then ready for the heroic. It says to the very moun- 
tain which obstructs its path, "Be thou plucked up and cast into 
the sea." It may know disaster, as we know it to-day, but it 
knows not defeat; neither, my friends, shall we. The courage 
which does not rise to the level of every exigency, is cowardice; 
and the faith which measures possibilities by the standard of 
human weakness, is simple unbelief. When ancient Rome was 
besieged by the armies of Carthage, the very field upon which the 
tents of Hannibal were pitched was sold at j»ublic outcry in the 
beleaguered city at its full value — "//»///o nrctio </initniito" is the 
language of the historian who records the fact. Never was liome 
more sul)lime than in this confidence of licr future destiny. It 
was the expression of that intloniitable will which gave to her at 



OPENING ADDRESS. O 

length the empire of the -world. You remember, too, the parallel 
incident in Hebrew history', in Avhich a like heroism was born of 
a divine faith. When Jeremiah was languishino; in the court of 
the king's prison, and Judah was about to hang her harp on the 
willows by the waters of Babylon, the prophet who had announced 
the captivity bouglit the field that was in Anatlioth, subscribing 
and sealing the evidence before all the Jews, in token tliat 
"houses and fields and vineyards should be possessed again in the 
land. " 

Fellow Alumni, we are here for this self-same purpose to-day. 
We gather around the prostrate form of our mother, not to smooth 
her dying pillow, but to raise her from this temporary syncope, 
and bid her live. She was founded in the faith and prayers and 
teai's of God's people when they were fewer and weaker than they 
are to-day ; and we are degenerate sons of the fathers who begat 
us, if our zeal Avill not perpetuate the legacy which they be- 
queathed. What ! shall an institution die which has three of its 
chairs actually filled by the most distinguished men in their re- 
spective departments, Avho are to be found in all our borders ? 
Shall a school perish before our eyes which has a vested fund of 
more than |100,000? Why, the fathers who planted it fifty 
years ago rejoiced over a great success when they had gathered 
but half that sum, and felt that a covenant-keeping God had an- 
swered their prayer and rewarded their faith. Many of us here 
remember well "the day of small things," when we were trained 
for our future work under only two Professors, one of whom re- 
mains to this present, the Nestor of those old Greeks upon Avhose 
shoulders rested a weight greater than we are called to bear to- 
day. If we inherit the piety and faith of those fathers, let us 
remember that Ave are the heirs also of their responsibilities and 
trusts ; and that they call upon us from the bosom of their his- 
tory to finish the work which they auspiciously began. "Nothing 
is so hard to kill as a Presbyterian church," said one of our emi- 
nent divines not long since translated to heaven ; and I do not 
see why the perseverance of the saints should not be as effec- 
tive in perpetuating the mother of churches as one of the 
daughters of her loins; nor can I see why the covenant of God 



b OPENING ADDRESS. 

slioiild not be as good a basis for tlie united, as for the individual, 
faith of his people. If the prayers of two generations have gone 
up as incense before the throne, and their alms as the memorial 
of tiieir obedience and trust, does it not inspire us, who enter into 
their labors, with hope that he who has gathered their tears in 
his bottle will yet pour them down in rich drops of blessing upon 
the institution of their love ? 

The historian of the Seminary will, perhaps, during this cele- 
bration, tell us of the necessity under which it was in tlie first 
instance founded. He will also exhibit the facts which show that, 
in conjunction with the sister institution in Virginia, it has, under 
God, given, during the fifty years of its history, that best of all 
blessings to any Church, a native ministry. Is the necessity any 
less for its continuance tiian for its origination ? When was there 
ever greater need for thorouiih knowledite of Hebrew laniruajre 
and literature than in this age of a pretentious and flippant 
criticism, which seeks to undermine the authenticity and canon- 
icity of our sacred books? When, since the days of Augustine 
or of Calvin, was there greater need of a sound systematised 
theology than in this age of rationalistic speculation which would 
trample in the dust every supernatural element in Christianity, 
whether of doctrine or of experience, deleting the iniraclcs and 
flouting the inspiration of a divine record? When, since the 
earliest discoveries of modern science, has she been more impu- 
dently suborned to deny the intervention of the Deity in the 
control of his own handiwork, and to cut oft" the soul's privilege 
of personal communion with that Being in whose likeness it was 
originally fashioned ? When was tiiere ever greater need of the 
lessons of Church history than in unmasking the old heresies 
which, under gilded names, go forth in our day to shake the faith 
of the unstable ? And when did the Church need more to be estab- 
lished in her ancient polity, than in this day of rev(dution and 
change ; when even religious tramps, w ith indecent defiance of 
authority and law, impugn the order of (i<id's house and invade 
the very structure and being of the Church as a visilde corj)orate 
society upon earth ? When was the call ever louder for a vigor- 
ous and efficient ministry to overtake the jtopulation spreading 



OPENING ADDRESS. 7 

from ocean to ocean over the breadth of the continent, and then to 
keep pace with advancing civilisation over the entire globe ? The 
demand for well-e';|uipped theological schools is more imperative 
now than ever ; and it was in providential foresight of this present 
necessity they were doubtless providentially brought into beinc 
through the agency of our fathers. The fact is, the mission of 
the Church is that of a witness-bearer of the truth ; and while 
the conflict rages between the kingdom of darkness and the kinjj- 
dom of light, so long will the Church be called to launch her tes- 
timony against error. There are certain epochs in which the 
battle is fierce along the entire line of controversy ; and it is in 
just one of these that our lot is cast to-day. We are summoned 
to the defence of each cardinal doctrine of the Christian faith ; 
and beyond this, for the very records in which that faith is em- 
balmed. It is not the time to dismantle our fortresses, but to 
strengthen them in bastion and tower, '-from turret to foundation 
stone." 

Pardon me, my brothers, if in the heat of these utterances I 
should seem to breathe an unworthy suspicion of your loyalty to 
our Alma Mater. It is neither in my thought nor in yours to 
hint the possibility of her dissolution. But my heart burns within 
me as in your presence the memories of other days crowd upon 
me "feelingly and fast." The fathers, where are they? Gould- 
ing and Leland and Jones and Thornwell and Plumer sleep in 
the tomb. We turn from these and look upon the faces of the 
living. How long will it be before the venerable Howe will carry 
his learning away and leave us to mourn the greatness of our loss ? 
How long before Wilson, with his heart of oak, shall cease to 
sound the bugle call and marshal the sacramental host for con- 
quest upon heathen shores ? The chill of December is upon the 
blood of all the protagonists of this School of the Prophets — and 
in the generations that are younger, the signature can be read 
upon the forms of more than one, warning that life's work from 
this time forth must be quickly done. Only the other day the 
gifted Robinson passed to his reward ; and over all the land the 
veterans Avho have fought the battles of truth, and held the posts 
of toil and trial, are goins with their scars to the tomb. Shall 



8 CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO DR. HOWE. 

we not be permitted to say, then, ''instead of the fathers shall be 
the children" 't Then let the mother of the children live ; let the 
succession of faithful pastors continue to issue from these sacred 
halls. Join me, brethren, in the prayer, which shall also be with 
us a purpose, that our beloved Seminary may no longer sit in the- 
dust as a widdw l)ereft of her children, but rise to a new career of 
usefulness and renown, of which the past shall be only a prophecy. 
And may the Lord our God ''lay her stones with fair colors and 
her foundation with sapphires, and make her windows of agates, 
and her gates of carbuncles, and all her borders of pleasant 
stones" ! 



CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO DR. HOWE. 

BY THE REV. JAMES 11. SAYE. 

Ml BELOVED Teacher and Father: It is made my duty 
to say a few words to you on this occasion. I know of no 
better theme in the review of the past than to mention our rea- 
sons for thanksgiving and gratitude to the Giver of every good 
thing. We have cause of thanksgiving, that our fathers were 
moved, a little more than fifty years ago, to establish a school for 
the better training of men for the discharge of the duties of the 
ministerial office ; tliat they located it at this place ; that God's 
people were influenced to epdow it by their gifts, so as to render 
it a fountain of light in the land ; and that God in his providence 
brought you from your pleasant home in aii(»ther State at the 
right time, to take your place in this infant institution. We are 
thankful that you had such an affection for it that you could not 
be induced to forsake it, either by the rude shock of friends or 
by the pressing invitations to other fields a|iparently more desir- 
able. We are thankful that your life has continued, and that you 
have held your place in this institution for half a century ; and I 
am thankful that I am able to say, that though I have known 
many very popular instructors of youtli, 1 have never known one 



CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO DR. HOWE. 9 

whose services were more valued by his piipils than yours have 
been by those who have enjoyed your instructions. 

We have cause of gratitude for the success of this School of the 
Prophets. It has had its vicissitudes of depression and pros- 
perity, but the light going forth has been constant till very re- 
cently. And we have hopes that the light may soon break forth 
again, never to grow dim till the judgment of the great day. 

In looking abroad, we perceive that the alumni of this institu- 
tion are Avidely dispersed over this land. Many of them have 
gone into frontier and destitute neighborhoods and gathered flocks 
in the wilderness ; others have become successful pastors of the 
older congregations ; and some have planted the gospel in heathen 
lands. They are found in every department of ministerial work. 
We think we can say in all sincerity, that they are the peers of 
the students of any institution in this broad land. 

I have lived to labor side by side with not a few of them who 
were stricken down in the midst of their days, but whose memory 
abides as a sweet fragrance in the churches. They preached the 
gospel so that it became a joy and rejoicing to God's people. 
Their examples and teachings can never be lost. Names may perish 
in the vortex of revolutions, but the word of the Lord liveth and 
abideth for ever ; lives in the nature of its own essence and in 
the flow by which it rolls on from generation to generation, 
in one living perpetual stream. The memory of Adams, Banks, 
John Harris, and John Douglas — all born since I Avas — is very 
fresh in my mind as pastors greatly beloved by God's people. The 
sphere of my observation, however, has been limited. In mention- 
ing names, I make no disparaging distinctions ; doubtless scores of 
others equally useful and alike deplored have been called to their 
reward. But there are hundreds still living Avho statedly meet 
the cono-resiations of God's children and hold forth the word of 

o o 

life. Some in crowded cities, others along the highways and 
hedges ; yet all as the ambassadors of the King of glory. 

The influence of this institution is not only felt in these States, 
in Canada and Europe, but its light has gone forth into the dark 
places of the earth, full of the habitations of cruelty. Some of 
its first fruits were projected into Asia and Africa. It has had 



10 CONGRATULATORY ADDRESS TO DR. HOWE. 

its representatives in the four (|Uiirters of tlie jxlobe, and still has 
them. The voices of its students are now heard proclaiming the 
riches of God's grace in all sorts of foreign tongues and among 
people the most destitute of the true light. One of its students, 
lately deceased, stood among the distinguished translators of the 
Sacred Scriptures into the language of Japan. So that the hun- 
dreds ^vho have been here are now scattered abroad, sowing the 
good seed l)y all waters. If the ])ast is ada|)ted to excite feelings 
of gratitude and thanksgiving to our Father in heaven, what have 
we to hope for in regard to the future ? 

This location is one of health and general pleasantness. Its 
past record speaks favorably as adapted to promote bodily and 
mental energy, to cherish the natural powers for the perpetuation 
of health and life. It is a place easy of access. The artificial 
modes of travel lie off in every direction. He that sets his face 
hither can soon be here. The good things of this life can be ob- 
tained here as cheaply and speedily as under any star of the firma- 
ment. Its surroundings arc conducive to mental improvement 
and progress in the knowledge of men and things. 

The foundation of the institution is very solid ; its property 
and library well adapted to promote the comfort and advancement 
of those who seek its benefits. The affections of hundreds, I 
may say thousands, of the best of God's people cluster around 
it. They carry it in their prayers to the tln*one of God's grace. 
Their hopes and desires in reganl to its fruits are very earnest. 
Shall our hopes and expectations be disappointed? Sh<all it not 
live through the coming ages, a centre of light and holy influ- 
ence ? Shall it not be in the future as it has been in the past, a 
fountain whose streams shalt make glad the city of God? We 
should expect great things, pray for great things, labor for great 
things. We are servants of a very great and a very liberal 
King. lie is honored by the exj)ectation of noble gifts. But 
all our works should be in profound humility ; all in reliance upon 
the divine aid and guidance; and we should ever remember that 
"excej)t the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it; 
except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain." 
Recent events show that the people have a mind to work. The 



DR. IIOWE'S response. 11 

wall must therefore be built. The time to favor Zion, yea, the 
set time, is come, because her servants take pleasure in her stones 
and favor the dust thereof. 

In the name and behalf of many who have sat at your feet, I 
congratulate you this day on account of the good accomplished by 
the Head of the Church through your instrumentality in this 
School of the Prophets. And we humbly pray that your life 
and health may be long continued ; that you may bring forth 
fruit in old age ; that your last days may be your best and 
most joyful in God our Redeemer ; and that you may receive the 
crown of life bestowed on all who love the final appearing of our 
great Judge and Advocate. 



DR. HOWFS RESPONSE. 

I do not know, my brother, in what terms to reply to the lan- 
guage of respect and love with which you have addressed me. I 
believe in a Providence, a Providence which rules over all thing-s. 
I believe in a special providence. And I have reason to " know 
that the way of man is not in himself: it is not in man that walk- 
eth to direct his steps." There is a power above us that stirs up 
our nests, and thwarts our purposes, forecast them as we will, 
and this, too, for our own best good. In my early manhood a 
malady which is most often fatal had overtaken me, and, after a 
partial recovery, the frosts of the succeeding winter had brought 
on a relapse, and my medical friends thought it necessary that I 
should avoid the severities of another. I came, a stranger, not 
without solicitude, to the port of Charleston, but only to receive 
the kind hospitalities of those Avho seemed to know how to dispel 
the forebodings of a stranger's heart. The Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia met in the city of Augusta on the 2nd of 
December, 1830. Dr. Goulding had asked for an assistant who 
should teach the original languages of the Scriptures. My name 
was brought before the Synod by the Board of Directors. I was 



12 DU. iiuwe's response. 

unanimously elected to this office for the year; accepted the office, 
first for three months, but was prevailed upon to stay till July. 
Similar reasons rendered it necessary that we should again avoid 
the severities of a Northern winter, and on the 3d of December, 
1831, the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, meeting in this 
city, elected me as Professor of Sacred Literature and liiblical 
Criticism. There have been days of sadness and foreboding since, 
when even the best early friends of the Seminary have expressed 
their sympathy, and intiujated that they would not blame me if I 
should abandon the enterprise. But I have not done so. The 
Lord would seem to say, "The new wine is in the cluster. De- 
stroy it not; for a blessing is in it." Yes, my brother, I believe 
in a general and a special providence. When our Lord and Mas- 
ter sent forth his apostles to preach the gospel, he did not pro- 
mise them a life of ease, but the reverse. They should meet with 
difficulties. They should be encompassed with opposers. But, 
says he, "Fear them not. What 1 tell you in darkness that 
speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear tiiat jjroclaim ye 
upon the housetops. And fear not them which kill the body but 
are not able to kill the soul." "Are not two sparrows sold for 
a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without 
your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 
Fear ye not, therefore; ye are of more value than many spar- 
rows." Yes, there is both a general and a sjjccial jtrovidence. 
For he, our Master, ruleth both in the armies of heaven and the 
inhabitants of earth, and none can stay his hand or challenge his 
right thus to rule. There are men here to-night that can bear 
■witness to this. The humble cottage of their fathers may have 
been in some defile in the distant mountains of a foreign land, by 
the side of some well known river of France, Germany, Holland, 
or some dear spot in England, Scotland, or Ireland : an<l here 
we are together this night I And what overruling power has ac- 
complished this? We may think of the native force of our own 
will. But it was the overruling of him who now sits on the me- 
diatorial throne, having (til power in heaven and earth; control- 
ling as well the forces of nature tos those of the moral world. It 
was he that moved them to brave the dangers of the treacherous 



DR. Howe's response. 13 

deep and the stormy winds, and brought them here. It is he, 
my brethren, who has called us to our life-long work, will sustain 
us in it, and call us home at last, to that house not made with 
hands, which is eternal in the heavens, and will make us kings 
and priests unto God and unto the Lamb for ever. It will be so. 
And it must be so. God the Father is pledged to God the Son. 
"I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the utter- 
most parts of tbe earth for thy possession." "Sit thou at my 
right hand." God the Son was pledged to God the Father. "Lo, 
I come to do thy will, God," by which will we are sanctified 
through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 
And God the Spirit, our second Comforter, whom Christ has 
sent, to take of his things and show them unto us, all conspire 
to give victory to his Church, and discomfiture to all its foes. 
And so let us hope and labor on till our translation comes, when 
the Lamb shall lead us to living fountains of waters, and God 
shall wipe away all tears from our eyes. 



PART IL 



IDISCOTJI^SES. 



I. THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIANISM. 

BY PROF. T. E. PECK, D. D., LL. D. 

II. THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; OR, 
REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 

BY HENRY M. SMITH, D. D. 

IIL THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 

BY C. A. STILLMAN, D. D. 

IV. THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: ITS IMPORT 
AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 

BY PROF. JOHN L. GIRARDEAU, D. D., LL. D. 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIANISxM. 

BY REV. T. E, PECK, D. D., LL. D., PROFESSOR IN UNION 
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, VIRGINIA. 

In order to give some definite shape and form to our thoughts 
in considering this subject, let us inquire, first, what Presbyte- 
rianisra is. In prosecuting tliis inquiry, we must eliminate all 
those elements or features which it has in common with other 
forms of ecclesiastical polity. Church Government is the genus, 
Presbyterianism is one of its species, coordinate with other spe- 
cies, such as Prelacy and Congregationalism. We are to consider 
only specific difi'erences. According to this rule, we shall be 
forced to condemn a definition or description of Presbyterianism 
to which great currency has been given in our Church in this 
country by the reputation of its distinguished author. This 
definition makes Presbyterianism to consist of three things : 
(a) The parity of the ministry, (b) The participation of the 
people in the government of the Church, (c) The unity of the 
Church. Now, according to the rule we have laid down, the first 
of these features must be eliminated, because it is not distinctive, 
does not make Presbyterianism specifically different from another 
species of Church government with Avhich we are all familiar. 
Congregationalism recognises as fully as Presbyterianism the 
parity of the ministry. The second must be eliminated also, but 
for a different reason. It is no feature of Presbyterianism at all. 
This form of government does not recognise the right of the 
people to take part in the government in the sense of governing. 
They take a part, and a very important part, in constituting the 
government, but not in governing. Papists and Congregation- 
alists agree in the principle that the power of electing officers is 
a power of government, while they draw very different, and even 
contradictory, conclusions from it. The Papists conclude that, 
as the power of governing does not belong to the people, the 
right of electing their rulers does not belong to them. The Con- 
2 



18 THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIAXI.'^M. 

grc'iiationalists conclude that, as. the jx'ojde have tlie right of 
election, therefore some power of government belongs to tliem. 
Presbyterians deny the princijile in which Papists and Congre- 
gationalists are agreed, and ailirm against both, that the jtower 
of election belongs to the constituting of the govenniient, but is 
not an act of government. The second element in the definition 
under criticism is therefore entirely out of jilace. The definition 
thus far is faulty in the same way as ''feathered biped" would be 
faulty as a definition of man. The criticism on this last w^ould 
be obvious — that there are many bipeds besides man, and that 
man is not a feathered biped. So there are other polities besides 
Presbyterianism which recognise the parity of the ministry, and 
Presbyterian ism does not recognise the right of tlie j)e()i)le to 
take part in the government at all. The third element, in the 
form in which it stands, must be objected to on the same ground as 
the first. It is not distinctive. Papists and other Prelatists 
hold to the unity of the Church. But of this more anon. 

A better definition is one Avhich was given by a great teacher 
in the Seminary whose semi-centennial anniversary we are now 
celebrating. He defines Presbyterianism as a form of Church 
government "by parliamentary assemblies composed of two classes 
of presbyters, and of presbyters only, and so arrang^id as to 
realise the visible unity of the whole Church." 

1. It is a government by parliamentary assemblies. In this it 
is contrasted, on the one hand, with Congregationalism, and on 
the other with Prelacy. The term Congregationalism is here 
used in a very definite sense, as descriptive of a species of Inde- 
pendency. The Independents of the Savoy Confession were not 
Congregationalists, in the sense of lodging the power of govern- 
ment in the congregation or brotherhood of believers. John 
Owen, their great leader, in his treatise entitled "The True Nature 
of a Gospel Church," might be mistaken for a Presbyterian, 
when he is treating of ecclesiastical power and govenunent, as 
exemplified on the scale of a single congregation or assembly of 
believers. But such a congregation is held by Independents to 
}»e a complete church, and not to be associated witli any other 
like congregation under the same govenunent. Presbytery, or 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIAXISM. 19 

Synod. The Congregationalists hold the same views ; but they 
a]so hohl (which Independents, as such, do not) that the govern- 
ment is lodged in the congregation or brotherhood. John Owen 
hehl ' as we do, that a single congregation is to be governed by an 
eldership or Presbytery ; that is, a bench or college of presby- 
ters chosen by the people as their representatives, not as their 
deputies or proxies ; chosen to govern not according to the Avill of 
the people, but according to the will of Christ, who ordained the 
constitution of the Church, created its officers, and defined their 
functions. The parallel is exact between the idea of Presbyte- 
rianism and the true and original idea of the civil constitution of 
this country, and if Edmund Burke is to be trusted, of the Brit- 
ish constitution also. Parliaments are assemblies of representa- 
tives, not of proxies, of the people ; they are not to utter the 
voice of the people unless it be the voice of wisdom and justice ; 
they are not responsible to the people in the sense of their con- 
stituents who elected them, but to the people in the sense of the 
sovereign people who ordained and established the constitution. 
To this sovereign people, whose voice is uttered and whose will is 
expressed in the fundamental law, every true representative will 
appeal from the judgment of his constituents. In the Church 
there is no sovereign people. Her constitution comes from Jesus 
Christ, her Head, and to him only the last appeal is made. 

As Presbyterianism is thus contrasted with the government of 
the people assembled en masse, or by their delegates or proxies, 
in being a government by assemblies of representatives, so it is 
contrasted, on the other hand, with Prelacy, which is a govern- 
ment of one man. Yet even in Prelacy the principle of Presby- 
tery Avill make its authority and wisdom to be felt, as is shown in 
the holding of councils, provincial and general. It is a very 
instructive fact, mentioned by Prof. Baird, of the University of 
New York, in his recent "History of the Rise of the Huguenots," 

^See his True Xature of a Gospel Church, Chap. YII. Works (Rus- 
sell's Ed., London, 1826), Vol. 20, p. 480. Compare the Savoy Declara- 
tion of 16.58, the Institution of Churches, and the Order appointed in 
them by Jesus Christ, Arts. YII. and IX. Schaff's Creeds of Christen- 
dom, Vol. III., pp. 724, ff. 



20 THE SPIRIT OK PIIESUYTERIANISM. 

that their enemies of the Papal party, seeing the energy, Avistlom, 
and effectiveness given to the movements of the Huguenots by 
their Presbyterian organisation, actually imitated them, and 
organised a ^Mrt«e Presbyterian system for themselves. The same 
Ivind of concession has been made from time to time by our Con- 
gregational brethren also.' It is from this feature of Presbyte- 
rianism that its name has been derivL'd. It is not a government 
by presbyters merely, but by presbyters assembk-d in Presby- 
teries. 

2. Another distinctive feature of our government is that these 
presbyters are of two sorts — presbyters who rule only, and ])res- 
byters who both rule and teach. This feature is found also in 
our civil constitutions. There are two classes of representatives 
in our Legislatures ; and the principle of two classes of repre- 
sentatives has been deemed by statesmen and political jdiiloso- 
phers as great an improvement on the re[)reseiitativc j)rinciple as 
that princij)le itself Avas on the principle of democracy. The 
representative principle was a check on poi)ul:ir jiassion and pre- 
judice ; the principle of two classes of representatives is a check 
added to a check. 

3. The third distinctive feature of our government is found in 
the mode by which it realises the idea of the visible unity of the 
Church. Popery realises the unity by a graded hierarchy, by a 
hierarchy consisting of officers of di0*erent ranks, and culminating 
in one man at Rome, called the Pope. This system secures unity, 
indeo<l ; but it is a terrible unity, sacrificing all individual life, 
and binding all abjectly to a single throne. Our system, on the 
contrary, realises the idea of the unity by the ehusticity of its 
rejtresentative system. All its courts are Presbyteries ; that is, 
courts composed of presbyters. The same elements are ftund in 
all of them, from the lowest to the highest. The unity is secured 
not by the subjection of one class of rulers to another class, but 
by a larger number of rulers governing a smaller number of the 
same class. The representatives of the whole Church govern tlie 
representatives of each part, and that not by a direct control of 

'See Miller on Ruliiiir Elders, Chaps. VII., VIII. ; King on the Eldcr- 
ahip, Part I. 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIANISM. 21 

the part, but by controlling the power of the part. All the local 
Presbyteries are combined by representation in one Presbytery, 
called with us the General Assembly. "Of this General Assem- 
bly" Ave might say, in the language of Milton, "every parochial 
consistory is a right homogeneous and constituting part, being in 
itself a little Synod, and moving towards a General Assembly 
upon her own basis, in an even and firm progression, as those 
smaller squares in battle unite in one great cube, the main plia- 
lanx, an emblem of truth and steadfastness." ^ 

Now, the system thus described, we hold to be found in the 
New Testament, and to be that in substance which was adopted 
by the apostles. We say "in substance," and by this is meant 
that the principles are there. The scale on which the principles 
are applied and exemplified will of course determine differences 
of detail and variety, to a certain extent, in the "circumstances" 
which are common to the Church Avith human societies ; but the 
principles themselves of government by representative assemblies, 
of representatives of two sorts, and of the unity of the Church, 
are all there ; and they must be found in every form of ecclesi- 
astical polity which claims to be Presbyterian in the full sense of 
the term. 

The government by Presbyteries Avas no new thing in the days 
of the apostles. The Avord Presbytery occurs three times in the 
NeAv Testament ; and in tAvo of these (Luke xxii. 66, and Acts 
xxii. 5) it denotes the Avell knoAvn council among the Jews Avhich 
is commonly called the "Sanhedrim," a name Avhich is itself 
Greek, and equivalent to Session or Consistory. It is not at all 
necessary to trace the origin of that court, or of the smaller san- 
hedrims of the Jews to the time of Moses. It is enough to 
know that they existed in the time of the apostles, and that the 
apostles adopted a similar government for the Christian Church. 
That the Church derived its government from the Synagogue, is 
a fact upon the proof of which, in the present state of theological 
learning, it is needless to expend many AA'ords. This is the con- 

' Milton's Reason of Church Government against Prehity, B. I., 

Chap. 6. 



22 THE SPIRIT OF PRE.SBYTERIAXISM. 

cession of a loarnod minister of the Cliurch of Entrlaml.' The 
choice hiy between the temple model and the synagogue model ; 
and the apostles chose the synagogue. We need not be afraid to 
meet the defenders of Prelacy at the bar of antiquity. The 
apostles are the most ancient and venerable of the "fathers." 
Let them decide.^ 

But the Church, in its Jewish form, was not, and was not de- 
signed to be, aggressive. Provision was made for the rccejttion 
of the Gentiles, but not for going after them. Those who were 
received, were proselytes, indeesl ; comers t» t'le fold; not people 
who v.erc sought after, to be gathered in. Even in "the mission- 
ary age," as it has been called, of the Jews — the age that followed 
the conquests of Alexander, when the Jews were widely dis- 
persed, and their synagogues were established in all the chief 
cities of the Greek Empire, they were a missionary people ratiier 
by the ordering of divine providence than by any conscious pur- 
pose or effort of their own. God brought his word near the Gen- 
tiles, and into the very midst of them, and constrained them to 
attend the services of the synagogues; but he ordained and sent 
forth no missionaries. The function of the cvan ndist was not 
yet engrafted upon the olliee of the i)resbyter or ruler. It was 
not until the Redeemer had risen from the dead that th::* universal 
commission was given, "Go ye into all the world and ju'eadi the 
gospel to every creature ;" "disciple all nations." This aggres- 
sive propagandist feature of Christianity is one of its distinguish- 
ing features; a feature by which it is distinguished not only from 
Judaism, but from Paganism. Mahomet copied it, but in a 
totally different spirit, and with means diametrically opposite. 



'Litton on the Cliiircli of Christ. Cliap. III.. Sec. 3, p. 185, of the 
AiiH'ricjin edition, IMiiladeliihia, IS()9. So, also, Lii^htfoot (now a Uisliop) 
on I'liilippians, p. '.I4 and p. I'.M. 

■•'The famous rule of Vincent of Liriniuin, "^rjtiod semper, quod vhiqite, 
qund ah omnibus,'^ may be allowed, if, with II. Ro;rcrs, we make the 
apostles our oinncs, their a;^e our semper, and tlieir writings our uhique. 
Compare Milton's Reason of Church Govornnjont airainst Prelaty. B. 2, 
Chap. I. — the passa;ic l)e;iinnini^ with the words, "Mistrustinj; to find the 
autiiiirity of their order," etc. 



THE SPIRIT or PRESCYTERIANISM. 23 

Presbyterianism could not vindicate its claim to be divine if it 
Avere not an aggressive polity, if it Averc not missionary in its 
constitution, in its spirit and its aims. The first missionaries 
formally ordained and sent forth to the Gentiles, were ordained 
and sent forth by the Presbytery of Antioch, the Presbytery of 
the first church which was composed of both Jews and Gentiles, 
and therefore the first church in which the fellowship of all the 
races of mankind in the man Christ Jesus was visibly embodied 
and exemplified. 

If it be true, as the enemies of Presbyterianism assert, and as 
some of its friends seem disposed to concede, that it lacks the fea- 
ture of aggressiveness, then it must be confessed that, to this ex- 
tent, it lacks the credentials which a system claiming to be divine 
ought to possess. The assertion of our enemies is not borne out 
by history. We have not, indeed, sacrificed the individuality of 
our ministers to the unity of the Church, making them mere 
spokes in the great wheel, without any life, sphere, movement of 
their own. We have allowed them to be themselves, after the 
manner of the apostolic Church, in which the labors of apostles 
bore the stamp of their individuality, in which the Pauline, Pet- 
rine, and Johannine types were recognised as distinct, although 
they all preached the gospel. Presbyterianism makes its minis- 
ters wheels within a wheel ; thus combining efficiency of aggress- 
ive operations with the full preservation and development of 
individual life. 

Now, this polity so clearly sanctioned and even ordained by 
the apostles at first was, as it is alleged, very soon exchanged for 
Prelacy ; so soon, indeed, that the change must be supposed to 
have received the sanction of the Apostle John at least. This is 
not the place to handle the argument in full. Only certain heads 
will be su"r£[ested. 

{a) There is not one particle of proof that prelatical bishops 
existed in the time of John, or even at the close of the first cen- 
tury. On the contrary, Ave find Clement of Rome at the close of 
the first century Avriting to the church at Corinth, and Polycarp 
at the beginning of the second century Avriting to the church at 
Philippi, and both of them recognising no other officers than pres- 



24 THE SPIRIT OF PRESI3YTEKIANISM. 

byters and deacons. In the case of Clement, this fact is the more 
notewortliy, as his Epistle is mainly an exhortation to unity and 
concord. Jerome ascribes the invention of Prelacy to factions 
and dissensions jis being the best remedy for them. ' What a fine 
opportunity, then, for the Bishop of Home to glorify the Bishop 
of Corinth ; or if, as our prelatical friends suggest, the Bishop of 
Corinth -was deail, and tlie see vacant, how urgent the necessity 
for filling the vacancy, and how strange the absence of any ex- 
hortation to fill it I 

(/>) In the second place, even in later writers, it is too generally 
taken for granted that the "bishop" si)oken of is a prelatical or 
diocesan bishop. In the Epistles of the Pseudo-Ignatius, for ex- 
ample, wdiere is the proof that the bishop he so absurdly magni- 
fies is a prelate ? For all that avc have seen, Jtis bishop may 
have been (and probably was) a parochial bishop, and his pres- 
byters "ruling elders." We must always be on our guard 
against the "fatal force and imposture of words." According 
to the scriptural usage of the word scJnsm, the Papal and Angli- 
can Churches are amongst the most schismatical bodies in the 
world; according to the ecclesiastical usage of the word, a ])lausi- 
ble argument might be made to show that the Pajjul body is not 
schismatical at all. 

Another fruitful source of delusion is in taking it for granted 
that the polity of the Church was uniform in the early ages; that 
because Prelacy existed in Rome (if it did exist there) at the close 
of the second century, therefore it existed throughout the Church, 
whereas there is abundant reason to believe that it spread very 
gradually. The schism of Felicissimus at Carthage (A. D. 250) 
seems to have been the result of a struggle between the defenders 
(»f the old government (if Presbytery and an "episcopar" party. 
This, at least, is the opinion of Neander. - This view is con- 
firmed ])y the existence of the '■'f^cniorcft ]>Icf>rK" in the North Af- 
rican Church, described Ity Kurtz as "lay elders" and probably 

*Seo the fine passage — beginning witli tlio wunls, 'I'reliity ascending 
by a gradiml inoniirchv/' in Milton's l\i'iis(tn of <'lmre'li OovcniiiuMit 
urged against Prelaty, B. I., c. <i. 

*See Art. " Kclicisslnius"' in Ilerzog's Cyclopaidia. 



THE SPIRIT OF PllESBYTERIANISM. 25 

the ''venerable monuments" in the fourth century of the race of 
"ruling elders" then passing uAvay. ' 

(f) But, in the third place, if the change had taken place so 
soon, it might be still a corruption. Greater and more ini})ortant 
changes — changes aifecting vital points of Christian doctrine and 
Christian morality — occurred in the very times of the ajjostles, 
as is plain from their Epistles and from the Lord's epistles to the 
seven churches of Asia. "I marvel," says Paul, "that ye are so 
soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ 
unto another gospel." "Who hath bewitched you that ye should 
not obey the truth ?" "Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now 
made perfect by the flesh ?" The apostle of love also discerned 
the rising spirit of Prelacy in Diotrephes, "Avho loved to have the 
preeminence" and "cast out of the church" people better than 
himself. There is not much cause to marvel that men speedily 
exchanged the ordinances of God for their oAvn inventions ; on 
the contrary, considering the power of sin and the subtlety of 
Satan, the marvel is that the ordinances of God are allowed to 
exist at all. 

After the time of Constantino, Presbyterianism seems well 
nigh to have vanished from the Church for a thousand years, and 
all spiritual worship and all scriptural discipline seems to have 
vanished Avith it. It is no slight proof of its divine origin that 
sound doctrine and spiritual Avorship should have declined with 
its decline and should have revived with its revival. There must 
be an internal and vital connexion among these things; and if it 
cannot be demonstrated that the decline of Presbyterianism in 
those early ages was the cause or the effect of the corruption in 
doctrine, worship, and discipline, it can at least be shown that 
the corruption was stimulated and aggravated by the prelatical 

^ In Act. Perpetua et Felicitas, 13, and in the 29th Ep. of Cyprian, we 
read of ^''preshytcri cloctores,'^ showing that even then the work of teachino; 
was not absolutely indispensable to the presbyterial office (Liohtfoot on 
Philippians, p. 193). Li<i;htfoot speaks in another place (p. 222) of "the 
enormous number of African bishops as incredible, were it not reported 
on the best authority." The number is incredible if they were prelati- 
cal bishops, but not if they were Presbyterian. 



26 THE SPIRIT OF PKESBYTERIANLSM. 

hierarchy that rose upon its ruins. One of the grossest and most 
comprehensive of these corruptions was that of converting the 
Christian ministry into a priesthood; and this corruption was 
closely connected with the overthrow of Presbyterianisra and the 
triumph of Prelacy. "As Cyprian," says Bishop Lightfoot,^ 
"crowned the edifice of episcopal power, so also was he the first 
to put forward witlioiit relief" or disguise those sacerdotal assump- 
tions." It is true, no doul)t, as Lightfoot suggests, that this lior- 
rible corruption came from heathenism and not from Judaism ; but, 
as he also suggests, it took its form from the hierarchy of Juda- 
ism; and it scarcely could have maintained itself without a cor- 
responding hierarchy in the ministry of the Christian Church. 
The Church of England is the only one of the Reformed Ciiurch- 
es which retained the prelatical form of government, and it is 
precisely in the Church of England that the tendency to sacer- 
dotalism is the strongest. 

If the ministry become a priesthood, other changes are inevit- 
able. A priest must receive his call from God without the inter- 
vention of the people. Under a priestly rule, the privilege of 
election by the people is felt to be out of place; ami accordingly 
even in Judaism, in which the priesthood was regarded in some 
sort as representative of the whole nation as '"a kingdom of 
priests," the people had no power of election. The priesthood 
was an aristocracy of birth, an order of nobility created by God 
himself, and maintained and perpetuated by his special provi- 
dence without the choice of the people. In the system of the 
Roman Antichrist, the priestiiood is in no sense representative of 
the people; it is a close corporation, self-maintaining and self-per- 
petuating, and the peojjlc arc mere "mud-sills" for the priesthood. 

The prelatical Protestant Church of England denied the Papal 
doctrine of the priesthood and of apostolical succession, but re- 
tained the word priest in its liturgy. In this it has been followed 
by the daughter ('Inncli in the United States, which uses the 
word "sacerdotal" also to describe the functions of the rector of 
a parish. When it is considered that "priest" in the English 

'Essay on the Cliristiun Miniatry — ad calcem of his Commentary on 
Philippiiiiis, [I. 2.j7. 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTEllIAXISM. 27 

Bible everywhere stands for an officer who oiFers expiatory sacri- 
fipes, it is obviously a very insufficient vindication of the use of 
the word in the liturgy, to say that it (the Englisli word priest) 
is historically the same as the word presbyter — "presbyter writ 
short." The Reformed Episcopal Church has shown the sincer- 
ity of its detestation of the sacerdotal idea by dro})ping tlie word, 
and substituting that oi presbyter ; but its reformation will never 
be complete nor lasting until Prelacy is also dropped. 

A priest must have somewhat to offer; and if the minister of 
the word is converted into a priest, he must offer a sacrifice. 
Hence the conversion of the Eucharist into a sacrifice. That 
Avhich God ordained to be "a feast of filial grace" came to be 
"pageanted about as a dreadful idol." Here, again, we find 
Presbyterians defending the truth, and protesting against the 
enormous abuse and corruption. At the era of the Reformation 
the Lutheran body adopted a view of the real presence of the 
body and blood of the Lord in the Supper little, if at all, less 
absurd and monstrous than that of the Papal apostasy; while the 
Reformed or Presbyterian branch of the seccders from Rome 
taught the scriptural doctrine. The Church of England's teach- 
ing; is clear a2;ainst both transubstantiation and consubstantiation 
(though clearer and more emphatic against the former than against 
the latter) ; but by virtue of the tendencies already signalised to- 
Avards the priesthood, it has shown a strong tendency also to the 
Papal abomination of the Mass, though denounced by itself in its 
31st Article as "a blasphemous fsible and dangerous deceit."^ 

These reflections suggest one capital office which hns been 
given to Presbyterianism to perform in the history of the Church ; 
and that is to uphold the supremacy of the word of God as the 

MVhen the "teaching" of the Church of England is spoken of. it must 
Le borne in mind that the teaching of its forniularies is referred to. This 
is the standard that all parties in that communion appeal to — High, Low, 
and Broad, and all the siiljdivisions thereof enumerated by Conyboare in 
his famous article in the Edinburgh lleciew. If the formularies contra- 
dict each other, that is their concern, not ours. It might puzzle us plain 
Presbyterians to divine how certain people could have subscribed to the 
"Articles of Religion," if we had not been enlightened by "No. 9(J"' of 
the "Oxford Tracts." 



28 THE SPIRIT OF PRESDYTEUIANISM. 

only and all-sufficient rule of faith and practice. This was done 
by the Waldenses in the Dark Ages in tlieir protest against Rome, 
which had exalted tradition (or the wisdom land conceit of man) 
above the word, and so like the Pharisees of old had made the 
word of none effect. "If we will love Christ and know his doc- 
trine," says the "Noble Lesson," "we must watch and read the 
Scriptures." This was done by the Reformed or Calvinistic 
branch of the Protestant body to a higher degree than by the 
Lutheran branch. "The divinely historical in the Church, "" says 
Kurtz, the Lutheran historian of the (Jhurcli, "was not recog- 
nised by the Reformed Church, but all tradition was rejected, 
and with it all historical development, normal or abnormal, was 
cut off"." This is an exaggerated statement, intensely German 
in its form, of the Reformed Church's position that the Bible is 
the statute-book of Christ's kingdom, a positive and sufficient rule 
of faith and practice, the source as well as the measure of doc- 
trine and law ; and therefore that the silence of the Scriptures is 
prohibitory. Again, in contrasting Luther and Zwingle, the 
same writer says: " The former (Luther) rejected only such things 
as were irreconcilable with the Scriptures, the latter (Zwingle) 
everything not erpressl// taught by them." "Luther retained 
images, altars, the ornaments of churches, and the sacerdotal 
character of public worship, simply pruning off" its unevangelical 
excesses and deformities. Zwingle rejected all, unconditionally, 
as idolatry, and even abolished organs and bells." Without stop- 
ping to point out the exaggerations in this passage, it is sufficient 
to say that Zwingle did hold the Scriptures to be a complete and 
positive rule, while Luther admitted many things in the worship 
of (lod, upon the ground of their not being ])roliil)ited in his 
word. The Church of Enjiliuiil, althouj^h counted a l»raiich of 
the lieformed Church, took, with respect to the Scriptures, much 
the same ground as Luther. The controversy began among the 
exiles at Frankfort-on-the-Main, and grew out of the discussion 
concerning the comparative merits of the Liturgy of Edward VL 
and that of Geneva. Upon the return of the exiles to England, 
alter the death of "Bloody Mary," the controversy was trans- 
ferre«l to that country ; ami the defenders of the priiieijile of the 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIANISM. 29 

sufficiency of the Scriptures got the name of Puritans. The 
Puritans, in their origin, be it remembered, were a party in the 
Church of Enghmd ; and they were inclined to the forms of 
Geneva, or, in other words, to Presbyterianism. A Presbytery 
was actually formed within the Church of England as early as 
1572. Prelacy could not maintain itself logically on the basis of 
the Bible and the Bible only ; on that basis, and that only, can 
Presbyterianism be maintained. There is an unconscious as well 
as a conscious logic which joins and disjoins things. 

There never has been a time within the memory of man, as it 
appears to us, when it was more necessary than it is now to recal 
the attention of Presbyterians to that fundamental and all-com- 
prehensive principle for which their fathers witnessed and suffered 
even unto death. Potentially, it is the question between Christ 
and Antichrist ; the question whether the authority" of the Head 
and Saviour of the Church is to be supreme, and the liberty of 
his people to obey him only to be maintained ; or whether that 
authority is to be overlaid and his people to be made the slaves of 
men. Now, while it may be true that no party calling itself 
Presbyterian has formally denied the sufficiency of the Scrip- 
tures ; yet it cannot be questioned that there is a tendency in 
our Church to assimilate itself in worship and manners to those 
Christian communities which have denied it. 

At the era of the Reformation, the Reformed were reproached 
by the Lutherans as well as by the Papists for their iconoclastic 
spirit as to departure from the simple Avorship of the primitive 
Church. "Old-fashioned" Presbyterians have to bear the burden 
of a similar reproach now. The answer to the reproach is the 
same now as then, that "the word of God is the only rule of faith 
and practice to his people ; that the Avhole counsel of God con- 
cerning all things necessary for his own glory, man's salvation, 
faith, and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by 
good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture ; 
unto which nothing is to be added, whether by new revelations of 
the Spirit or traditions of men. Nevertheless, we acknowledge 
there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God and 
government of the Church, common to human actions and socie- 



30 TIIK SPIRIT OF PRKSBYTEIIIAXISJI. 

ties, wliieli are to be ordered by the light of nature and Christian 
prude'iicc. according to the general rules of the word, which are 
always to be observed ;" ' that, therefore, evervthin<; in nublic 
worship which cannot lie shown to be a necessary ailjunct of the 
action, or necessary to decency and order, is to be disowned and 
rejected; that there is no middle ground between this position 
and the position that the word of God is a negative rule, only a 
veto or check upon the power of the Church to ordain anything 
she pleases; and that the ancient doctrine of the Presbyterians is 
the only safeguard of the liberties of God's people, the only 
security that they will not be made "the slaves of men." 

Our people are too ready to concede that our forms of worship 
are "bald," They are too ready, when God's ordinances fail of 
their appropriate effect, to resort to the devices of human wisdom, 
instead of humbling tlieni,'<elves before the Holy Ghost in earnest 
prayer for his quickening power, which alone can make any ordi- 
nances efficacious for salvation. 

The sacramental machinery of the Papal apostasy, and the 
unsacramental machinery of our own invention or adoption, are 
alike impotent to raise a soul from death or to impart the wings 
of devotion to a soul that is alive. The true glory of Christian 
worship consists in the presence and power of the Holy Ghost; 
and Avithout the Holy Ghost, all our paraphernalia of "long- 
drawn aisle and fretted vault," of painted windows and "dim 
religious light," of symbols of lamb and dove, of pealing organs 
and what not, are but the paraj)liernalia of a corpse lying in 
state. It is a vain attempt to conceal the. painful reality of death. 

One thins, we confess, that commends Presl)vtorianism to us 
is, that it cannot be Avorked by mere human wisdom or jiower ; 
that it must either have the power of the Spirit to work it, or be 
nothing. 

Presbyterians have been distinguished as the defenders of the 

' Westminster Confession of Faith, Cliap. I., Art. G. Compare Calvin's 
Inst.. IJ. 4, Chap. 10 ; Principal Cunnin;i;hanrs iU'foniiors and Theoiotiiians 
of the Reformation, p. 31 ; also, his Church Principles, pp. '2'.')'>, If. ; Cil- 
lespie's Dispute aj^ainst the Kniilish I'opish Ceremonies, Part III., ('hap. 
7; ThornweU's Writings, Vol. IV., pjp. L''>(t. If. 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIAXISM. 31 

great doctrines of grace ; and it is to theii" sense of tlie supreme 
importance of these doctrines, and their zeal in defending them, 
that tlic absence of a mere proselyting zeal has been due. All 
honor to tlieni for it I ^lay it always be their distinction, their 
croAvn of glory ! But let them remember how close is the con- 
nexion between purity of worship and purity of doctrine. 

Tlie design of external worship is not only to give expression 
to those states of the soul in which internal worship consists, but 
also, according to a well known law of our nature, to impress more 
deeply upon the heart and conscience of the worshippers those 
truths concerning God and themselves which the Scriptures reveal, 
and from which the worship itself has sprung. In the act of 
adoration, for example, which is evoked by the revelation of the 
glory of God, we obtain, if the act is sincerely performe'l, a pro- 
founder impression of what that revelation teaches concerning 
God. In making a sincere confession of our sins, we get a deeper 
impression of what the Scriptures teach concerning the exceed- 
ing sinfulness of sin. In commemorating the death of our Lord 
in the ordinance of the Supper, if the act be done in the exer- 
cise of a lively faith, there is a more vivid apprehension of the 
great facts and truths signified by the elements and actions of 
that ordinance of the Saviour. Now, all these parts of worship 
were ordained of God ; and the modes in which they are to be 
observed are prescribed, either through precept or example, by 
him who knows Avhat his truth is, and what our nature is. 

To change, then, the modes is to incur the risk of changing the 
faith of God's elect. This is not a mere a priori speculation ; it 
is one of the lessons of the history of the Church. The dread- 
ful perversion of the truth concerning the sacrifice of Christ by 
the Papacy began with a tampering with the ordinance of the 
Supper. The corruption of the ordinance reacted upon the faith 
of the Church, and corrupted it still more; and this again reacted 
upon the ordinance, and so on, until the Supper became the 
blasphemous abomination which we see to-day in the mass, and 
the central truth of Christianity was virtually denied. It was 
not for nothing that our Presbyterian forefathers fought so ear- 
nestly against the "significant ceremonies" of the Papists and 



32 TUE Sl'IlUT OF PRESBYTEllIAXISM. 

their imitators. The forms of the good sometimes survive the 
substance ; the forms of evil perpetuate the substance, and not 
sekhnn produce it. The forms of heathen worship brought 
heathenism into the Church. The Holy City was trodden under 
foot of the Gentiles. It ought to humble us in the very dust 
that the Church should always have shown this disposition to 
meddle with that concerning which her Head has always shown 
himself exceedingly jealous. The wickedness and folly of this 
meddling have been demonstrated on a fearful scale in her his- 
tory. The Lord deliver us from walking in the light of our own 
eyes, and after the imaginations of our own hearts I 

Once more : Presbyterians have been honorably distinguished 
among other branches of the Church of Christ by the importance 
which they have ascribed to a faithful discipline. So it was at 
the time of the Reformation. The eminent Lutheran historian 
before cited, in a description of the internal character of the Re- 
formed Church, says : "Presbyteries exercised a more rigid ex- 
ternal discipline. Civil and domesticlife assumed a strictly legal, 
often a gloomy, rigorous, character (especially in the Scotch 
Church and among the English Puritans) ; but along witli this 
developed a wonderful degree of moral energy, which, however, 
too often ran into extremes." ' On the other hand, another 
Lutheran historian (Mosheim), more eminent and more candid 
than the one just ([uoted, says of his own Church: "The ancient 
regulation which has come down to us from the earliest a";e of the 
Church, of excluding the ungodly from the communion, the 
Lutheran Church at first endeavored to purify from abuses and 
corruptions, and to restore to its primitive purity. . . . But in 
process of time it gradually became so little used that, at the 
present day, scarcely a vestige of it, in most places, can l)e dis- 
covere<l ; . . . aniultitudeof persons living in open transgression 
everywhere lift up their heads." ^ If the reports of travellers in 
Germany are to be credited, the oidy distinction made between 

' Kurtz's Church History (Bomberser's Trans.), Vol. IF., p. 148, ^ 23. 
'■' Moshoim's In.stitutcs (Murdock's Trans.), Vol. III., p. 131, B. 4, Cen- 
tury Ititli, Sec. 3, Part 2, c. 1. 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIANISM. 33 

Christian people and the world is that between baptism and no 
baptism. 

Now, what a dark picture for any Church I The people are 
Christian in a lower sense, much lower, than that in which the 
Turks are Mahometans, or the Chinese Pagans ; for these last 
are at least as good as their religion requires them to be in their 
outward life; while the professing Christian, a member of that 
body whose very purpose and mission is to promote the interests 
of holiness, treads these interests under foot, if he does not scout 
the very idea of holiness as being incapable of being realised. 
Such is the inevitable effect of the absence of discipline. There 
is no judicial application of the law of Christ to the lives of the 
people, no judicial recognition of the difference between the 
sacred and the profane, no purging of the old leaven of corruption 
out of the mass, and, therefore, nothing to prevent that leaven 
from transforming the whole mass into the likeness of itself. 
The Church, as the visible body and kingdom of Christ, has dis- 
appeared in the practical annihilation of discipline. No censures 
are inflicted except by the State for crime ; sin has ceased to be 
rebuked. In the punishment of crime, according to the common 
theory of criminal law, it is the interests of the Commonwealth that 
are chiefly regarded; and if the Commonwealth alone punishes, 
there is no judicial testimony against sin, and none even against 
crime as a thing of inherent ill-desert. Further, if the Common- 
wealth alone should punish, there will be no exhibition of that love 
which yearns over the olfender, which longs for his repentance 
and restoration, and chastises in order that he mav be brought to 
repentance and be restored. The government of the Church is 
paternal or rather maternal, inflicting its censures to uphold the 
authority of her Lord, but at the same time proclaiming that the 
love of her Lord for the soul that has got entangled in the meshes 
of the devil is as great as his abhorrence of the sin. There are 
two evils she has to cope with — ignorance and malice. "Against 
ignorance," to use the words of the author of Paradise Lost, "she 
provides the daily manna of incorruptible doctrine, not at those 
set meals only in public, but as oft as she shall know that each 
infirmity or constitution requires. Against malice with all the 
3 



34 THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIAXIS.Ar. 

branches thereof, not meddling with that restraining and styptic 
surgery wliich the hiw uses not again^st the mahidy hut against 
the eruptions and outermost effects thereof; she, on the contrary, 
beginning at the prime causes and roots of the disease sends in 
tliosc two divine ingredients of most cleansing power to the soul, 
admonition and reproof; besides wiiicli tAvo tliere is no drug or 
antidote that can reach to purge the mind, and without which all 
other experiments are but vain, unless by accident." If these 
fail of their effect, the illustrious author goes on to say, the 
Church proceeds in the last resort to use "the dreadful sponge of 
excommunication and to pronounce the offender wiped out of the 
list of God's inheritance and in the custody of Satan till he re- 
pent. AVhich liorrid sentence, though it touch neither life nor 
limb, nor any Avorldly possession, yet has it such a penetrating 
foi'ce that swifter than any chemical sulphur, or that liglitning 
which harms not the skin and rifles the entrails, it scorches the 
inmost soul. Yet even this terrible denouncement is left to 
the Church for no other cause Ijut to be as a rough and vehe- 
ment cleansing medicine, where the malady is obstinate; a mor- 
tifying to life, a kind of saving by undoing. And it may be said 
truly, that as the mercies of wicked men are cruelties, so the 
cruelties of the Church are mercies."^ The concession of the 
Lutheran author, before cited, that the rigorous discipline of the 
Reformed or Calvinistic Church developed, in its civil and domes- 
tic life, a wonderful degree of moral energy, is more comprehen- 
sive than the author intended it to be. It means this, that the 
discipline developed the power of the Churcli and enabled it more 
fully to accom])lish its mission in the calling and training of 
Gods elect, in moulding its members according to the word of 
God, in causing the Church to respond to its vocation in its re- 
ligious life as to God, in its fraternal life as to the members in 
their mutual relations, ami in its missionary life as to the world 
without. It means also a larger measure of true happiness to its 
members, for "happiness is the reflex of energy." What the 
world and worldly Christians call pleasure, is not happiness. It 
is mere excitement and intoxication which is followed by lassitude 

'Milton's Reason of Cb. Govt, urged against Prelaty, B. 2, C. 3. 



THE SPIRIT OF PRESP.YTEIUAXISM. 35 

and disgust, and in tlie case of professing Christians, it is to be 
h/)ped, by a feeling, if not of degradation, at least of a falling 
short of their high calling, "She that liveth in pleasure," says 
the apostle, "is dead Avhile she liveth." Nothing can be imagined 
nearer a livino; death than the life of a "fashionable" man or 
woman. But happiness is a "home-bred delight," the glow of 
the soul in the enjoyment of health and vigor. The true secret 
of happiness is to be found in denying one's self for the good of 
others: for the glory of God and the good of our fellow- creatures. 
This may seem a paradox, but it is the gospel paradox, and is 
solved by the principle that happiness is the reflex of energy. 
In self-indulgence Ave are the passive recipients of pleasure; in 
self-denial we are active, and find that it is indeed "more blessed 
to give than to receive." We enter into the joy of our Lord, 
who came not to be ministered unto but to minister. If the ma- 
ternal discipline of the Church, like every other discipline of love, 
produces or invigorates the habit of self-denial, it develops energy, 
and thereby causes happiness. When the Cliurch frowns upon 
her children who are addicted to "worldly amusements," it is 
the frown of a wise and benignant mother who desires the happi- 
ness of her children, and knows that nothing is more fotal to it 
than a life of pleasure. 

The frown of the Church ! What lover of pleasure regards it 
now ? Whatever the convictions of any pleasure-loving member 
may be as to the lawfulness of the amusements which the Church, 
through all her courts, condemns, one would think that the sim- 
ple fact that the Church condemns would be sufficient to restrain 
her or him to forego the indulgence. Is it seemly in a follower 
of the Crucified One, whose soul was sorrowful even unto death, 
who endured the agony and bloody sweat of the garden and the 
bitter death of the accursed tree, in order "to deliver him from 
the present evil world" — is it seemly in such an one to be found 
wearing the badges of the world and communicating with it in 
its sacraments ? shame, where is thy blush ? ^ 

^In the primitive Church candidates for baptism were required to re- 
nounce "the pomps of the devil;"' and these pomps were interpreted to 
be "public amusements, dances, and spectacles' (theatrical, etc.). The 



36 Tin-: spirit of presbyti:riaxis5i. 

If the discipline of the Presbyterian Church be indeed power- 
less to arrest the tide of worldliness, then let "Ichabod" be writ- 
ten upon her walls; her glory is dei)arted. Corruption of man- 
ners will be followed by corruption of doctrine, and there will be 
none so poor as to do her reverence. When the line of demar- 
cation between the Church and the world has been obliterated, 
the Church must either reform or perish. If even a Church that 
hates the deeds of the Nicolaitans is threatened by the Saviour 
with the removal of its candlestick, uidess it repent, how great is 
the poril of a Church that tolerates the doctrine of the Nicolai- 
tans and of Balaam I "Repent," says the Saviour, "or else I 
■will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the 
sword of my mouth. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the 
Spirit saith unto the churches." 

We mention, in conclusion, one more characteristic of the Pres- 
byterian Church, and one of Avliich we cannot fiil to be reminded 
by the occasion whicli has called us together. It is its care to 
have a learned ministry; learned, not in the sense of great erudi- 
tion, but in the sense of educated, trained to study, to expound, 
and to defend the word of God. This characteristic of our 
Church grows out of the same root with her zeal for purity of 
doctrine, simplicity of worship, and maternal rigor of discipline. 
The root is reverence for the Scriptures as the word of God and 
the only rule of fiith and manners. It is too obvious to need re- 
mark that if the word of God is to be truly expounded and suc- 
cessfully defended, it must be understood, and that to be under- 
stood it must be studied; that the logical relations of its doctrines 
among themselves must 1)0 discerned and stated: that the history 
of the development of these doctrines and of their bearing upon 
the worslii)) and j'olity and life of the Church must be mastered; 
in sliort, that theology must be exegetically, dogmatically, and 
historically studied. 

Now, all this requires a large exjienditure of" time and money ; 

like engagement is now deniaiKlctl liy the Episcopal ("Imicli of adult can- 
didates for baptism, ami of '';;od-fathors and god-mothers'" in hidialf of 
an infant to he hai)ti/,t'd. With what tidelitj those engajrements are kept 
in that Church, we do not know ; prol)ahly not with more than in our own. 



TKE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTERIANISM. 37 

<an<l tliere are signs in our own ])ranch of the Church of a dispo- 
sition to (question the wisdom of insisting upon so high a stan(hn-d 
of attainment. In a country whose popuhition is growing with 
prodigious rapidity, when it seems ahnost impossible to supply 
the demand for ministers; when our Church is foiling behind, as 
is alleged, the other Churches in numbers and influence; when 
many godly men, richly endowed by nature and grace for the 
ministry, but unable for want of time and means to get a scholas- 
tic training, are pressing upon us for some relaxation of the stan- 
dard sanctioned by law and immemorial usage, it is asked, not 
without some plausibility, whether we ought not to make provi- 
sion for at least another class of ministers in our Church. This 
is not the time to attempt a full answer to this question. It is 
enough to say, that it may be too readily taken for granted that 
there is a demand for untrained ministers; that the existence, 
side by side, of two distinct classes of ministers could not be pei*- 
manent, any more than two kinds of money could be kept in cir- 
culation at the same time ; that, as in the case of money, so in 
the ministry, the inferior article would almost certainly drive out 
the superior; that there is already a provision in our Constitu- 
tion elastic enough to cover the "extraordinary cases" of godly 
men wisely endowed by nature and grace for the work of the 
ministry who are unable to get a scholastic training; that the 
power and influence of a Church does not depend on the numbers 
either of its members or its ministers, but on their character; and 
finally, that it could not but be regarded as an evil omen if a 
Church which has always distinguished itself for its zeal in the 
cause of education, and by its zeal hath provoked its sister 
Churches, should renounce its convictions and forsake its vener- 
able traditions in this respect, and that, too, in the presence of 
a foe more enlightened, as well as more determined and relent- 
less, than ever before. 

The best answer, however, noAv and here, is to be found in the 
occasion that has brought us too-ether. It is a grand rallv for 
the revival of a Seminary which has done a noble work in times 
past for the Church by the training of her ministers ; and he who 
speaks to you has the honor of bringing from a sister institution 



38 THE SPIRIT OF PRESBYTEKIANLSM. 

the assurancos of its hearty sympathy with you in all 3'our trials 
and dilliculties; its hearty congratulations on the success with 
•which it has pleased God to bless the efforts which have thus far 
been made to put your Seminary on a sure foundation ; and its 
earnest liopc that he will continue and increase his blessing; so 
that, great as has been your work for him and his Church in time 
past, it shall not "be spoken of or come into mind" by reason 
of the greater work which you shall have grace given you to do 
in the time to come. 



THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; OR, 
REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 

BY HENRY M. SMITH, D. H., PASTOR OF THE THIRD PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Christian students need not object to the aggressiveness of 
what is commonly styled Biblical Criticism ; but they certainly 
have a right to complain of its rashness. Crude sentiments, partial 
and partisan views of history, mooted opinions, and even conjec- 
tures, are frequently put forth by many who claim to be authori- 
ties on such subjects, as if they could be combined into unques- 
tionable arguments against our religious beliefs. And the specu- 
lative and sceptical theories based on such foundations are 
heralded through every avenue the press affords, and urged upon 
public opinion, as if they were the most solid fruits of scientific 
research. 

It is of course practicable and proper to trace and expose such 
reasonings in detail. But the very popularity of such specula- 
tions suggests that it is desirable to go farther. The Scriptures 
have nothing to fear and everything to gain from the closest scru- 
tiny. It invites the most thorough research. At the same time, 
there is one thing which modern criticism cannot do. It may 
attest, but it cannot establish, the truth of^ Scripture. That is 
already done. We maintain that it can be demonstrated that 
there is in history a basis for our faith in its truth, so broad and 
deep, that the argument to establish the truth of Scripture is a 
closed argument. Give criticism the most ample scope, and such 
is the might of the testimony already in our possession, that Ave 
may safely say beforehand, that wdiatever results it may attain, 
the truthfulness of the Scripture record will always remain, a fiict 
beyond the possibility of intelligent denial. 

This is the fact which we propose to illustrate. Before taking 
up the argument, we shall briefly invite attention to the rational- 



40 THE OLD TEfJTAMKNT IN HISTORY; 

istic theories in regard to tlie nature of the Bihle and of inspira- 
tion, as set forth ])y the biblical critics to whom we have referred. 

RATIOXALISTR' THEORIES OE THE lilHLE AND INSIMKATION. 

Wf are confronted with the fact that under the sounding name 
of Biblical Criticism, the credibility of Scripture, and especially 
of the Pentateuch, at least in that sense in which they are now 
and have always been received by the Church at large, is either 
deliberately questioned or boldly denied. 

The theories formerly advocated by Spinoza, DeWette, Ewald, 
and recently by Kuencn, have been popularised in English liter- 
ature by Bishop Colenso, by writers in the Encyclo])tedia Bri- 
tannica, and by Professor AV. Robertson Smith, of the Free 
Church of Scotland, in his "Lectures on the Old Testament in 
the Jewish Church." ThcA' assert: (1) That the Pentateuch is not 
of Mosaic authorship ; (2) That it was not written in Mosaic 
times ; (3) That its Ritual of Worship, in its present form, was 
the work of the later prophets ; (4) That the name of Moses 
was affixed to these productions of later centuries, simply by way 
of a le"ral fiction. 

These propositions challenge our attention. But before pro- 
ceedins to consider them, let us disabuse our minds of the idea 
that they accjuire any weight by being put forward under the 
name of Biblical Criticism. For the scope of that science — if it 
is a science — its functions, its methods, and its laws, are matters 
which are not themselves settled. 

According to Davidson, its sole object is "to discuss all matters 
belonging to the form and history of the text, showing in what 
state it has been perpetuated and what changes it has undergone." 
According to Ilagenbach, its province is "to decide the origin 
and authenticity, as well as the integrity of the sacred books." 
Between these definitions there is room for boundless speculation. 
And it may well be, as Delitzsch says, that "many of the former 
results of the critical schools arc now out of fiishion. Its present 
results often contradict each other." And Lange forcibly observes 
that "biblical criticism has been subjected to great errors, and 
reipiires, therefore, a criticism u})on itself" 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 41 

In view of these facts, and because of the great moral interests 
involved, Christian people have a right to complain of the flip- 
pant manner in which professed critics too often undertake the 
discussion of these high themes. 

It Avould seem to most minds that the theories of those writers 
are disproved by their own principles. It is admitted by all of 
them that at least "the Scriptures eontain the word of God." If, 
then, they maintain that the Pentateuch, on which the whole 
Scripture record is based, and with Avhich all the other Scrip- 
tures are more or less involved — if these are untrustworthy, the 
rest of the record becomes clouded with suspicion. In that case, 
unless a new revelation shall separate the truth from the error, 
they must abandon that claim to our entire and unhesitating con- 
fidence which is indispensable to a rule of faith. And in tliat case 
the paramount authority of Scripture as a law of conscience, be- 
comes a mere illusion ; and it must have always been an illusion. 

We cannot fix the period when the chosen people first possessed 
written records. But we know that contemporary peoples pos- 
sessed them from the earliest antiquity. We know, however, that 
some of these records of their faith have existed for more than 
thirty centuries. They always regarded them as we now regard 
them. They knew them as the word of God, and so they have 
been regarded through all intervening time. And it is Avell known 
that God consented to this view of the Scriptures. We are asked 
to accept theories which imply an uninterrupted delusion on the 
part of all the ages, in reference to the true character of the 
record. It is implied also that they were deluded by divine con- 
sent, if not by divine approval. It is implied that during the 
larger part of the world's history, "his word was not ti-uth," and 
that in carrying out his holy purpose of enlightening men by 
the truth, he preferred to make use of a corrupted record ! 

If this is a fair inference from those theories, it proves that the 
theories are untenable. 

In order to present more clearly the point of view of those 
writers, we advert to their theory of the Bible as a book. In 
Prof. W. Robertson Smith's Lects., p. 25, he says: "We have got 
to go back step by step and retrace the history of the sacred 



42 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

volinno up to the origin of each separate 'writing which it contains. 
In doing this, we must use every light which can be brought to 
beai- uj)on the subject. Every fact is welcome, whether it come 
from Jewish tradition or from a comparison of old MSS. and 
versions, or from an examination of the several books with one 
anotlier, and of each book in its own inner structure. 

"It is not needful, in starting, to lay down any fixed rules of 
procedure; the ordinary laws of evi<leuce and good sense nnist be 
our guides. And these we must apply to the Bible, just as we 
should do to any other ancient book." 

But there is an objection to this statement ; and it is fatal to 
the theory. The Bible has one unmistakable characteristic : it is 
God's Book. The controlling clement of the Book is confessedly 
divine. Possibly you may not be able to say precisely how or in 
Avhat measure the divine element is to be recognised. But if such 
an element dwells in it, you cannot deal Avith it just as with any 
other human book. The "Tlius saith the Lord" in it creates a 
difference which no criticism can bridge over. 

Let us try to conceive of each separate book of Scripture 
awaiting at tiie tribunal of modern criticism tlie sejjarate decision 
which, when every one of those books shall have secured it, is to 
enable us to say to ourselves that the Bil)le is divine I In this 
case it is plain that there is no Bible for us until the process is 
com])leted. 

But let us inquire whether, in that case, we should have one 
afterwards. We will suppose the decision favorable. But the 
verdict must be reached by a process of verification known only 
to an infinitesimally small proportion of mankind. It would be 
the decision of one class, and it would thoroughly commend itself 
only to the very small fragment of mankind who belong to tiiat 
class. It would be practically shut out from every other. For 
it would not be possiljle to im])art weight enough to the verdict 
of any school of biblical critics to satisly the conscience of man- 
kind. So that if we have no JJible now, it will never be in the 
jiowcr of biblical critics to give us one. The word of God is in- 
tended l"or mankind. It must needs bear its own credentials; 
and those credentials must be so decisive that the l^ook will speak 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 43 

with authority, as it has ahvays done, to the conscience of every 
race and every age. 

Such being the nature of the Bible, the internal cannot be 
separated from the external evidences. You may take any ancient 
book and subject each particular part to an absolute criticism, and 
make the whole book dependent on the result of the process. 
But you could not deal in that way with a living organism. You 
could not take the eye, the arm, the foot, and the other mem- 
bers, and refuse to admit the reality of the whole body till 
you had tested each member. On the contrary, every member 
is studied in its relations to the Avhole. • And in like manner the 
Bible is not to be dealt with "just as we should do to any other 
ancient book," for the divine element that dwells in it constitutes 
it a living unity. And we must conclude that the value of each 
individual part inevitably depends on the relations it sustains to 
the organic whole to which it belongs. 

We cannot omit in this connexion some notice of their theory 
of inspiration. "To try to suppress the human side of the 
Bible," sa3's W. Robertson Smith, Lects., p. 19, "in the interests 
of the purity of the divine word, is as great a folly as to think 
that a father's talk with his child can be best reported by leaving 
out everything which the child said, thought, and felt. . . . All 
that earthly study and research can do for the reader of Scrip- 
ture, is to put him in the position of the man to whose heart God 
first spoke." 

The supposition here put forth is, that the individuals who re- 
ceived revelation understood it better than those who came after 
them. In regard to some of the most important communications 
ever made to man, we are expressly assured that such was not the 
case. If this were true, why should "the prophets have inquired 
and searched diligently what the Spirit of Christ in them did sig- 
nify, when it testified beforehand of the sufferings of Christ, and 
the glory to follow"? Or, suppose we were to place ourselves in 
the mental and moral attitude of Isaiah, when he was insjnred to 
record that glorious fifty-third chapter of his, will any man sup- 
pose for a moment that we should have a truer idea of its mean- 



44 THE OLD Ti:>TAMENT IX HISTORY; 

ing than we now have ? Certainly not I The tlieory is contra- 
dicted by the fiicts of the history. 

It" the writer means that revehition is simply that consciousness 
of God's ineaiiin<^ which the inspire<l ])erson possessed, it could 
only have a subjective reality. It would be simply a personal 
conviction, wrought by God himself; nor could it serve as a rev- 
elation to another until the same conviction was wrought in him 
by the same power. In such a case revelation could have no ob- 
jective reality nor general authority. 

The writer may mean, however, that revelation is objective, 
but modified by specific cftnditions. But if that were so, revela- 
tion would always need to be interpreted ; and it could only be 
interpreted by discounting those conditions. In other words, to 
understand the significance of the text, we must first know per- 
fectly the niind Avhich received it ; and then subtract from the 
natural meaning of the text all that was personal or local, or that 
belonged to the mind of the prophet. The result, according to 
this theory, would be the significance of the revelation for us. 

The difficulties connected with this theory are too great to 
make the theory helpful. For, given the inspired message, we 
shall at once need the aid of another inspiration to discover all 
the influences which affected the prophet's moral or mental point 
of view. Again, we should need the aid of inspiration to balance 
those influences or to eliminate them. Again, we should need 
the aid of inspiration to verify our process of reasoning. And 
again, we should need the aid of inspiration to guarantee our 
conclusion. Such a theory implies that God is practically help- 
less, and frustrates his purpose in connnunicating his will or pur- 
pose to man. It proposes to relieve diihcultits by multiplying 
them. 

We turn away from these grotestpie theories to the simple 
teaching of Scripture itself, and we see at once that the highest 
spiritual view of inspiration is at the same time perfectly natural. 
In conveying divine messages to mankind, the proj)iiet is an instru- 
ment of God. Not a chance instrument, but a selected instru- 
ment ; not a crude, unformed, or unsuitable instrument, but an 
instrument formeil and adapted to his purpose; not an instru- 



OR, REVELATIOX AND CRITICISM. 45 

ment designed merely with reference to times and scenes then 
present, but one designed to correspond with his purpose, extend- 
ing to all times, and embracing all subsequent progress. As 
bearers of* their message, Scripture gives us to understand that 
those men perfectly suited the infinite knowledge and Avisdom of 
God, as well as the weakness and limitations of the mind of man. 

Those ideas touching the origin of the Pentateuch, the Bible as 
a book, and the nature of inspiration, are, as we have seen, self- 
destructive. A biblical criticism or a biblical scepticism which is 
founded on them, must therefore be fallacious. Although it might 
temporarily perplex, it could not control tho mind of man. If 
not refuted, it must fall to pieces by its own weight. 

The emergence of such theories from time to time seems to 
imply a providential purpose. It is a summons to the Church to 
reconsider the evidences with reference to the continually chang- 
ing forms of thought and conditions of society, and to show by 
its response to the inquiries which attend every step of human 
progress, that it is a divine book. 

We hold it to be a sufficient answer to speculations such as we 
have been considering, to point out the vital relations which sub- 
sist between the Bible and the history of mankind. 

The question which lies at the threshold of the inquiry is, 
How has the world acquired the knowledge of a true system of 
faith and worship ? 

I. HISTORY EXHIBITS A REVEALED FAITH AND WORSHIP. 

Experience makes it abundantly plain that reason cannot in- 
vent an adequate system of faith and worship. In the first place, 
man needs an authoritative disclosure of the doctrine of God. 
And the Bible declares itself to be an authoritative revelation 
of the righteousness of God. This is the peculiarity of the Bible. 
The moral instincts of man have always confessed that God is 
righteous. They have suggested many noble views of his char- 
acter. But the complete and symmetrical picture of a perfectly 
righteous Beino; is found in the Bible alone. 

The noblest production of the natural reason — the Nicomachean 
Ethics — is entirely unable to reach the idea of a Deity ruling the 



46 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

world in righteousness, as the real foundation of social morality. 
Even if we could .suppose to be gathered into one view all the 
ideas of God which are to be found scattered through the world 
of tliouglit, and if we could further suppose that they would 
then form a complete and symmetrical whole, this would simply 
form a conjecture of God, and not an actual discovery. However 
beautiful the idea, our own speculations could not clothe it with 
certainty. 

The sanie thing is true as to a perfect standard of morality. 
Reason may perceive many of the details of such a standard, but 
the rule must be promulgated by authority, in order to carry with 
it the bindiniT obli";ation of law. 

Conscience, moreover, has always confronted man with the fact 
that he is a sinner. This fact must impair the quality of all our 
moral ideas. We may presume that there would be a natural 
analogy between the truth and the religious notions of an unf'allen 
being. But the taint and infirmity of a sinful nature must show 
themselves in lack of clearness of perception, of purity, and of 
moral energy. The bias of the mind to evil interposes an efl'ec- 
tual l»arrier to a certain discovery of God and his Law: ns the 
conflicting opinions of philosophy testify. Hence the whole sub- 
ject of our relations to our Maker is involved in an obscurity that 
no eye but his own can penetrate. Thus the logic of our moral 
instincts points to the necessity of a knowledge which reason can 
but dimly conjecture, and to which reason can never lead us. 

Yet reason indicates the drift of destiny. Always and every- 
where it asserts that God is righteous and man a sinner. The 
conclusion is plain. Sooner or later the sinner must stand be- 
fore God. And if there be no atonement, he must perish through 
the whole extent of his being. 

Hence the question of all ages has been, ''How shall man 
be just with God?" Historically, that question is the pivot 
on which the reliy-ious thought of mankind has turned. But 
here, reason moves in an unchanging circle. Increasing knowl- 
edge, development of experience, and changing civilisations shed 
no light on this (juestion. Each succeeding age reiterates the 
questionings of those which jireceded it. And under the unalter- 



OR, REVELATIOX AND CRITICISM. 47 

able conviction of sin, rigliteousness, and judirment, tlio (juestion 
evei- grows more urgent, more complicated, and more appalling. 
The solution of such a question can be found only in the purposes 
of God. Whether a righteous God can entertain a gracious pur- 
pose ? whether he has done so ? and if he has, hoAV it can be made 
effectual for our safety ? God only can know these things. He 
only could reveal them if they be so. And nothing less than his 
own explicit authority could warrant us in making such possibili- 
ties a basis of conduct and a rule of faith. 

It is nevertheless a fiict that the adorable mercy of God has 
devised and provided an atonement, and that by means of it there 
is secured for us a valid righteousness — "even the righteousness 
of fiiith." It is an astounding declaration that God can be "just, 
and the justifier of him that believeth in Jesus;" and that ''the 
righteousness of God is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon 
all them that believe," even as "Abraham believed God and it was 
counted unto him for righteousness." This implies an entire 
change in the destiny of man. This new view of destiny so far 
transcends the capacity of reason, that we cannot accommodate 
ourselves to it, without a fuller knowledge of God and of our- 
selves. For that purpose we need a practical acquaintance with 
the nature and operation of the principle of righteousness by 
foith, its sufficiency for the heart and for the activities of life. 
Man needs a record as well as a doctrine. In other words, to 
fully realise the plan of mercy, we need just such a book as 
the Bible is. 

The Bible sets forth the righteousness of God, in the proclama- 
tion of his attributes, in the record of his dealings with men and 
nations, and in his promulgation of a universal standard of moral 
obligation in the Decalogue. Here is law for man in all his rela- 
tions to God and to society. Brief and simple, it is an exhaustive 
expression of God's righteous authority and of man's obligation 
to God. 

The Bible illustrates the powder of "the righteousness which is 
by faith," to satisfy the heart and conscience. It causes to pass 
before us the panorama of life, and shows how faith has entered 
every foian of human experience and pervaded it; and how, by 



48 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

its transforming power, life's weakness was made strong, its dark- 
ness changed into light, its sorrow turned to joy, and death itself 
was converted into a messenger of hope. 

The Bible illustrates the fact that "righteousness by faith" is 
a potential principle of life. There were the patriarchs under the 
oversliadowinir influence of the earlier civilisations, in the world 
but not of it, calmly but effectively, through the victory of faith, 
overcon)ing the world. 

There was enslaved and helpless Israel rising against the con- 
solidated strength of Egypt into a nationality which lasted longer 
than that of ancient Rome. There was David, the man after 
God's own heart, going forth single-handed from the sheepfold, 
and winning his way to greatness and dominion. In these and 
hundreds of other cases, faith found no aid nor sympathy in 
worldly surroundings, but came in direct collision with every 
other power and principle by which men live, and like the rod of 
Moses among the enchantments of Pharaoh, proved its supremacy 
by overcoming them all. It is thus made manifest that it is a 
principle of God's moral government, that "the just shall live by 
faith." The voice of God himself is speaking in this manifold 
experience of men through so many ages. It invests the doctrine 
with his constant endorsement. It is the unmistakable proof 
that it has been revealed by his authority, and that the utterances 
of the Bible concerning it, are the inspired word of God. 

A Revealed System of Worship. 

It is only in the Bible that we find an ade(iuate system of reli- 
gious worsiiip. 

The considerations which show that man cannot form an ade- 
quate conception of God and liis authority, also show that he 
cannot devise a system of worship ade(juate to express the kind 
of homa<2;e we owe, or need to brin;' us into communion with him. 
The'impulse which prompts men to seek God, at the same time 
ju-omjits us to use methods of worship to propitiate him. 

Those methods liave been as various as the points of view, the 
surroundings, the moral or the intellectual conditions of men. 
By means of images or objects gathered from the whole, range of 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 49 

material nature, they symbolised man's highest conception of 
God, and represented reason's highest conception of what is due 
to God, and what is pleasing to him. 

It was the boast of philosophy that "man is the measure of all 
things." This stipulates for a religion which flatters the pride 
of intellect, ministers to the vanity of display, and gratifies men 
with a moilil standard congenial to their inclinations. But as 
this is the highest to which man can attain, it simply proves that 
a revealed worship of God is as truly necessary as a revealed 
doctrine of God. History teaches that symbolism misrepresents 
God and degrades our idea of him, by substituting in place of 
God a creation of fancy. The worship of God by means of sym- 
bols, leads to the worship of the symbols themselves. It gener- 
ates a morality which is based upon a perverted or false idea of 
the divine character, a morality corrupt, gross, revolting, and 
destructive of society. There can be no more perfect description 
of the pernicious effects of symbolism on the mind and heart than 
the apostle gives in the first chapter of Romans. It is a descrip- 
tion which all history confirms. 

The chosen people w^ere solemnly prohibited from symbolism 
in every form. "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven 
imagp, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or 
that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the 
earth : thou shalt not boAV down thyself to them, nor serve them: 
for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God." Ex. xx. 4, 5. Yet 
symbolism was destined to play a tragic part in their history. 

But here we must observe the great difference between the sym- 
bolism inaugurated by them and that of the heathen nations. The 
Israelites worshipped the true God. They based their symbolism 
on their conception of the God of their fathers ; it was a low con- 
ception, and their symbolism represented a low conception. But 
it was different from that of the heathen. At the same time it was 
apostasy, as it involved a rejection of God's appointed method of 
worship. It is startling to see this evil tendency finding expres- 
sion in the solemn presence of Sinai itself. Their conception of 
God and their w^orship were idolatrous, no doubt. But they did 
4 



50 THE OLD TESTA MKNT IN III^^TmRY; 

not consider their -worsliip of the gohlen culf apostasy, any more 
than the ten tribes did Avho iblhnved Jeroboam. 

"Behold thy Elohira which brought thee up out of the land of 
Egypt." 1 Kings xii. 28. "And Aaron proclaimed a feast 
unto Jeliovali." Ex. xxxii. 5. 

Ezekiel, ch. xx, develops the fact that though often dealt with 
for their apostasy, the generation that left Egypt cherished idol- 
atrous conceptions of God throughout the a\ hole of the desert life. 
Under the Judges, their history is a constant succession of refor- 
mations and relapses and chastisements. ]>ut tlie most striking 
example of the deadly struggle between the carnal reason and the 
dictates of foith, is found in the example of the wisest of men, 
the builder of the tenii)]e and organiser of tlie temple worship, 
King Solomon. State policy led to heathen alliances; and then 
conjugal affection led him to temporise with idolatry, and then he 
is found buildinfi altars and offering incense and sacrifices to 
Chemosh and JNIoloch. 1 Kings xi. 

This would seem to be nothing less than heathenism and sheer 
apostasy. Yet we find this very man so sensitive to the honor 
of Jehovah, that he would not let his Egyptian wife dwell in the 
house of David, because the ark had been there. 2 Chron. viii. 

Still, the Lord comnnuiicated with him. The comment on his 
course is merely that "his heart was not perfect with the Lord 
his God." 1 Kings xi. 4. Now this may iuiply grievous error, 
but it does not imply absolute heathenisui. 

The relaxed morality of the wise king yielded to the subtle 
sophistry that there must be some common ground of truth and 
right between the worship of Jehovah and that of the false gods. 
This granted, there was nothing to hinder a Jewish pantheon. 
And does not even a Christian poet sing: 

"Father of all, in every aj^e, 
In every clime adored ; 
By saint, by savaj^c, or by sage, 
Jehovah ! Jove, or Lord !" 

[Pope's Ode to tlio Deity. 

The poet goes farther tlian the king. He endorses the pan- 
theon of Solomon, and then endjraces the logical result. lie 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 51 

claims that the worship of Jove, one of the vilest creations of de- 
praved fancy, is identical with the worship of the holy Jehovah. 
The kinjr did not thus confound the identity of Chemosh with 
that of Jehovah, nor the altar of Moloch with that of the temple. 
He proposed merely to add to the revealed worship, not to ignore 
its distinctive character. He ventured to add to the word of 
God. To add to God's word is to corrupt it. It is apostasy from 
tlie truth, and leads to the confusion of all moral distinctions. 
This was the apostasy of Solomon. And for this, the kingdom 
was rent from his house for ever. 1 Kings xi. 

WhenP Jeroboam set up the worship of the golden calves in Dan 
and Bethel, the fact that we meet Avith no great public outcry 
against it, shows how much corrupted public sentiment had al- 
ready become. Yet it was not his purpose in doing this to re- 
nounce the worship of Jehovah. He imitated the institutions of 
the temple, and made a feast "like unto the feast that is in Ju- 
dah," and refused to admit that he had rebelled against the Lord. 
1 Kinws xii. 32. All he aimed at was to substitute a different 
form of worship for that which had been revealed. Between this 
and the worship of Baal there was a marked difference. And 
this is indicated both in 1 Kings xvi. 32, Avhere Ahab's raising 
an altar to Baal is noted as a greater sin ; and in 2 Kings x. 28, 
where Jehu is commended for overthrowing the worship of Baal, 
though he did not give up the worship of the calves ; and 2 Kings 
iii. 2, where Jehoram is said to be a better man than his father, 
because, although guilty of the worship of the calves, he was not 
guilty of the worship of Baal. But though not meant for apos- 
tasy or idolatry, that was what, both in form and substance, the 
abandonment of the revealed worship became. Baal and Ashta- 
roth were the sure result, with all their multiplied abominations. 
The rejection of the exact form of revealed worship was followed 
by the rejection of "the statutes and the covenant;" and the ruin 
of Israel is traced back to Jeroboam's symbolism. 2 Kings xvii. 

The Kingdom of Judali. 

In the kingdom of Judah the revealed worship had every guar- 
anty of protection ; the presence of the temple and its imposing 



52 THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; 

Avorship rose continually before tlieni. It appealed to their 
national pride; tliey taunted the Israelites with having forsaken 
the God of their fathers, and boasted of being the exclusive cus- 
todians of the national honor. It was to the interest of the whole 
Levitical tribe, now settled in Juduh, to animate the religious life 
of the people. The limited extent of the kingdom now brought 
the whole population in close neighborhood to Jerusalem, and 
under its influence the religion of the temple was the religion of 
State, and could not be rejected while the State lasted. And 
besides this, the frequent succession of pious kings checked idol- 
atrous tendencies, produced great I'eligious revivals, an(k restored 
the worship of Jehovah to supremacy. Hence there could be no 
analogy between the history of the public apostasy of Judah and 
tluit of Israel. 

It would seem that the form of their apostasy was suggested by 
Solomon himself; his influence was no less fatal to Judah than 
that of Jeroboam had been to Israel. Like Solomon, his success- 
ors and the people set up other altars, and worshipped other gods, 
doubtless influenced by the same spirit of compromise; possibly 
supposing that concession to heathen conscientiousness implied a 
liberality of spirit which could not be disloyalty to Jehovah. But 
to abase the highest conception of worship is to undermine it, and 
to prepare the way for abandoning it. It was so in their case. 
'^According to the number of thy cities so were thy gods, Ju- 
dah." Jer, xi. 13. Their worship degenerated amid the hymns 
of the temple, and the degeneracy was rapid. The obstacles in- 
terposed by the reigns of the pious kings were but temporary, and 
the current only rushed on the more rapidly when the obstacles 
were removed. Spiritual worship died out with spiritual life. 
The rationalised liberalism which tolerated other altars and other 
worships, came to prefer foreign altars and neglect the temple. 
The temple worship was practically suj)planted. And kings, 
priests, and people gave themselves up to idolatry. At length 
they did after all the abominations of the heathen, and polluted 
the house of Jehovah. Thereftre them that escaped the sword 
he carried away to Babylon : to i'ullil the word of the Lord by the 
mouth of Jeremiah. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14. 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 53 

The histoiy of Israel, united or divided, sIioavs that rationalism 
in -the worship of God, even when combined with revealed truth, 
inevitably leads to the darkness, the degradations, and corruptions 
of idolatry. A true worship, as well as true doctrine, addresses 
itself to fiiith, to a conception of God higher than our own. Hence 
the necessity of a revealed worship. The prosperity and virtue 
Avhich marked the career of the chosen people while they adhered 
to the revealed worship, and the disaster and ruin that attended 
their apostasy, stand as the historic affirmation of its divine 
authority. 

All history shows the inability of human reason to devise an 
adequate system of fluth or worship. The flict that we find them 
in the Bible is a conclusive proof that the Bible came from God. 

II. THE WITNESS AND REPRESENTATIVE: THE SECOND IIEDREW 
COMMONWEALTH. 

The Appointed Witness. 

But suppose we are asked to verify the ancient record of reve- 
lation ; to show that we possess it in the form in Avhich it was 
originally given. Who are the witnesses ? We must admit that 
there is but one people who Avere (jualified to testify on that sub- 
ject, namely, the people Avho were originally entrusted with the 
oracles of God. 

But as the record of revelation is at the same time their national 
record, it is important to ascertain Avhether they ever occupied a 
position sufficiently external to the record to warrant us in con- 
sidering their statements as independent evidence. This question 
is answered in the second Hebrew commonwealth. This history 
is in some respects anomalous. Until the Captivity, national 
events, and even personal incidents, are set down Avith a minute 
particularity unknown to any other ancient history. But sud- 
denly this is all changed. From the completion of the second 
temple the sacred record seems to lose sight of the chosen people. 
They entirely drop out of the history. AVe see the story, spring- 
ing like the curve of an arch from among the times of Ezra and 
Malachi, and then it fades away until we see the other foot of the 



04 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

areli planted amid the surroundings of New Testament times, but 
of the sweep of the curve or the length of the span there is no 
inspired writer to tell us a word. 

It is true that the record of revelation under tlie Old Testament 
dispensation was closed. The last word of the last prophet had 
been spoken. Nothing remained but to fulfil what had been 
declared. The Jews themselves do not claim canonical authority 
for their records of this period. The period from Malachi to 
John the Baptist does not belong to sacred history. But neither 
does it belong to profane history. It simply bridges the gulf 
which separated them. And this doubtless was its purpose : to 
form the connecting link between the inspired story and the his- 
tor\' of mankind. 

The JcAvs arc no longer the subject of the sacred record. They 
thenceforth stan(,l outside, of it. But they are its exjiounders, its 
representatives, and its official witnesses. And through the whole 
of this eventful i)eriod, they stand like an appointed herald, pro- 
claiming testimony to the world. 

For this great work they were fitted, from the fact that the 
second commonwealth was a theocratic republic, whose capital 
was Jerusalem, but wliose branches extended throughout the world. 

Tlie Historic Faith. 

The hand of Providence had been preparing the Jews for a 
great mission ; and the Captivity had much to do with it. 

''One of the most momentous and mysterious periods in the 
history of humanity is that brief space of the Exile. What were 
the influences l>rought to bear upon the captives, we do not know. 
But this we know, that from a reckless, lawless, godless populace 
they returned transformed into a band of puritans. The religion 
of Zerdusht, though it has left its traces in Judaism, fails to 
account for that change. Nor does the Exile itself account for it. 
Many and intense as are the reminiscences of its bitterness and 
its yearnings for home that have survived in prayer and song; 
yet we know that when the hour for liberty struck, the forced 
colonists were l(»ath to return to the land of their fathers. Yet 
the change is there, palpable, unmistakable, a change which we 



OK, REVELATIOX AXD CRITICISM. 55 

may regard as almost miraculous. Scarcely aware before of the 
e.\istence of their glorious national literature, the people now- 
began to press round these brands plucked from the fire, the scanty 
records of their faith and history, with a fierce and passionate 
love." Deutsch on the Talmud. 

And from that time the Jews became a nation of witnesses. 
The liome of their faith was Jerusalem ; but its children were 
scattered through the world. A vast number remained between 
the Tigris and tlie Euphrates, whence they circulated through the 
farther East. And of those that returned to Palestine, war and 
persecution expatriated some ; ambition carried others to the 
marts of commerce and political centres, where intelligence and 
capacity met the highest rewards. And inasmuch as their me- 
chanical skill, industry, and thrift were notorious, the founders of 
new cities often coveted them as citizens, and deported them in 
large numbers to the new cities, such as Alexandria or Antioch. 
They were well known in every part of the empire. "It is 
hard," says Strabo, "to find a place in the habitable earth that 
has not admitted this tribe of men, and is not possessed by them." 
Jos. Antiq., 14, 7, 2. 

"And if," exclaims Agrippa, appealing to the Emperor, "you 
are kind to the Jewish people, it will be felt throughout the 
world, for they are found in every part of it." Philo. Every 
civilised people came in contact with the Jews. But though asso- 
ciated by material interests with the people in Asia, Africa, and 
Europe, they nevertheless remained a peculiar people. Their 
faith rose like a wall, to separate them from every other belief 
and worship and isolated them from every other people. In this 
they were exclusive and uncompromising ; and it was construed 
as a badge of universal hatred and defiance. 

"An accursed race !" cries out the courtly Seneca. 

"Superstitious observers of Sabbath," says Juvenal; "adoring 
no deity but the clouds and sky; regarding pork as if it Avere 
human flesh ; practising circumcision ; trained in contempt of the 
laws of the Romans, and neither studying, practising, nor rever- 
encing anything but the Judaic law, and whatever Moses transmits 
in his mysterious book. They will neither discover the way to a 



56 THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; 

beniglited traveller, nor a fountain, except to such as arc circum- 
cisctl like tlicniselves."" Satire XIV," 

■•Connected among tlicniselves," says Tacitus, "by the most 
obstinate ami inflexible faith, the Jews extend their charity to 
all o'f their own creed ; but towards the rest of mankind they nour- 
ish a sullen and inveterate hatred." Hist., V., 5. 

These declarations are the unmistakable utterances of minds 
profoundly hostile to the Jews. But they represent the universal 
sentiment of intelligent men. And making due allowance for 
the coloring of prejudice, it is a most emphatic and convincing 
testimony to the loyalty of the Jews to their ancestral faith, and 
to their belief that their sacred records were divine. 

At the same time, the Jews were rendering an equally con- 
spicuous testimony to their faith by tlie national life in Palestine. 
The location of their country, "in the midst of the nations," on 
the jireat hiuhwav of war and commerce, brou";ht them into con- 
tact w ith every dominant civilisation. As each great world pOwer 
rose and fell, the Jews changed masters and came into new polit- 
ical relations, but always exhibiting as their political character- 
istic the Mosaic institutions. And so, all along the march of 
empire, their faith was proclaimed as a public factor in the po- 
litical life of the world. Brought into contact and into contrast 
with every code of ethics, every form of intellectual culture and 
of religious worship in the ancient world, they maintained and 
reasserted their peculiar institutions, and their national indi- 
viduality, before them all. 

In the terrible persecutions which befel them, their faith in- 
spired them with a fortitude that survived all calamities. The 
attempt of Antioclius Epiphanes to make them accept the religion 
of the Greeks, poured upon them for a quarter of a century all 
the horrors of heathen invasion. Their cities were burned to the 
ground, their fields were desolated, the women and children 
were exposed to the most exquisite tortures which Satanic cruelty 
could devise, the people were driven for refuge to the caves of 
the wild beasts. But their faith and courage did not falter ; they 
preferred martyrdom to apostasy. 

The Romans first patronised them, and afterwards oppressed 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 57 

them. "Let all kings take care," exclaims the Roman Senate, 
"that J;hey do no harm to our friends, the Jews." But when the 
Romans kncAv them better, they changed their tone. "It is a peo- 
ple," savs Caligula, "that I hate more than any other in the world." 
This was the language of their masters. And "How sad," is 
the mournful comment of Philo, "how sad must be the lot of the 
slave whose master is his foe !" 

Fidelity tp their faith lay at the root of all their antagonisms 
with the Gentile world. It was a voice of protest and of judg- 
ment against heathenism. There was neither toleration nor 
compromise. And the world resented their fidelity with hatred 
and persecution. 

"What people," exclaims Josephus, "have ever before died for 
their sacred records ?" Had a shadow of doubt rested on the 
inspiration of those records, human nature could not have endured 
the ordeal through Avhich that people passed. It would have 
sought shelter in compromise or despair. But their convictions 
were absolute. This is the only possible explanation of their 
history. When all their earthly hopes were overthrown, and the 
city and the temple were finally destroyed, they stood weeping, 
but inflexible, among the smoking ruins of the holy city. Despair 
itself could excite no suspicion of the divine character of those 
records, whose prophetic meaning was the seal of the national 
destruction. 

The Historic Worship. 

Their religious worship also was a guaranty of the authenticity 
of the Pentateuch. 

At the establishment of the second commonwealth, Cyrus 
announced his purpose to restore the ancient worship. With that 
view the temple was rebuilt and dedicated. Hence, while the 
commonwealth lasted, the temple and its services stood as the 
representative of a religious worship Avhich was associated with 
the times that preceded the captivity. 

The customs of the Jewish nation at large is valid evidence on 
this subject. The Jews were, indeed, the only nation of antiquity 
which could give a national testimony to their religion. With 
the Romans religion was chiefly the prerogative of the Patricians ; 



58 THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; 

among the Greeks its real significance Avas reserved for those 
initiated into the mysteries ; among the Egyptians it was hekl in 
the custody of the priests ; but among the Jews it was the posses- 
sion of tlie wliole people. It belonged no more to the ]ivince 
than to the peasant, to the master than to the slave, to the learned 
than to tlie uidearned. The humblest shepherd was as much inter- 
ested in its benefits as tbc IiIliIi {»riest iiiniself This, therefore, 
was a religion to which the wliole people could be witnesses ; and 
such they were. Everywhere, as the Roman writers tell us, they 
had the same records, the same rites, the same domestic obser- 
vances, the same community worship, the same connexion with 
the national religion throujih the annual feasts at Jerusalem. And 
this the Jews themselves claimed. "We have one sort of discourse 
about God, which is conformed to our law ; one way of speaking 
of the conduct of life, and. that all other things should have piety 
for their end. This you may hear even from our women and 
servants." Jos. Cont. Apion, 2, 20. 

Here is the phenomenon of a people scattered over the world, 
whose principles, customs, and habits of thought are cast into the 
same inflexible mould. There is no explanation of it in any 
existing influences. There is no analogy in the history of any 
other nation. We must look to their origin, and admit that the 
Jewish advocate must be correct when he says : "Our" legislator 
. . . not onl}^ prevailed on his contemporaries to agree to his views, 
but so firmly imprinted this faith in God upon all their posterity, 
that it could never be removed." Cont. Apion, 2, 17. 

We find that the injunctions connected with the original giving 
of the law, provide for exactly this result. The legislator, Deut. 
vi. (>, savs : "And these words which I command thee this day, 
shall be in thine heart. And tiiou shalt teach them diligently 
unto thy children, and shalt talk of tliem when thou sitte-t in 
thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou 
liest down, and when thiu rise-;t up. And thou shalt bind them 
for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets l)etween 
thine eyes. And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy 
house, and upon thy gates." 



OR, REVELATIOX AND CRITICISM. 59 

Tlie Institutions of Education. 

•Furthermore, a whole tribe was officially consecrated to the 
work of education. It was said of this tribe, Deut. xviii. 2 : 
"They shall have no inheritance among their brethren, the Lord 
is tlieir inheritance." "And of Levi, ho said, . . . they shall 
teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law." Deut. xxxiii. 8. 
"The priest's lips should keep knowledge, and they should ask 
the law at his mouth, for he is the messenger of the Lord of 
hosts." Mai. ii. 7. The family of Aaron was set apart "to teach 
the children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath spoken 
unto them by the hand of Moses." Lev. x. 11. In the great 
reformation under Josiah, it w^as the Levites who Avere sent 
through the country to teach the law. 2 Chr. xvii. 8. Heze- 
kiah, we find, 2 Chr. xxx. 22, "spake comfortably unto all the 
Levites, that taught the good knowledge of the Lord." 

It Avas appointed that the Levites should be distributed among 
all the tribes, and domiciled in forty-eight cities. Thus the official 
teachers were brought into the neighborhood of every community. 
No part of the country was left unprovided with instruction in 
the laAV. Nor was there any room for the introduction of any 
other teaching except through apostasy, whicli, according to the 
law, was to be punished with death. Deut. xiii. 

It might happen that there were some among the poor who felt 
unable to attend regularly the national feasts at -Jerusalem. But 
that could not hinder the Sabbath and its services, and the Sab- 
batical year, from coming to them. And if there was no obstacle 
to a constant observance of the laws of Moses, when the Jews 
were scattered all over the o;lobe, there could be no serious difii- 
culty in the way when all the tribes were living together in a 
territory not as large as the State of South Carolina. 

Their system of education Avas a part of the national constitu- 
tion and history. And this is the explanation of the indelible 
impress made by the Mosaic institutions. Hence, Josephus vindi- 
cates Jewish customs by this fact, in his discourse against Apion, 
2, 17. As he says : "Moses did not ordain religion to be a part 
of virtue, but he saw and ordained other virtues to be a part of 
religion. . . . There are two ways of arriving at learning and 



60 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

moral conduct, by verbal instruction and by practice. . . . These 
he joined together. He left not practice to go Avithout instruc- 
tion nor hearing the law -without exercise in it ; but beginning at 
earliest infancy, and the a])pointnient of every one's diet, he left 
notliing of the smallest conse(juence to be done at the pleasure 
and disposal of the person himself lie made a law what sort of 
food they should abstain from ; what intercourse they should 
have with others, their labor and rest ; that by living under the 
law as under a father or master, we should not be guiltv volun- 
tarily or by ignorance. He did not suffer the guilt of ignorance 
to go unpunished, but showed the law to be the most necessary of 
all instruction, permitting the people to cease from their employ- 
ments, to assemble for hearing tlie law and learning it with pre- 
cision ; and tliis not once nor twice nor oftener, but every week." 

This system of training continued through successive genera- 
tions, must have produced its effect. It accounts for the uni- 
formity and persistency of tiie religious worship of the Jews. 
Nothing less can account for it. And it qualified them to assert 
the Mosaic authority of their institutions. This was practically 
illustrated when, after the reading of the law by Ezra, Neli. ix., 
the people attested and endorsed it as the law of Moses. 

The correctness of the record was thus maintained by the 
checks and balances which grow out of a wide diffusion of intel- 
ligence, and was guaranteed by the official functions of the tribe 
of Levi. 

The Literary Tribe. 

The documents were deposited in the side of the ark, which 
was under their care. It would be no less true of them — as 
Josephus observes — than of the Babylonian and Egyptian priests, 
that as a matter of course they should be entrusted with the care 
of the sacred records and the public registers. No other class 
was so fit ; nor was there any place so appropriate as the temple 
for a public library. And if, in the course of centuries, the 
ancient records should come to require explanation, this was the 
class whose ])rerogative and official duty it would l»e to note such 
explanations on the margin of the record. 

This was a tribe of professional scholars. They furnished the 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 61 

literary officials for the State. David appointed six thousand of 
them as officers and judges. 1 Chron. xxiii. 4. Under Solo- 
mon, Josiah, and Hezekiah, tliey appear under the name of 
scribes, and are found in positions of the highest rank. They 
are finally better known by their official title than by their tribal 
name, and bear the name of scribes, instead of the name of 
Levites. It was their special business to give the official imprima- 
tur to copies of the law, and to reproduce copies from the 
official copies. The Talmud says, they were called soferim, from 
the woi'd sajjhar, "to count," because it was their duty to count 
the words of the law. In the New Testament times the scribes 
were the acknowledged teachers of the law. "A sojjher must be 
in every synagogue, to read and expound the law." Wise, see 
Heb. Com., p. 34. Thus professionally and historically identi- 
fied with the law, they Avere as a class responsible for its accuracy. 
And thus from the time it was given, thev constituted the stronof- 
est possible barrier against innovation or change. 

The second Hebrew Commonwealth is an historic monument of 
the authenticity of the Old Testament, indorsing it by the national 
life and institutions, and by the universal faith and Avorship. It 
is a chapter of history almost forgotten. Shut out from the sacred 
record and from the Avorld's proud story, it is seemingly rejected 
of both. Yet this is the indispensable link Avhich joins them in 
living unity. And so, like the stone Avhich the builders rejected, 
it has become a head stone of the corner. 

III. AN AUTHENTICATED CANON: THE SUPREME COURT OF THE 

THEOCRACY. 

To this evidence, which seems to be entirely conclusive, Ave 
may add that which is afforded by the JeAvish courts of laAv. 

The Mosaic constitutions made all needful provisions for carry- 
ing the laAv into effect. "Judges and officers shalt thou make in 
all thy gates." Deut. xvi. 18. The elders, or heads of families in 
each community, Avere to constitute a local court. Deut. xix. 11. 

For litigated cases, and such as involved the most important 
interests, there Avas to be a high court of appeal, Avhose decision 
was final. Deut. xvii. 8. 



62 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

There can be no doubt that it was such a court that Jehosha- 
phat intended to organise ■when he established the supreme court, 
described in the nineteenth chapter of the Second Book of Chron- 
icles : 

"In Jerusalem did Jolioshaphat set of the Levites and of the 
priests, and of the fathers of the people, for the judgment of the 
Lord and for controversies. . . . And he charged them, saying. Thus 
shall ye do in the fear of the Lord, and with a perfect heart. 
And what cause soever shall come to you of your brethren that 
(hvt'll in their cities, between blood and blood, between law and 
commandment, statutes and judgment ; ye shall even warn them 
that they trespass not against the Lord, and so wrath come upon 
you, and upon your brethren. . . . And, behold, Amariah the 
chief priest is over you in all matters of the Lord, and Zebadiah 
the son of Ishmael, the ruler of the house of Judah, for all the 
king's matters; also the Levites shall be officers before you." 

The number of members composing this court is not stated, 
neither is any distinctive title assigned it. It is designated sim- 
ply by the classes of which it was composed, the priests, Levites, 
and elders of the people. Its organisation Avas simple but effec- 
tive. It was such a court as might be easily constructed, easily 
assembled, easily perpetuated, and easily reorganised, if at any 
time it should be disbanded. Being founded in the constitution of 
the theocracy, and composed of representatives of the three great 
classes of the nation, it must always command public respect and 
confidence, and be a natural recourse and a supreme judicial 
authority. 

Just such a high court Ave find in New Testament times, simi- 
larly organised and constituted, with its civil and ecclesiastical 
president; its membership of priests, elders, and Levites or 
scribes, with Levites or scril)es for its officers, and designated by 
the classes of its membership. "Wherever the New Testament 
mentions the priests, the elders, and the scribes together," says 
Emanuel Deutsch, "it means the great Saidiedrim. This con- 
stituted the highest ecclesiastic and civil tribunal. It consisted 
of seventy-one members, chosen from the foremost priests, the 
heads of families and tribes, and the learned, that is, the scribes 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 63 

or lawyers." These classes are so associated in Matt. xvi. 21; 
xxvi. 3; Mark viii. 31; xi. 27; xiv. 43; xiv. 53; xv. 1; Acts 
iv. 5; vi. 12; etc. 

That the Sanhedrim, as found in New Testament times, Avas 
recognised as a supreme constitutional court is clear from its 
composition, its organisation, its powers, its descriptive title; 
from the fact that it appealed for authority to Deut. xvii. 9, and 
from the fact that the Targums give the same name to the courts 
of the ancient State, as in Isa. xxviii. 6 ; Ruth iii. 1, and iv. 1 ; 
Ps. cxl. 10; and Eccles. xii. 12. 

The Chaldee paraphrase on the Song of Songs asserts that the 
Sanhedrim existed during the Babjdonian captivity. This was 
the opinion of Selden, of Leusden, of Grotius, and Reland. San- 
lied.. in Kitto. It would be impossible to account for the unani- 
mous and elevated sentiment among the Jews at their return, 
without supposing some high and controlling judicial authority 
to have been among them during the times preceding. We have 
no precise nor positive evidence, however, on this point. But it 
is a striking fact, that as soon as the record resumes their his- 
tory, Ave meet in the designation of the governing authority 
among them the precise phraseology Avhich, both in the Old Tes- 
tament and the New, is used to characterise their supreme court. 

Ezra tells us, i. 5, that the chief of the fathers, the priests, and 
the Levites, initiate the return. It was the ancient men of '-the 
priests, Levites, and fathers," whose Aveeping Avas so significant 
Avhen they compared the second temple Avith the glory of the first. 
Ezra iii. 12. When Ezra despatched his costly contribution, 
viii. 29, he directed the messengers to report to "the chief of 
the priests, and the Levites, and the fathers of Israel, at Jeru- 
salem." And the plan to secure a better observance of the Law, 
was the result of a conference betAveen Ezra and "the chief of 
the fathers of all the people, the priests, and the Levites." Neh. 
viii. 13. The building of the temple and the city AA^alls plainly 
required the supervision of some constituted authority ; Avho it 
Avas is not stated in direct terms. But Ave find that the Mishna 
claims that it Avas the exclusive prerogative of the Sanhedrim to 
authorise additions to the temple, or to the Avails of the city. 
Hilc. Sanh., i. 5. 



64 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

The edict of Darius 'vvas in these words: "Let the governor 
of the Jews, and the ehlers of the Jews, build this house of God 
on its phice." Ezra vi. 7. Now, according to 2 Chroii. xix. 8, 
the governor of the Jews, Zerubabel, prince of the house of Ju- 
dah, was entitled to be the secular President of the Sanheilriui. 
And in verse 14 the elders who were associated with him in the 
decree, are represented as having themselves the control of the 
work. A comparison of the two passages plainly suggests that 
he was the official head of an organised body. 

The Civil Government. 

During the second commonwealth, their several masters, Per- 
sians, Greeks, Egyptians, Syrians, and Romans, allowed the 
Jews to govern themselves according to their own usages. The 
only attempt against their religious liberties was made by Antio- 
chus Epiphanes, which resulted in the political independence of 
the Jews, after a war of twenty-five years. 

Their government was a revival of the Theocracy, in a form 
stricter than ever known among them before. And it may be 
safely assumed that a people so tenacious of the minutest details 
of their laws, would not be satisfied with a mode of administering 
their laws which was not based on the best established and uni- 
versally accepted Mosaic authority. The form of government, 
says their historian Josephus, Anti(|., xi. 4, 8, "was aristocratic, 
but mixed with an oligarchy; for the high priests were at the 
head of their affairs, until the posterity of the Asmoneans set up 
kingly government." From this, it appears that the high jiriest 
was the head of an olijiarchv, and the chief executive of the state. 
On many occasions we find him occupying the foremost position 
in their political intercourse with other nations. This explains 
why it was that their heathen rulers claimed the right to appoint 
the high priest. It was because he was also the representative 
of the state. And we find that Jonathan the Maccabee actually 
accepted the appointment to the high priesthood from Alexander, 
King of Syria. Jos. Anti({., x. 2, 2. 

Josephus gives copies of a number of Roman decrees which 
recognise the high priest as Ethnarch of the Jcavs. Anti(j., xiv. 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 65 

10. And we find that as soon as the Maccabees had won the 
national independence, the people elected them to the high priest- 
hood, and from that time they exercised the function of civil 
rulers, and transmitted the high priesthood as an inheritance 
along with the royal dignity. The attempt to separate the two 
offices, and divide them between the sons of Alexander Jann<v?us, 
paved the way for the usurpation of Herod and the extinction of 
the Asmonean race. 

But if Josephus does not clearly designate the oligarchy which 
Avas associated with the high priest in the government, it is else- 
where referred to with sufficient plainness. He says, Antiq., xii. 
3, 12, that Antiochus the Great was received by "the Senate of 
the Jews," and that he granted them that they should be "gov- 
erned by their own laws." He also reports a friendly letter, ad- 
dressed to the Lacedaemonians by Jonathan the Maccabee "and 
the Senate." From such casual references it appears that the 
oligarchy associated with the high priest was a national assembly 
regularly constituted and organised. 

An incident in the life of Herod, afterwards king, throws some 
light on the authority and power of this body. In his triumph- 
ant career as general in Galilee, Herod, on his own responsibility, 
executed a certain robber chief. The Sanhedrim at once decided 
that this was an infringement of its authority, denying the right 
even of a general in the field to inflict capital punishment with- 
out its authority. Hyrcanus II., at that time high priest and 
king, very reluctantly yielded to the demand of the Sanhedrim 
to summon Herod for trial. The Roman authorities became 
alarmed for Herod, and urged Hyrcanus to save him. With the 
influence of the king and the Roman government on his side, 
Herod escaped with his life. But he thought it necessary to his 
safety to leave the country until the danger should blow over. 
The incident shows how great and how firmly rooted was the 
power of the Sanhedrim, or Senate, among the Jewish people. 

In the theocratic sense, the kingship could scarcely be said to 

exist. Royalty was simply a function of the high priesthood. 

The Sanhedrim was the great representative assembly, composed 

of priests, Levites, and Israelites. Sanh. iv. 2. Its jurisdiction 

5 



66 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX IIISTOHY; 

extended over all civil and ecclesiastical affairs. This was the 
oligarchy over Avhicli the high priest presided. According to 
Josephus, he presided at the trial of Herod. Ant. xiv. 9, 4. 
And also at the trial of the Apostle James. Ant. xx. 9, 1. He 
also presides in all those cases which are reported in the New 
Testament, as cases of trial before the Sanhedrim. 

The powers of this body are enumerated in the Mishna. Sanh. 
i. 5. It may pass sentence on a tribe, or excommunicate a city ; 
it can judge the high priest himself; it can declare war, or in- 
vestigate the charge of blasphemy ; or authorise to enlarge the 
Avails of the city, or the porch of the temple; and the Sanhedrim 
must deciile as to a false prophet. The king cannot go to war 
but under the authority of the Sanhedrim. And even the func- 
tions of tlie high priest on the great day of Atonement were 
under their supervision. 

Such a body would be an effectual check on despotic govern- 
ment. It was thoroughly crippled by Herod, who massacred its 
principal members before he felt secure in his usurped authority. 

The Siinhedrim. 

The word Sanhedrim being Greek, many hold tliat the institu- 
tion itself is modern, dating from the Greek domination, which 
began aliout three centuries before our era. It is a sufficient 
answer, that among a people so tenacious of their institutions as 
the Jews, it would not have been possible for such a body to arise 
suddenly in the history, and at once secure control of all civil 
and ecclesiastical power, without leaving some trace of conflict 
Avith previously existing authority. But as far back as it can be 
traced, the supremacy of this body is undisputed. 

After the overthrow of the Persians by Alexander, it l)ecame 
necessary for the Jews to hold official intercourse Avith nations 
Avho used Greek as the court language. At that time tlie (Jreek 
became the ])olite language of the world, and jjrevailed in Pales- 
tine and througliout the East. In their new relations, a Greek 
term Avas most naturally chosen to designate "the highest judi- 
ciary and legislative body in the HebrcAv commonAvealth." Wise, 
p. ')9. And no term could be more appropriate for a body AN'hose 



OR, REVELATIOX AND CRITICISM. 67 

functions were so comprehensive. Polybius uses it as tlie ecjui- 
Y.alent of the Latin ■word Senatus. It is the equivalent of our 
Englisli word "a council." The translators of King James' Ver- 
sion and the i-evisers of the New Testament so translate it. In 
every instance in which the word Sanhedrim occurs in the orig- 
inal, they translate it by the word Council, which is more than 
a dozen times. There is nothing, then, in the word itself which 
necessarily indicates modern ideas. If it were required to repre- 
sent the most ancient institution of this kind to foreign ideas, 
this is just the most suitable title that could be employed. 

But in different circumstances and at different periods, this 
body had ])een known by vei-y diff"erent names. After the fall 
of Jerusalem, it resumed its more ancient title, and was called 
the Beth-Din, or House of Judgment. Griitz, iv. 4. In the 
New Testament times it had been styled the Gerousia. Acts v. 
21. And also "the Presbytery of the people." Luke xxii. 66. 
In the time of the Maccabees it had been known as the Beth-Din 
of the Asmoneans ; and before their time it was the Beth-Din of 
the high priests. Wise, pp. 59, 111. 

In addition to these titles, more or less special, we find one in 
common use among the people directly associating it with Old 
Testament times. We have given instances of the parallel desig- 
nations in the Old and New Testament by the enumeration of the 
classes of its membership — Priests, Levites, and elders, or Israel- 
ites, which is also the form used in the Mishna. There is also 
another form strikingly peculiar. The Old Testament frequently 
refers to a*constituted authority, styled the Zekenim or Elders. 
Ezek. viii. 11. "The elders of the house of Israel." Lam. ii. 
10. "The elders of Zion." Joel i. 14, and ii. 20. "Gather, 
assemble the elders." Ezra v. 5. "The eye of God was upon 
the elders." Ezra vi. 8. "The elders of the Jews." Ezra vi. 
14, "The elders of the Jews builded and prospered." Ezra x. 
8. "The council of the princes and elders." W^e find this very 
term in common use among the people in New Testament times 
to designate the Sanhedrim. And as the Jews were entirely and 
jealously attached to Old Testament ideas, we cannot avoid the 
conclusion that public sentiment identified the Sanhedrim with 



68 THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; 

the Zekenim of the sacred records. Here, then, we have an oli- 
garchy, which, with the high priest as its president, naturally 
constituted the government of the state. It was composed of 
the chief men of the three classes of the nation; it held its ses- 
sions in the temple; it exercised control of all civil and ecclesias- 
tical affairs; it founded its authority on the Mosaic constitutions; 
it was constituted and organised in the same way as the supreme 
court of Jehoshaphat, which, from its first appearance in history, 
is clothed with the highest authority, and which has existed from 
time immemorial. The constitutional position and legal author- 
ity of the Sanhedrim is attested by our Lord himself when he 
says, Matt, xxiii. 2, "The scribes and Pharisees sit in the seat 
of Moses, whatever therefore they bid you to observe, that ob- 
serve and do." 

The Mishna. 

This celebrated tribunal has left us a large collection of ancient 
usages, ceremonial directions, and statutory enactments. Some 
of them may have come down from Mosaic times, others are as 
recent as the second century of our era. They have been classi- 
fied and recorded in the Mishna, which comprises a system of 
directions for the minutest details of civil and ecclesiastical life. 
For a long time these regulations were transmitted by memory 
or kept as private memoranda, and they compose what is called 
the Oral Law. The mass became so great that several attempts 
were made to compile them. The work was begun by llillel 
about 30 B. C, and comj)leted by Kabbi Kakkadosh. about the 
close of the second century. And though prepared simply for 
private use, to aid him in his lectures to the School of Tiberias, 
they have ever since been accepted as standard authority. ^ 

'The Talmud is the einbodiiiiciu of the civil and canoniciil hiw of the 
Jew.s, The word means Learnin;;, or Instruction. It is eoniposcd of 
the Mishna, or Repetition, and Gemara, or Supplement. The precepts 
of the Mishud form the Jfalachofh, or Rules. The Gcinara is the Ilagga- 
da, or Comment. 

There are two Tahnuds — the Taliinid of Ra)>vIon and the Talmud of 
Jerusalem. In these the (Jemara is different, hut the .Mishna is the same. 

Tlie MisiiNA, or the Okai, Law, is believed by the Jews to have been 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 69 

It is very interesting and important to know what relation the 
Halakas, or rules of the Mishna, sustain to the Mosaic legislation. 

AccorJinfi to Dr, Wise, " The Sanhedrim, under Hvrcanus II., 
adopted a special provision that the oral law should not he writ- 
ten in hooks, in order that it might not he supposed' to assume 
equal authority with the laws of Moses." Wise, Heb. Coram., 
p. 168. 

Maimonides, on San. x. 2, describes the way in which the 
Sanhedrim legislated on cases which came before them on appeal: 
"If they had received nothing on the question by tradition, they 
discussed the rights of the matter according to the most certain 
conclusions drawn from the law, till all, or the majority, were 
agreed ; and a dissenter was regarded as a rebel elder, for God 
said, Deut. xvii. 11, 'According to the sentence of the Law 
which they shall teach thee.' " What the elders gathered from the 
true conclusions of the law, and applied to such a case, was en- 
joined by God — as the law says, "Thou shalt do it. " 

It is plainly implied in this account that the Mishnic sustained 
to the Mosaic law merely the relation of statute law to the con- 
stitution. It was the authoritative interpretation and application 
of constitutional principles. Instead of being a rival system of 
law. it merely claimed to be the legitimate and efficient agent for 
construino; and enforcing constitutional authoritv. 

Among the many maxims which the Sanhedrim claimed to 
have received from the fothers, there Avas none more highly vener- 
ated than the injunction to "make a hedge about the Law." 
Pirke Aboth, i. 1. It implied a profound sense of the sacred- 
ness of the law, to suppose that it deserved this special protec- 
tion. We have only to glance at the character of the Mishnic 
legislation to see what they meant by this injunction, and how 

transmitted by tradition from Moses. Maimonides classifies its contents 
as follows : 

1. Interpretations received from Moses, which are indicated by the 
text of Scripture or inferred from it. 

2. Decisions called "' The Constitutions of Sinai." 

3. Decisions sanctioned by a majority of the Sanliedrim. 

4. Decisions intended to be a Hedfre to the Law. 

5. Laws of prescription in ordinary affairs. 



70 TUE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

earnestly they set themselves to carry it out. They construed 
tlie maxim to mean — Surenhusius in loco — that it was necessary 
to enact a class of restrictions which would prevent the actual 
infringement of the law, by advancing specific obligation a step 
beyoiui the actual requirement of the legal precept, thus inter- 
posing a barrier, so to speak, to defend or protect the precept 
from violation. ' The ingenuity with which this jainciple is ap- 
plied to every conceivable form of ritual or ccrouionial obligation, 
is not only marvellous but multitudinous. Every page of the 
Mishna is an elaborate illustration of it. It is done con.stantly, 
and systematically, at the risk of ignoring the spirit of the law, 
and of absorbing attention with formal and often frivolous cere- 
monial. But it is to be noted that every such act of legislation, 
as Avell as the whole system, is a most emphatic testimony to the 
divine authority of the constitution. It is homage, even though 
\t he abject homn^e. And so — to use the language of a distin- 
guished authority — "The Pentateuch remained, under all cir- 
cumstances, the divinely given constitution, the written Law." 
Deutsch. 

This national parliament, the l^anliedriin, founlcd on the Law; 
this supreme court, for ages interju-eting it ; this historic legis- 
lature, applying its principles to the varying necessities of the 
people, presents in its threefold capacity of priests, Levites, and 
chiefs of the people, a judicial testimony to the Pentateuch as an 
inspired constitution. And its testimony is as valid and as con- 
clusive as the testimony of the British Parliament to the consti- 
tution of England, or the testimony of the American Congress to 
the Constitution of the L^nited States. 

The Sanheilrim at Jerusalem was the supreme ecclesiastical 
authority for the Jews all over the world. From the facts cited, 
it will be ajiparent that no Scripture of any s(U't could obtain 
recognition as part of the sacred record, without its endorsement. 

'For instance, the Law says, Thou shult not labor on the Sabbath. 
TIio Mi.shna .sa^'s, It is not lawful for a man to pare his nail.s, nor for a 
woman to plait \wr hair; it is not lawTiil to pnt out a confl:i;;ration ; and 
it is not hiwful for a tailor to carry his needle with him a little before 
dusk on the Salibath, for fear ho mii^ht fori;(!t, antl carry it after the iS.ib- 
bath has be^un, and so be guilty of something akin to labor. 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 71 

It was the custodian of the hxw, and bound to repudiate and 
denounce everything churning to be. inspired which did not pro- 
ceed fVoni the same divine authority. But it was at the same time 
just as truly bound to secure a phice among the sacred records for 
every Scripture entitled to such a place. This follows from their 
official relations to the inspired law. Hence, from the necessity 
of the c;ise, they were a court of adjudication of (piestions per- 
taining to the canonicity of the different books of Scripture which 
came under discussion, and were responsible for the whole canon 
of the Old Testament. 

It Avas the general opinion among the Jews, sanctioned by an 
extensive tradition, that the canon of the Old Testament Avas 
closed by the great synagogue — Ketieseth Ilafigedliola. Tradition 
claims that the body of rulers described in Nehemiah, chap, viii., 
constituted at that time the permr.nent governing body of the 
state. It is said to have consisted of forty-four rulers or 
sarini, forty-four proxies or seganim, twenty-two priests and 
eight Levites. There Avere seventy permanent members. It met 
in the temple, and its presiding officer Avas the high priest or 
governor. This Avas a supreme judiciary and legislature. The 
functions of such a body at that time must have been very impor- 
tant. It Avas necessary to reestablish the state, and to authenti- 
cate the canon of Scripture for the JeAvs throughout the Avorld. 
Both objects Avere imperatively necessary, and Ave see no reason 
to doubt the general belief that they undertook and accomplislied 
them. It is commonly held that this body Avas afterAvards merged 
into the Great Sanhedrim, Avhich appears in the history under 
the Greek domination. But it will be seen that the difference 
between the tAvo bodies AA'as merely in name. Wise, Heb. Com., 
p. 11, 24. 

The description of the great Synagogue, its organisation, 
membership, and poAvers, is substantially a description of the 
great Sanhedrim. The Greek title, "Sanhedrim," could not 
have found a place in the Jewish vocabulary till the time Avhen 
the tAvo are said to have been merged. But the collective title of 
the great Synagogue, priests, Levites, and chiefs of the people 
or elders, as Ave find it in Nehemiah, is as Ave have seen, precisely 



72 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

the designation of the great Sanhedrim in New Testament times. 
From the identity of name,X)f organisation, and of constitution 
and powers, we feel warranted in regarding the great Synagogue 
and the great Sanhedrim as being merely the same high court 
under different names. 

But we must always bear in mind that though it pertained to 
the Sanhedrim to close the canon, it did not originate it, nor the 
rule by which it was completed. An insj)ired canon was an exist- 
ing fact even before the nation itself existed. Under the direct 
tion of the Holy Spirit, the Pentateuch, the Constitution of the 
Theocracy, was deposited in the side of the ark before they 
entered the promised land. And this was the standard to which 
every subsequent Scripture must conform. 

"The Pentateuch, in its present form, constituted the founda- 
tion of the Israclitish history, whether civil, religious, moral, 
ceremonial, or even literary." Kurtz, 0. Gov't, 3, 500. 

The Pentateuch plainly designates the criteria by which 
prophets or their writings were to be tested. In his preface to 
tlie Mishna, Maimonides enumerates them, and asserts that their 
force was binding. And thus the unity of Scripture was secured 
by the original canon itself. 

The Mishna emphatically asserts the superiority of the law 
over all other Scriptures. Megillah, 3, 1. 

The Babylonian Gemara enumerates the books which the San- 
hedrim held to be canonical, and the list corresponds with that 
given by Josephus, which was recognised by the Jews every- 
where as authoritative, and continues to be till now. Baba Bathra, 
fol. 13, 2; 15, 2. 

Towards the close of the first century of our era, an incident 
occurred wliicli illustrates its relations to the canon. The school 
of Siiaminai having secured a temporary majoi"ity in the body, 
called in question the canonicity of Ecclesiastes and the Can- 
ticles. After a very earnest discussion, all their influence was 
insufficient to secure the rejection of these books from the 
canon. Gnitz, 4, 25. But no one denie<l the right of the San- 
hedrim to deliberate on such a (juestion. And the result of the 
discussion also shows that the canon had already been definitively 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 73 

closed, and that it had been closed before their time, that is, by 
the Sanhedrim, before the beginning of the Christian era. 

It was thus closed under the authority of the liighest tribunal 
provided in the Mosaic constitutions. 

Here we find a sufficient explanation of an otherwise mysterious 
fact, the universality and constant loyalty of Jewish testimony. 

"We have not an innumerable multitude of books among us 
as the Greeks have, disagreeing with and contradicting each 
other ; but only twenty-two books, ^ which contain the records of 
all the past times, and which are justly believed to be divine. 
Five of them belong to Moses, and contain his laws and the tra- 
ditions of the origin of mankind, till his death. . . . The prophets 
who were after Moses Avrote down Avhat was done in their times, 
in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to 
God, and precepts for the conduct of life. It is true that our 
history has been written very particularly since Artaxerxes, but 
it has not been esteemed of the like authority of the former by 
our forefathers, because there has not been an exact succession of 
prophets since that time. And how firmly we give credit to our 
national books, is evident from what we do ; for during so many 
ages as have passed already, no one has been so bold as either to 
add anything to them, or take anything from them, or to make 
any change in them ; but it becomes natural to all Jews immedi- 
ately, and from their very birth, to esteem those books to contain 
divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be, will- 
ingly to die for them." Contr. Apion, 1, 8. 

With testimony of this kind, the assertions of the biblical 
critics must be compared. For instance, that "the Pentateuch, 
as a whole, cannot have been written by Moses ; and with respect 
to som§, at least, of the chief portions of the story, cannot be 
regarded as historically true." Colenso on Pent., 1, 13. 

"In its present form, it was Avritten after the times of Joshua," 
and could not have been completed till the times of Ezra ; and 
"if we are shut up to choose between a Mosaic authorship of the 

^ In counting twenty-two instead of twenty-four books, .Josephus pro- 
bably counts Ruth as a part of the Book of Judges, and Lamentations as 
part of Jeremiah, as many of the early Christian writers did. 



74 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

whole five books and the sceptical opinion that the Pentateuch is 
a mere forgery, the sceptics must gain their case." W. Robert- 
son Smith's Lects., p. 307. 

We simply confront such guess-work with the solid mass of 
evidence before us, and think it needless to offer any assistance to 
any unbiassed mind in reaching a satisfactory conclusion. 

The critics assert that the worship of the second temple was 
more elaborate than that of the first. This is confuted by the 
fac' that the same sacred utensils wore employed in both. Cyrus 
returned the enormous number of five thousand four hundred 
that had belonged to the first temple. Ezra i. 

It is further confuted by the fact that, even if Ezra contributed 
towards the strictness of the worship of the second temple, he 
couhl have had nothing to do with inaugurating that worship. 
According to his own account, he docs not appear in Jerusalem 
until the seventh year of Artaxerxes, B. C. 458. Ezra also 
informs us that the temple had been dedicated in the. sixth year 
of Darius, B. C. 515. The critics impose a severe tax on our 
imagination when they re(iuire us to conceive of Ezra inaugur- 
ating the worship of the second temple, when he himself informs 
us that it was done nearly sixty years before he came to Jerusa- 
lem, and perhaps before he was born. Ez. vi. 15 ; vii. 1-6. 

Ezra also expressly tells us that the worsliip of the second 
temple was reestablished "according as it is written in the Book 
of Moses." Ez. vi. 10. 

According to the Jewish law, the ])rophet wlio undertook such 
a work as is imputed to Ezra, would have signed his own (U'ath 
warrant. To add to the law, or to take from it, in the smallest 
particular, was a capital crime. Moreover, such a crime would 
require the connivance of all the classes of the nation, and all 
the members of each class. It would imply a conspiracy of 
the whole people. But a forgery which would involve sucii a 
variety of interests and so many conspirators, could not have met 
with universal ap])roval. Either in that or in some following gen- 
eration some voice must have been raised in ])rotest. It would be 
a greater wonder than that they wish to explain away, if a con- 
spiracy of such magnitude and extent could have occurred and 
left no trace in history. 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 75 

The idea that the Jews deliberately corrupted their sacred 
records is a mere conjecture, ami a most unnatural one. We have 
no reason to think that such a thing was ever done by any people. 
We might fancy that among Gentile nations national interest or 
vnnitv could su<j!;<rest fbrirerv of this kind. But national interests 
and pride formed the strongest reasons with the Jews for keeping 
the record pure. Their hopes lay in the future. Their glory 
Avas enshrined in the predicted times when the coming Messiah 
"was to crown their fidelity and reward their faith with greater 
blessings than their fithers had enjoyed. From their point of 
view, the burden of Scripture was simply the fulfilment of the 
national ambition. The strongest motives that can operate on 
the mind and heart, led them to venerate every letter of their 
record as a precious thing. To corrupt that record would have 
been dreaded as an occasion of divine wrath, an act of blind folly, 
a perversion of their religious faith, and a sacrifice of the charter 
of their national hopes. Hence their record has been cherished 
by all classes with a peculiar and unexampled devotion. They have 
pressed round "the records of their faith and history with a fierce 
and passionate love, even stronger than that of wife or child. 
And as they were gradually formed into the canon, they became 
the immutable centre of their lives, their actions, their thoughts, 
their very dreams." Deutsch, Talmud. 

The world owes them the justice to admit the greatness of their 
trust and the fidelity Avith which it was discharged. Kitto, 
Masora. The canon of the Old Testament which they have trans- 
mitted to mankind, stands confirmed by every kind of evidence 
which such a record requires. It is connrme 1 by all the evidence 
which the nature of the subject would admit. 

IV. THE MYSTERY OF THE AGES SOLVED BY THE FULFILMENT OF 
THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

The Gentile Crisis. 

AYith the begcinnino; of the Christian era ancient history closes. 
New forces were introduced into the world's life, which were to 
revolutionise its civilisation and mould societv into other forms. 



76 THE OLD TESTAMENT IN HISTORY; 

Under the impulse of those mighty forces a new chapter of his- 
tory begins, and it moves forward upon a higher phine. And 
after the lapse of eighteen centuries, those forces, with increasing 
energy, continue to bear humanity on, and to declare to mankind 
the path of destiny. 

It was confessed that the relisrions of heathenism ha<l failed to 
solve the problems of life. On the contrary, they made man's 
condition desperate. They overwhelmed him witii superstition, 
corrupted society, and destroyed the foundations of personal 
virtue. 

Nothing more significantly illustrates their failure than the 
effort of the great systems of Greek philosophy to find some real 
ground for virtue. It was with questions pertaining to the very 
essence of religion, that philosophy first occupied itself. "Thales," 
says tradition, "first taught that the soul is immortal." Their 
maxims were mostly ethical, as the fragments of the writings of 
the early philosophers show. They sought a true theory of life 
and duty. When philosophy was more developed, the chief 
inquiry was. What is the chief end of man, the chief good, and 
how is it to be secured ? 

It was to this end that Socrates recommended the Greeks to 
hearken to the inner voice of conscience ; that Plato exalted the 
conclusions of reason ; that Epicurus recommended to study the 
suggestions of the senses, and Pyrrho to distrust them ; and that 
Aristotle advised to conform all things to the constitution of our 
whole nature. The whole subject of virtue was discussed from 
every point of view which uninspired reason can discover. In this 
manner j)hilosophy aimed to elucidate tiie problems which religion 
had failed to solve. It at first seemed that philosophy might 
cooperate with religion. But the attempt of Socrates to reconcile 
them onl\^ won a martyr's crown. It revealed the fact of a deadly 
antagonism between heathen religion and morality, even in the 
imperfect form which Socrates taught. Next we find Plato boldly 
excludinjj from his ideal state the theologians of heathenism — 
the poets — as a necessity of public virtue. Next, we find a pre- 
vailing sentiment that religion is incompatible with intelligence as 
well as virtue, and only fit to control the superstitious masses. 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 77 

And finally, the principle is arrived at, that the nature of religion 
ig fundamentally different from the nature of virtue. 

It is sometimes taken for granted that this startling conclusion 
implies that society, by a universal apostasy, desired to express 
its renunciation of all that is sacred, and reach by a final plunge 
the lowest depth of degeneracy. But the contrary is more likely 
to have been the case. It Avas an eff'ort, when all moral principle 
was trampled under foot, to save something from the general 
wreck. It was a last protest of men's moral instincts against the 
pollutions of their religion. Scipio declared that the Romans 
considered comedies and theatrical displays (which formed part 
of the worship of the gods) so disgraceful, that they debarred the 
actors from the privileges of citizens; that they branded their 
names by the censor, and struck them from the roll of the 
Tribe. Aug. Civ. Dei, i. 62. The meaning of which is simply 
this: Religion has become the agent of vice; the state must 
legislate in order to protect virtue. Thus the moral instincts 
denounced the immoralities which belonged to their own religious 
worship, and sought to save virtue by separating it from religion. 

The Christian teachers constantly reminded the heathen of the 
lamentable fact, that their spiritual hopes were linked with a 
religion whose practices their moral instincts must despise. 

But those moral instincts unsupported could not maintain the 
struggle. Eventually they Avere overcome as a public factor of 
society. Nor even their splendid civilisation was of any avail to 
save society. "The idea of civilisation is not necessarily associ- 
ated with the idea of virtue. Men of refinement of manners may 
be, and often are, exceedingly corrupt. And what is true of 
individuals is true of communities. The highest civilisations of 
the heathen world were marked by a very low code of morals, 
and by a practice lower than their code." Contemp. Rev., 
Mar., 1881. 

Out of this condition of things arose the despair of heathenism. 
Seneca describes society as a beleaguered city taken by assault. 
"As soon as the signal is given, every restraint of decency and 
honor is abandoned, and each one contributes his utmost to the 
universal ruin." Benef. 7, 27. 



78 THE OLD TESTAMEXT IN HISTORY; 

Tacitus exclaims: "The times have come to such a pass that 
•\ve can neither tolerate our evils nor the remedies." 

Meanwhile a strange rumor hegins to mingle among the super- 
stitions of the times. Suetonius tells us that "A firm persuasion 
had long prevailed through all the East, that it was fated for the 
empire of the world at that time to devolve on some one, who 
should go forth from Judea." Life of Vespasian. 

And thus the heathen world exi)ressed its testimony to the 
need of a Redeemer. 

The Crisis of Judaism. 

At the beginning of the Christian era, the second Hebrew com- 
monwealth also had nearly fulfilled its appointed mission. The 
canon of the Ohl Testament was closed, and tlie official witnesses 
had rehearsed the prophetic story to the world. The sceptre was 
departing from Judah. Its nationality was passing away. It 
was soon to be erased from the list of independent states, and to 
be knoAvn merely as a Roman province. 

The Lawgiver, also, was soon to cease by the perversion of his 
office. The system of interpretation, which put a hedge around 
the law, practically ignored the meaning of the precept by obscur- 
ing or mystifying it. It associated the primary conviction of 
duty with the artificial injunction substituted for the precept. 
Hence the law itself, as a rule, was removed from the sphere of 
practical life, and, to all intents and purposes, "made void by 
their traditions." 

This refined subtlety of interpretation, continually accumulating 
the mass of special precepts, gradually formed an impassable bar- 
rier between the learned and the common peoj)le. The learned 
at length treated their unlearned brethren Avith as great contempt 
as they felt for the heathen themselves; whije the people returned 
a bitter hatred for their scorn and oppression. See Griitz. 

Tlius the common bond of loyalty to law, which once had united 
the people of all classes, was now severed, and was replaced by 
mutual hatred, by faction, and by fratricidal strife. 

The crown of the priesthood had also become tarnished. 

Although under Augustus the internal administration of the 



OR, REVELATIOX AND CRITICISM. 79 

government was left in the hands of the Sanhedrim, there always 
stood by its side the Roman procurator, representing the procon- 
sul of Syria, who was to collect the taxes and Avatch over the peace 
of the province. His legal authority Avas limited. But Roman 
suspicion aftbrded him ample pretexts for assuming the power of 
a dictator. Thirteen of these men bore rule in succession over 
Judea. 

Herod had already established the precedent of making the 
tenure of the high priesthood dependent on his royal pleasure. 
The procurators claimed the same authority, and enriched them- 
selves by it. The procurator conferred the investiture. This 
sacred office Avas put up for sale to the highest bidder, and rival 
candidates shamelessly contended for it AA'ith intrigue and bribery. 
A Avoman purchases it for her lover. . One man sends his son to 
the procurator Avith a large measure filled Avith silver coin; the 
successful candidate sends a similar measure filled with gold. 
Each high priest, knoAving that the tenure of the office will be 
brief, makes the most of his purchase by putting his sons and 
nephcAvs in the lucrative positions in his gift, and by sending his 
officials and bondmen to scour the country, burst open the gran- 
aries, and seize their contents as tithes in the name of the high 
priest. And thus the very name of the high priest Avas made 
odious. It is said that eventually the people came to hold in 
equal execration the Romans, AAdio had robbed them of their liber- 
ties; the house of Herod, Avhich had robbed the nation of its 
honor ; and the high priesthood, Avhich had robbed religion of its 
sanctity. Raphall, 2, 367. 

The dispensation to which the second commonAvealth belonged 
was rapidly disintegrating. And thus Judaism itself Avas indi- 
cating that the old system of things Avas passing aAvay, and that 
the time Avas at hand Avhen a ncAv dispensation Avas to take its 
place. 

Thus, both for Jcav and Gentile, "the fulness of time" had 
come. The capacity of their respective civilisations had been 
exhausted. It had been announced to the Joavs that their Mes- 
siah Avould also be a light to the Gentiles, and that in his day the 
Spirit Avould be poured out on all mankind. The histories of 



80 THE OLD TESTAMENT IX HISTORY; 

Jew and Gentile had thus been moving on converging lines; they 
were appointed to meet and blend together in "the desired of 
all nations," and to flow on thenceforth in a common channel. 
Among the Jews it was deeply felt that the time was at hand. 
The New Testament history refers to several fjilse messiahs who 
easily induced multitudes to follow them (Acts v.). Jo.sej)hus 
informs us that many impostors deceived the people with impunity. 
The facility with which the people were led astray by impostors 
shows the strength of the popular conviction that the days of the 
Messiah were near. 

Such expectations had long been growing in certainty and 
strength. And we trace them to their sacred records. Tiie Scrip- 
tures are full of the Messiah. He is the burden of prophecy. 
The minuteness of detail in prophecy respecting him is marvel- 
lous. But the Messianic element of the Old Testament comprises 
much more than these special predictions. It constitutes the 
nervous system, so to speak, of the Old Testament religion. This 
is set forth in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It wsus the soul of 
their ritual; it was the light of the Psalms; it gave point and 
energy to doctrine, and controls the history from Genesis to 
Malachi. Liddon's Sec. Bampt. Lecture. 

For the coming of the Messiah all history had been preparing. 
In him it was to find its solution. The hand of Providence had 
been gradually building all the ages of history into one grand 
pedestal, whose suminit was to be crowned with the Chief of 
empire, the Masterpiece of God: him of whom the whole family 
in heaven on earth is named — Jesus, the Messiah, "the bright- 
ness of his glory, and the express image of his person." To Jesus 
Christ and his cause tiie world contributed nothing except a pedes- 
tal, enhancing the splendor of his glory by the contrast with its 
own misery. It has received all things of his fulness. And in him 
it found rest. Every utterance of this adorable jiersonage must 
be intensely significant. There can be no appeal to any higher 
authority. From his lips language falls freighted with a deeper 
burden of meaning than ever it bore before. His official title is 
•'The Word of God." And it is but what we should expect when 
he says of himself, "I am the light of the world"; "I am the 
truth." 



OR, REVELATION AND CRITICISM. 81 

In declaring himself to be the truth, the Messiah identifies him- 
self with the Old Testament. He is the truth, not by originating 
any new system, but by conforming exactly to what had been 
already revealed. "I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil" 
(Matt. V. 17). He endorses, by using it, the classification of the 
Scriptures adopted by the Sanhedrim, " The Law and the Pro- 
phets," or, "The Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms." He de- 
clares that "Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall 
in no wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled" (Matt. v. 18). 
He declares that Moses was the giver of the law (John v. 10): 
" Moses gave you the law " ; Matt. x. 8 : " Moses commanded " ; 
Matt. xii. 9: "Moses wrote"; Luke xvi. 29: "Ye have ]NLjses 
and the prophets." 

Twelve times he refers to Moses by name; in fourteen places 
he refers to the law ; in five he couples the law with the lawgiver ; 
seven times he refers to the Pentateuch as the word of God ; in 
thirteen places, also, he sets the seal of his authority to persons 
or events it describes. Kitto, Pent. In the sublime and awful 
conflict in the wilderness, where, as our representative and exam- 
ple, he demonstrates that faith in the inspired Avord of God is the 
appointed means to overcome the power of the tempter, we find 
that every one of the passages which he resorts to as inspired is 
selected from the Book of Deuteronomy. 

The Messiah thus emphatically indorses the Pentateuch as the 
law, the inspired revelation of God, which he himself came to 
fulfil. 

With these facts before us, while we can admit that the Bible 
is an "ancient book," we must also admit that it is not like any 
other ancient book. 

1. It is the only ancient book which furnishes a rational account 
of the origin and moral condition of mankind. 

2. It is the only book, ancient or modern, which grasps all 
history from beginning to end. 

3. It is the only book which furnishes an adequate idea of the 
Creator. 

4. It is the only book adapted to the moral nature and condi- 
tion of the whole race of man. 

6 



82 THE OLD TESTAMENT IN JIISTORY; 

0. It is the only book the Avorhl has ever seen -wliioli furnishes 
a universal rule of faith and life. 

• '). It is the only book which officially sets forth the principles 
of (lod's moral government. 

7. It differs from every other book in the fact that it has God 
for its author, grace for its subject, and eternal life for its end. 

8. It diifers, moreover, fnmi all others, that even Avjien its 
accuracy is challenged, it can only be tested by its own facts and 
principles. 

Hence the theory that the Bible is to be authenticated — "like 
anv other ancient book" — breaks down at every point. 

It is a shallow criticism which supposes that it can disparage 
the faith of the Church in the Bible by stigmatising it as a "tra- 
ditional belief." Tlie term im])lies that the Canon of the Old 
Testament has never been attested officially and by competent 
authority. The phrase, therefore, is at once a sophism and a 
slander. 

"What, then, are the proofs that our belief is not "traditional," 
but InHtoric? 

1. There is the admitted fact that the original Canon was 
forme<l as the constitution of the theocracy, and given to the 
Israelites even before their national life began. 

2. A whole tribe, from the time that the law was placed in the 
side of the ark until New Testament times, existed by divine 
appointment as the custodians and teachers of the law. 

3. There never has been a time when the Jewish people them- 
selves ceased to be living witnesses to the truth of their sacred 
records. 

4. Criteria were ])rovided in the original Canon by which all 
subsequent Scriptures were to be tested. 

o. The original constitution provided also a high court compe- 
tent to apply those criteria. 

6. That court, under its various titles of Beth-Din, Sanhedrim, 
priests, elders, and scribes, was always recognised by the Jewish 
peojde as a supreme authority. Its legal authority is enunciated 
by our Lord himself in Matthew, chap. xxii. And it is an histori- 
cal fact that this court did exercise jurisdiction on these questions. 



OR, REVELATIOX AXD CRITICISM. 83 

It is not necessary to ask Avhether this court -was inspired. It is 
sufBcient to know that they -were constituted for this purpose; 
that they were furnished with the proper criteria; and that the 
Canon they indorsed was indorsed also by the whole Jewish 
people and by our Lord himself. 

7. The Old Testament Scriptures, as we have them, were 
accepted by our Lord himself, by his inspired Apostles, by the 
Church they foufided, and have commended themselves ever since 
to the conscience of the Christian world at large as the inspired 
word of God. 

They have, therefore, been attested officially by competent 
authority, and in a manner entirely suitable to the dignity and 
importance of a revelation from God. 

At the same time, the Bible, from the very nature of the case, 
challenges the closest and most constant scrutiny. The nations 
shall walk in the light of it; but by it also the thoughts of the 
heart of man are to be revealed. No doubt it will stir antagonism. 
It does not shrink from it. But it brings its own credentials 
with it. 

"Here is a book Avhich comes among men as a stranger, vet it 
is received with spontaneous gladness by every race and in every 
age. As soon as it is received, every heart is fired with zeal to 
propagate and perpetuate it. It has filled the Avorld with love 
and strife. Other things grow old, but it lives in immortal youth. 
Through all the centuries it has survived alike its friends and 
its foes. Without a stain upon its garments, it rises above the 
thoughts of man in peerless majesty. And it stands to-day on 
the threshold of a career grander, perhaps, than all its wondrous 
history." 

"All flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of 
grass. The grass withereth; and the flower thereof falleth away: 
but the word of the Lord endureth for ever. And this is the Avord 
which by the gospel is preached unto you." 1 Pet. i. 24, 25. 



THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 

BY C. A. STILLMAN. I». D., PASTOR OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 
TUSKALOOSA, ALA. 

" AjuI how I kept l)ack nothing: tliat was profitaVjle unto yoii, but have 
gheweil you, and have tau;;rht you publicly and from house to house, 
testifying!; both to the Jews and also to the Greeks, repentance toward 
God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ.'' — Acts xs. 2U, 21. 

Although Paul, as an apostle, extended his labors to many 
churches and wide missionary fields, yet, in some instances, he 
remained a lon<; time in one place. On the occasion of the text, 
he had just concluded a three years' residence at Ephesus, and 
from the summary he gave of his labors there, it a})pear.s that he 
acted as a jjastor of that flock. This summary gives a very clear 
and comprehensive view of the functions of this important olfice, 
and was evidently intended to furnish a model to all succeeding 
pastors. 

Froin this it appears — 

First. TItat Pauls chief employment consisted in the instruc- 
tion of the people. He describes this under two forms: "pub- 
licly and from house to house." "Publicly," in public places 
and to promiscuous congregations, whether large or small, teach- 
ing and exhorting all his hearers in the aggregate. " From house 
to house," privatelij, not excluding the idea of small gatherings, 
often made necessaiy by the circumstances of the times, but 
clearly implying fimily visitation for the purpose of conveying 
instruction to se})arate hou.seholds. and also of personal contact 
with individual cases, so as to bring the truth, as far as possible, 
home to each heart. 

Second. That these pastoral services were all designed and 
suited to be profitable to the people. Edification, not mere grati- 
fication, was the rule. Wliatevcr. in the whole compa.s8 of divine 
truth, was adapted to buihl tluiii up in faith and holiness unto 
salvation, he was faithful to teach. He kept back none of it. 
This embraced the entire word of God; for, as he said to Tim- 
othy, "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profit- 



THE PULPIT AXI) THE PASTORATE. 85 

ahh for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in 
righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly 
furnished unto all good works." 

Third. That his labors embraced all the methods by tvhich the 
truth could be impressed upon their minds. He describes his 
ministrations by three different expressions: "I have shewed 
you," literally, "conveyed as a message," giving them to under- 
stand that it came from God, was not his own invention nor the 
product of even his own best thoughts, but ''the preaching that 
God bade him preach." "And have taught you." He instruct- 
ed them as to the contents, meaning, and application of God's 
message; making it plain, and trying to rivet it on their minds. 
Again, "testifying." He was a witness of God's truth, not only 
as revealed to him in an extraordinary way as an apostle, but as 
learned by him from the Scriptures, as demonstrated to his view 
by its operation upon others, and as experienced by him in his 
own soul. 

Fourth. That the substance of this instruction tvas ^'■repent- 
ance towards Grod and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ;'' the 
grand essentials of the gospel system, both as to doctrine and 
practice. In Paul's view, Christ was the centre and the founda- 
tion of all saving and sanctifying truth. Faith in Christ, there- 
fore, involves, at least implicitly, every doctrine of a saving 
Christianity. And since the practical requirements of the gos- 
pel are addressed to a sinful race, all obedience and all spiritual 
attainments must be begun and carried forward in the spirit of a 
genuine repentance, having constant reference to the character 
and claims of God. No preaching, therefore, is legitimate which 
is not virtually embraced in this terse but most complete com- 
pendium. 

The context and the corresponding history and Epistles of 
Paul show plainly enough that all these pastoral labors were con- 
ducted by him with all prayerfulness, tender symj^athy, fidelity, 
watchfulness, and the exercise of a true ministerial authority 
which is "not for destruction but for edification." 

We may regard the words of the text, therefore, as presenting 
something like an exhaustive view of the whole office and func- 



86 Tin: ITLI'IT AM) THE PASTORATE. 

tions of the New Testament pastor; as these are also summed up 
in the theme which we are called upon to discuss, viz., "The 
Pulpit and the Pastorate." This l)rin<.'s before us the practical 
side of the ministerial office, fir wliich this Seminary was found- 
ed to train the sons of the jirophets in our branch of the Church. 

In hxjking especially at this, we by no means disjtarage the 
other features of this training; which are all viiliiable and can no 
more safely be dispensed with than the building can dispense 
with its deep and Itroad foundations. For they all have refer- 
ence to this as their jiractical outcome. Hence a clear and full 
conception of "the pulpit and the pastorate" must lead to the 
highest appreciation of the entire course of ministerial education, 
as well as show what it must embrace. 

I remark, then, first and generally, in regard to this work, 
that its cliicf function is to minister tlic word of G-od to the 
people. The pulpit is not an altar for the offering of sacrifice ; 
nor is the past<M- a j)riest to mediate with Go<l, to dispense sac- 
ramental grace, nor to preside at an imposing ceremonial. Re, 
indeed, conducts the worship of the sanctuary, leads the jirayers 
and regulates the praises of the congregation, and administers 
the simple sacraments of the gospel; but liis grand function is to 
speak in Grod's name, teaching, expounding, and enforcing his 
truth. He is not a mere orator or lecturer, and lias no connnis- 
sion to utter fr(»ui the sacred desk even the grandest, the most 
beautiful, or the most touching of mere human thoughts. He is 
simply (iod's messenger. His teachings have no authority ex- 
cept as they come from (iod, and no real worth exce])t as they 
repeat and exjjound the flivine oracles. Hence he receives all 
the truth he teaches through the channel of the inspii-ed Scrip- 
tures. The IJible is the i)astor's text-book, from Avhicli he obtains 
all the true learning of his profession, the cyclopicdia of Ids reli- 
gious knowledge, the standard of his belief and teachings, the 
treasury from wliich he brings forth all the new as well as the old 
thini^s which he <listributes to his household, the aniioiv where 
he finds all the wea|)ons of his holy warfare. 

Hen-e, the importance which we attach to a most scholarly 
and thoi-oui'li acoiiniiitance with this I'ook ; n<»t onlv in its Eng- 



THE PULPIT AXD THE PASTORATE. 87 

lish form, though this is by no meiuis to be slighted or iimler- 
v^lued, but especially in its original langiiagi's, as indited by the 
Holy Spirit. The pastor must kno\v his Bible thus fhorou;ildij 
that he may expound it with cert;iinty and confidence; thus 
accurately^ that he may avoid even minor mistakes ; and thus 
fuVy^ that he may bring out the otherwise hidden treasures of 
this word. And hence, too, he must be acquainted with the 
principles of a sound Biblical Criticism, as well as the formal 
rules of interpretation, so that he may be able to detect and ex- 
pose learned error under the specious guise of advanced scholar- 
ship; and also, Avitliout at all exhibiting the tools and technical- 
ities of his art, give to his people the rich fruits of his faithful 
investigations. 

But most especially should the pastor so learn his Bible as to 
be able to follow its wonderfully wise and skilful methods of in- 
struction, of introducing and unfolding doctrine, inculcating pre- 
cepts, applying tests of character, and ministering warning, 
rebuke, and consolation. The Bible is God, through his servants, 
dcal'no; with the hearts and consciences of living men and Avomen, 
and applying his truth to all their actual wants, characters, and 
circumstances, and not merely discussing topics in didactic essays. 
It is, therefore, the pastor's hand-book, in the pulpit, in the 
household, and in the treatment of individual cases. 

I proceed now to consider, in the second place, what the pastor 
has to do with TJieoJogy as a science. With the Bible in his 
hand, has he any need for it, and does it not lead away from the 
Bible and really supplant it ? I am only repeating a wide-spread 
popular notion. I have nothing to say of false systems; but what 
is a true theology hnt formulated Scripture ? It is a science, but 
not a mere science. As to its substance, it is God's own truth, 
revealed by him alone, originating in his mind, shaped by his 
wisdom, and based on his authority. As to its form, it is that 
same divine truth, methodised, classified, and expressed in propo- 
sitions convevino; its true meaning, clearly distinguishing it from 
error, and unfolding its manifold and harmonious relations and its 
logical applications. It is just as legitimate as preaching or ex- 
pounding the Scriptures. It is one mode of preaching,, and it is 



88 THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 

ail ;ill-iin])ortant aid t(t tlie preacher. The pastor must be a theo- 
logian, and is one inevitably; the (jtiestion is, whether he be a 
mere stiperfieial tvro in theologv, or be thoroiiifhiv ijrounded 
in the true principles of this grandest of all the sciences. 

IJut let me not be understood as meaning that the pastor is to 
preach scientitic theology; but I do mean that he cannot be 
thoroughly furnished for his great work without a clear and fam- 
iliar acquaintance with it. He must know the ^^criptures; but 
in order to expound them clearly, truly, and in an edifying man- 
ner, their contents must assume, in his mind, the shape of a 
well defined, connected, and harmonious system. He learns that 
system in the Seminary and in hh study; but when he goes be- 
foi-e his people, he puts the various truths of that system in forms 
wlii( h are adaj)ted to popular edification. lie simplifies them by 
explanation, amplification, and illustration, bringing them down 
to the coinpieliension of all classes. He teaches them in their 
apj.lication to the exjierieiice of men, their trials, wants, duties, 
interests, and sins. He uses them to show the way of salvation, 
to guide and stimulate to holy action, to promote spiritual growth, 
and to comfort troubled hearts. 'J'his is what we understand by 
Pastoral Theology. It is theology in all its depth and grandeur, 
but in the hands of the loving, sympathising, considerate pastor 
laltoring for the spiritual good of all cla,sses of his flock. The 
doctrines are the very same which it recjuired intense wrestlings 
of thought as well as prayer and faith to learn ; and yet he now 
breaks these loaves into fragments and distributes them to his 
hungry hearers. This is what Jesus, the great Teacher, did, 
and what Paul and John and James and Peter did. 

It is a false and mischievous idea that Christian theology be- 
longs to the cloister or study alone; that it is a lifeless skeleton 
of dry bones, having no connexion and no sympathy with living 
men and throbbing hearts; and is of no value to the actual expe- 
riences, especially of the niiusses; and hence that men ignorant of 
it may be competent spiritual guides. The prevalence and work- 
ings of tliis error account for not a little of the flabby piety of the 
(lav. It lacks tlie strength which strong truth alone can give. 

The fact is, all the great doctrines of our faitii are i>roj»er and 



THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 89 

needful material for true pastoral -work. Does the pastor need 
to. ex[)lain to the iiKjuiring sinner the way of salvation ? His 
true answer must embody the most profound doctrines of Chris- 
tianity — the nature of sin, its guilt, man's full accountability for 
it, and its fearful desert; God's character, his sovereignty, power, 
wisdom, justice, holiness, and grace, and the harmony of all these 
in the plan of salvation ; the trinity of the Godhead; the deity of 
Christ, his incarnation, his whole character as the God-man 
Saviour ; the covenant of redemption ; the nature of the atone- 
ment, its efficacy, its adaptation to all cases, and the freeness of 
its offer of eternal life; the principles involved in justification; 
the nature of faith as the instrument of justification, and its rela- 
tion to repentance and good works ; the doctrine of regeneration, 
including the agency of the Spirit, the entire dependence of the 
sinner, and yet his full responsibility while dead in sin. 

It is common with some to speak of the simple and elementary 
truths of the gospel, as capable of being handled by untrained 
spiritual guides. They are simple, as they come to the knowledge 
and experience of the converted soul ; and yet they certainly rank 
with the profoundest of all truths ; and when they have to be 
ministered to the dark and perplexed minds of inquiring sinners, 
each one peculiar in its cast of thought and subject to the innum- 
erable perversions of human error and satanic delusion, Avhat but 
the most thoroufjh and extensive knowledo:;e of these great doc- 
trines can qualify the pastor to meet these various and often dif- 
ficult cases, and lead them out safely into the light ? 

Nor is this knowledge of theology any the less important to 
the pastor in the work of training the adopted sons and daugh- 
ters of the Lord Almighty, for duty, for trial, and for glory. He 
must understand well the great and by no means simple doctrine 
of sanctification ; the sources, methods, capabilities, means, and 
hindrances of Christian growth. There is no doctrine which is 
more grossly perverted, in our day, even to the extent of fixnati- 
cism and licentiousness; beguiling not only unstable, but earnest, 
souls ; and hence none which needs to be more thoroughly under- 
stood by the shepherds of Christ's flock. 

So, likewise, in ministering comfort to the afilicted, so impor- 



90 THE PULl'IT AXi» Till-: PASTORATE. 

tant apart of pastoral labor, so often called for, and so valued by 
the people; how inadequate i.s the fitness of the untrained, super- 
ficial minister ! The sources and grounds of true Christian con- 
solation are not found near the surface, but deep down in the most 
fundamental and grandest truths of religion, viz., in the divine 
character and in the terms and securities of tlie everlasting cove- 
nant; tiiose pertaining to God's sovereign, wise, ludy. and gracious 
purposes, where ignorance is lost and confounded, but on which 
an intelligent faith reposes with confidence and peace, converting 
darkness into light, grief into submission and even Joy, and 
gloomy desjiair into cheerful and at times rapturous hope. 

But a necessary part of pastoral work is instnirtion, incite- 
ment, and training in the duties of reU<jion. Mere knowledge, 
however thorough and accurate, will not suffice. The people 
must l}c trained to the practice of good works. This is necessary 
to their salvation and their highest development, as well as to the 
honor of God. But how vain is the attempt to detach practical 
from doctrinal preaching, and how unreasonable to contrast it, as 
more imj;ortant ! Practical preaching has no true meaning and 
no real force and efficacy cxce])t as it is based on doctrine. 
Christian ethics is not a mere code. It is founded on truth, on 
the priiKi)t]es which are laid down in Gods word, and forms part 
of the Christian's creed. That pastor, then, guides his Hock 
most truly who traces back all duties to these principles, teaching 
all obligations in the light of sound doctrine, and teaching all 
doctrine with a practical end in view, especially as supplying the 
only adecjuate motives and encouragements. 

Again, the true Christian pastor is an experimental preacher 
of the gospel. lie is not a mere theologian nor a mere lecturer. 
As all his instructions are intended to reach the hearts of his 
jteople, they must come living and warm from his own heart. 
This can be the case only when he has had a genuiiie experience 
of tlnjse truths. He cannot learn tlie ical natuic, jinwer. and 
excellency of thegospel in any other way. He may have explored 
all the fields of philosoi)hic and speculative theology, and under- 
stand the history, principles, and rules of biblical criticism in 
their aj)plication to both the original and cognate languages of 



THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 91 

* 

the Bible, and yet remain a mere sciolist in genuine religious 
knoAvledge, because of liis lack of that spiritual experience which 
is an essential commentary on both the Scriptures and systematic 
divinity. He is still out in the court of the Gentiles and has 
never entered the holy place, much less the holy of holies — has 
had no real intercourse -with God, cannot lead his people near, 
and has no authentic message to them. 

How can he warn, exhort, and invite sinners to Christ unless 
he h'ls felt the plague of his own sins, the sorrows of a personal 
repentance, the desolation of a conscious helplessness, the fitness, 
power, and preciousness of Christ as his own Saviour, and the 
peace of God shed abroad in his own soul ? 

So must he have experienced the elements of a spiritual war- 
fare in his own renewed but partially sanctified heart, the burden 
and grief of indwelling sin, the deceitfulness of sin in that heart, 
and the wiles and depths of Satan ; and on the other hand the 
presence and workings of grace ever flowing from Christ his 
Head, ere he can teach others how to grapple with the arch- 
tempter, and to mortify and crucify their own lusts. He must 
himself have enjoyed the consolations of God's presence, the 
efficacy of prayer, the preciousness of the promises and all the 
various sources and means of spiritual support, in order that he 
may know how to speak a word in season to him that is weary, to 
uphold the weak, and to console the tried and afflicted. 

This characteristic of the public ministrations of the pastor 
naturally leads us to consider those which are more private, but 
scarcely less important. He preaches not only publicly, but 
"/ro??i house to house." This part of his work brings him and 
his message into the closest contact with his people ; face to face, 
heart to heart. It is a most valuable and even necessary supple- 
ment to the pulpit. In the privacy of their homes he can intro- 
duce many instructions that are more or less impracticable in 
general discourse, and bring home his public teachings with more 
of explanation and more direct application than is possible in the 
pulpit. Here he treats really concrete cases, meets individual 
difficulties, and applies the truth in methods adapted to each par- 
ticular state of mind. Here he reminds his people that he preaches 



92 THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 

in tlic pulpit to them, and does not merely deliver a thesis or dis- 
cuss a general abstract topic. In family visitation and personal 
conversation he follows up his pulpit exercises, learns their prac- 
tical eftect on his licarers, ascei"tains their spiritual condition 
severally, and secures an opportunity to give to each one his due 
portion, whether of instruction, warning, encouragement, or 
appeal. Happy is that pastor whose preaching awakens in his 
people a spirit of investigation and in(|uiry, even though it be 
attended with some questionings and perplexing difficulties. 
Nothing is more encouraging than to teach earnest minds, meet 
honest difficulties, and guide sincere seekers after truth. 

The pastoral office is one side of a relationship. lie has a 
flock and he is their shepherd. Mutual knowledge, confidence, 
sympathy, and love, are all implied. It is a close and endearing 
relationship. Hence, permanency is always contemplated, so as 
to give full opportunity for this relation to become what it was 
intended to be. A covenant is entereil into between the parties 
and before God. They are made one by a tie even more sacred 
than the nuptial bond, though not for life as that is. It is a confi- 
dential relationship, warranting the utmost freedom of communi- 
cation in all the affairs of the soul, and \'Qt at the farthest remove 
from the espionage, impertinence, and tyranny of the confessional. 
It is a tender relationship, in which a loving devotion to the 
entire flock is the animating and guiding impulse, and the affec- 
tion of that flock is a powerful encouragement and an ample 
reward. And it is a most responsible relationsiji; fi)r he labors, 
watches, and prays for his people as one that must give account, 
and tliey on their part must also do the same, as to the fulfilment 
of their obligations. 

The fiiithful pastor knows his flock, just as the Oriental shep- 
herd knows his sheep, each and every one, calling them by their 
true names, understanding the religious history, the peculiarities, 
the trials, the frailties, and the excellences of them all. He 
maintains a strict watch over them ; not the strictness of a spy or 
of a tyrannous lord over God's heritage, but of a loving, careful 
father over his children, fi)llowing them with his eye, warning 
thetn against danger, and ever ready to defend, ivssist, guide, 



THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 93 

restrain, comfort, and encourage them in the way of the Lord; 
and, especially caring for the lambs, Avhether the children of the 
Church or "the little ones" of Jesus. Like Paul, he is "gentle 
amoni!; them as a nurse cherisheth her children." Yea, he shoAvs 

"A father's tenderness, a sheplierd's care, 
A leader's courage which the cross can bear, 
A ruler's awe, a watchman's wakeful eye, 
A pilot's skill the helm in storms to ply, 
A fisher's patience and a laborer's toil, 
A guide's dexterity to disembroil, 
A prophet's inspiration from above, 
A teacher's knowledge and a Saviour's love." 

What a hlessed ministry is this ! How grateful to every 
thoughtful and appreciative mind! How does it exhibit the wis- 
dom of Jesus and his great love to his Church — "He gave them 
pastors." How does it embody the loving care of the Great 
Shepherd of the sheep ! How admirably suited to the actual 
circumstances of his people in this world ! And then how does 
it react upon the pastor himself, in rich benefits to his own soul 
and helps to his ministry ! 

His intercourse Avith his people in tlieir varied and often strik- 
ing experiences develops to his vicAV innumerable applications of 
divine truth, which are often new and surprising, showing the 
many-sidedness of that truth and its marvellous fitness to meet 
the actual wants of men. It reveals the work of the Holy Spirit 
as he takes the things of Christ and shows them to the soul. 
Thus he learns from those whom he teaches : not only the intel- 
ligent, but the unlettered. He often finds his best human teach- 
es ' 

ers in the homes of Christian poverty, at the bedside of sickness, 
in the dying chamber, and in the house of bereavement. He 
learns from the growing Christian, flourishing in the courts of the 
Lord ; from the aged soldier of the cross, who has struggled long 
with sin, Satan, and the world ; from the young convert in the 
glow of his first love ; from the tempted, tried, and wounded 
believer — yea, even from the backslider. Religious experience 
is a large volume ; it has many chapters and numerous graphic 
illustrations'; and it is the diligent and faithful pastor who sees 
most of it, and learns its lessons most fully. 



04 THE PULPIT AND THE PASTORATE. 

All this experimental knowledge thus acquired he carries back 
■with him to his study and his closet, subjecting it to the crucible 
of his own thoughts. With God's Avord in his hands and with 
these various cases lioi'iir on his heart to the throne, he seems to 
get a new message from on high, and then carries that message 
into the pulpit, prepared to preach with unwonted approju'iate- 
ness to their real necessities. He is no longer a mere sign-board. 
He is a guide, who goes along with them, and shows them the 
very way they must travel. 

Thus do the several aspects of the pastorate, doctrinal, experi- 
mental, and practical preaching, in the pulpit, in the family, and 
to the individual ; its oversight and care ; its tender and con- 
soling ministrations ; its confidantial relationships, and its parental 
discipline, all combine to make one whole, complete, harmonious, 
beneficent, and strong ; Avorthy, indeed, to be one of the ascen- 
sion gifts of our triumpliant liedeemer, and worthy to be cher- 
ished and maintained in all liis churches by all his people. It 
was chietty designed for them, and they realise its highest value. 
Hence it is we have dwelt mainly upon i)astoral work, even in the 
pulpit. The pulpit has, indeed, a nuicli wider sphere and a more 
general value; e.g. as the strong bulwark of a pure Christianity 
against the assaults of infidelity and superstition, as the great 
educator of the people, as the true palladium of social order and 
political liberty, of human life, property, and happiness, and as 
"the most important and effectual guard, support, and orna- 
ment of virtue's cause." But its highest glory is that it is God's 
instrument in the deliverance of men from sin and eternal death, 
and that though the visible, audible agent is a mere man, his 
simple words are made the power of God unto salvation. 

"For Icttinii down tlic ijoldon chain IVoni lii.^l), 
lie driiws his audience upward to the sky.' 

In conclusion, then, it is a matter for profound thankfulness 
that this beloved Seminary, in the fifty years of its noble history, 
has never been conducted Jis a mere school of learning, rhetoric, 
or philosophy, or even as a mere theological institute, but has 
ever given the conspicuous place to the spiritual and practical 
a.spects of the ministerial work ; and it is our devout prayer that 



THE PULPIT AXD THE PASTORATE. 95 

it may, in the long years of the futui-e, be preeminently God's 
chosen instrument for giving to his Church many "pastors accord- 
ing to his own heart, who shall feed his people Avith knowledge 
and understandino;." To this end let us give our labors and our 
influence in the effort to rebuild this institution on deep and 
broad foundations, and in proportions exceeding even all its 
former glory. We aim at no progress in its standards of doc- 
trine, either as to the faith, the order, or the worship of the 
Church ; for these we regard as based upon the complete and 
unchangeable teachings of God's inspired Avord. What Ave long 
to see is, that the most ample means shall be provided for the 
inculcation of these great principles upon the largest number of 
students consecrated to the ministry of truth — men Avho Avill 
hold up these standards Avith unsAverving fidelity amidst prevail- 
ing defections ; Avho Avill combine the most thorough scholarship 
Avith humble and ardent piety, and Avho Avill labor to spread these 
sacred principles Avith evangelic zeal in our OAvn broad land and 
amongst the nations of the earth. It is not merely to an insti- 
tution of learning that Ave rencAvedly dedicate our efforts on this 
occasion, but to the cause of divine truth, to the salvation of 
souls, -the interests of holiness, the upbuilding and comfort of the 
Church, and above and through all these, to the glory of Christ. 



THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: ITS IMPORT AND 
ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 

BY JOHN L. CIKAUDEAU, 1>. D., LL. D., PROFESSOR IX COLUMBIA 
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

The subject to which attention is asked on the present occa- 
sion is, The Federal Theoloyij : Its Import and its liegidative 
Injliwnce. 

It lias become almost an adage, that the Church has developed 
her theology mainly through conflict with error. This must be so 
from the nature of the case. Attention is not apt to be specially 
directed to what is undisputed, and our clearest judgments are 
derived from comparison. The contrast of truth and error, induced 
by the assertion of the latter, enhances our comprehension of both. 
The doctrine of the covenants constitutes no exception to this law. 
It was not brought distinctly under investigation and formally 
developed until the period succeeding the Reformation. Luther 
grandly elucidated the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith 
alone. Justification he saw clearly. Imputation he perceived less 
distinctly; and he stopped short of the controlling princij)le of 
federal representation. Even Calvin, magnificently endowed as 
he was by his abilities and learning for a systematic treatment of 
revealed truth, although he produced a theological work distin- 
guished for its comprehensive grasp of the doctrines of religion in 
their relation to each other, did not seem to have had his mind 
definitely turned to the federal scheme. 

It was when Plac^ieus broached his theory of the mediate iiiij)u- 
tation of Adam's sin, that the attention of the Reformed (.'hureh 
was thoroughly aroused to the importance and scope of the feileral 
theolotrv. The theolo<rians of the Dutch Seliool, in their massive 
works, subjected it to a full, if not an exhaustive, considei'ation; 
and their example was followed by some of the most illustrious 
divines of England and Scotland. And while Cunningham, 
Ilodge, and our own Thornwell have trodden in their footsteps, 
and evinced in their discussions their sense of the imjiortance of 



THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY, ETC. 97 

the federal system — a fact for wlii(;li the present generation of 
Calvinists shouhl be devoutly thankful — it is to be feared that 
indications are beginning to manifest themselves of a growing 
tendency towards a departure from this type of theology. Espe- 
cially would it be for a lamentation should it disaj^pear from the 
pulpit — the grand organ by which divine truth is brought into 
contact with the masses. And as surely as the pulpit drifts away 
from it, Avill it more and more cast its instructions in the mould 
of a wretched legalism ; or, losing the influence of this pervading 
genius of theological truth, and so lapsing from any thorough- 
going inculcation of doctrine, it will more and more neglect its 
heavenly call to be an instructor of Christ's people, and sink its 
high didactic office into that of a vapid and sensational haranguer. 
The present effort is essayed not alone from sympathy with the 
intrinsic value of the theme, but also in the hope of citing atten- 
tion, in some humble degree at least, to the necessity of keeping 
it before the mind of the Church. But, not to consume time with 
|)reliminary observations, I hasten to consider: 

I. The Import of the Federal Theology. 

Let us begin with the covenant of grace, for the reason that its 
existence and the operation of the representative principle in con- 
nexion with it are more clearly and explicitly set forth in the 
Scriptures than are the fact of the covenant of works and the way 
in which its results are entailed. Admitting the analogy between 
the two covenants which the Apostle Paul affirms, we shall by 
this method gain the advantage of expounding the obscurer case 
by that which is the more definitely revealed. 

There would seem to be no necessity to distinguish, as some 
have done, between the covenant of redemption and the covenant 
of grace as two separate covenants : the former as conceived to 
exist between God the Father and Christ, and the latter between 
God and the elect. For, in the first place, the law of parcimony 
opposes the supposition of two covenants. This presumption could 
only be removed by such explicit testimony of Scripture to the 
existence of tAvo as can hardly be contended for in the face of 
another construction of its teaching by so many theologians. In 
the second place, it is inconceivable that God would have entered 
7 ' 



98 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

into a covenant Avitli sinners except in Christ as Mediator anil 
Federal Head, To say that one covenant was made with the Son 
and another with the elect, is to assume as the differentia of the 
lat«?r the fact that it was not made with them in Christ, but 
apart from him. But that cannot be admitted. To reply that the 
covenant, though not made Avith him, was made with the elect as 
in him, is to give up the distinction. The covenant, according to 
the ordinary conception and statement of it, was at the same time 
made with him and with his elect seed in him. It is wholly 
unwarrantable to hold that a federal arranjiement should obtain 
ill relation to sinnei^s, except as they are represented by a federal 
head. The covenant with Christ, therefore, embraced the cove- 
nant with his elect constituency. They are never dealt with 
except as they are in him. In the third place, let it be conceded 
that the covenant wears two aspects, one immediately contem- 
plating Christ as federal head and representative, and the other, 
the elect as beneficiaries, and they are evinced to be but separate 
faces of the same great compact by the consideration that the 
privileges, graces, and duties of the elect are benefits conferred 
upon them in Christ, are but parts of that salvation which he 
meritoriously secured for them by his perfect performance of 
covenanted righteousness. Their faith, it is true, as an indispen- 
sable duty, conditions their subjective and conscious union to 
Christ, but faith is the necessary result of regeneration, in which 
they are the j)assivc recipients of the grace acquired for them by 
their federal head. That which is held to be a covenant of grace, 
in distinction from the covenant of redemj)tion, may be regarded 
as but a testamentary administration, in behalf of the elect, of the 
one eternal covenant between the Father and the Son. It may 
be added, in the fourth place, that the analogy between the cove- 
nant of grace and that of works, which is universally admitte<l to 
have l)een Ijut one, and the language of the Calvinistic symbols 
which must be strained to support any other supposition, opjiose 
strong presumptive evidence to the hyjiothesis of two distinct 
covenants. It is one and the same covenant, which, regarded in 
relation to the means emjjloycd and the end contcmjilated, is 
denominated the covenant of redemption, that is emphatically 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 99 

designated the covenant of grace when conceived in reference to 
its source, and to its unmerited application to sinners as the 
recipients of its benefits. It is peculiarly a covenant of grace to 
them, since its legal condition was fulfilled, not by themselves,, 
but by another for them, guilty and corrupt. 

But whatever view is maintained concerning this question, let 
it be understood that, in this discussion, allusion is had to that 
"covenant of grace" which was in eternity made by God the 
Father "with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the 
elect as his seed." ^ 

In this covenant the principle of representation was involved 
as an essential element. Christ, by the appointment of the 
Father, and by his own spontaneous election, became the legal 
representative of the elect seed who weregiven to him to be re- 
deemed. He undertook all their legal responsibilities, as well 
those Avhich related them to the preceptive requirements of the 
moral law, as those which bound them as transgressors to endure 
its penalty. Whatever the law exacted of them, in order to their 
justification, he as their representative obligated himself to render. 
The life of obedience due from them he engaged to live, the death 
demanded of them he bound himself to die. 

It is indispensable to a just apprehension of this vitally impor- 
tant subject, to notice that what was a covenant of redeeming 
grace to his seed was a covenant of works to Christ. It was they, 
not he, who needed to be redeemed ; they, not he, who were to 
be debtors to grace. He stood under the covenant, as the second 
Adam, a probationer, required and undertaking to render perfect, 
personal obedience to every demand of law, in order to the justi- 
fication of his seed in him. 

This exhaustive obedience he performed. Viewed in relation 
to the commands of the law, it may properly be denominated pre- 
ceptive obedience; in relation to its curse, penal obedience. It 
is usual to distinguish these two aspects of it by the terms active 
and passive obedience. But it was both, during his life and at 
his death, at the same time active and passive. From the incep- 
tion of his obedience he suffered, and at the climax of his suffer- 
MVestminster Larg. Cat., Quest. 31. 

631720 



100 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

iiii's lie acted. From beginning to end lie was a sufferinij actor, 
an actin;]: sufl'erer. In life and death, consecjuently, and in rela- 
tion to precept and penalty alike, he rendered obedience. This 
obe<lience Avas marred by not the slightest flaw — it was absolutely 
perfect. By it justice was com})letely satisfied and the law ulori- 
ously exalted. 

Did the limits of this discourse permit it, convincing proof 
could be furnished of the necessity — which has been disputed by 
some Calvinists even — that Christ should have rendered obedience 
to the precept of the law in order to the justification of his seed, 
and that this preceptive righteousness should be imputed to them, 
in order to the attainment of that end. That cannot now be at- 
tempted. Suffice it to say, that the elect seed of Christ were not 
merely, by virtue of his propitiatory sufferings, to be placed in a 
condition of confirmed innocence — of everlasting exemption i\\nn 
punishment, but to be entitled, on the ground of a perfect and 
unchallenged obedience to the preceptive requirements of the law, 
to the positive communications of the divine favor. Not only 
was it incumbent on Christ to deliver his people from the death 
incui'red by the fall of Adam, but as the second Adam to do what 
the first was required to do — to pay obedience to the precepts of 
the law. That, strictly speaking, is righteousness, and that the 
glorious representative of the elect wrought out for them. He 
produced a perfect obedience to the whole law. and therefore won 
for himself an adorable name by which he is known in the assem- 
blies of the saints — "'tlie Lord our righteousness."' Like the 
seamless robe he wore on the day of his crucifixion, the righteous- 
ness of Jesus is without division. "Let us not rend it," but 
regard it, as he himself produced it — a grand totality, one and 
indivisible. 

The question now necessarily arises, wliat were the results 
secured by this covenanted obedience of Christ to all the recjuire- 
ments of the divine law ? The in(juiry need not here be pressed, 
whether he, considered as an individual, was bound to render 
obedience to the law for himself, although I confess to a concur- 
rence in the view of those theologians who maintain that he was; 
so far, at least, as a preceptive rule was concerned. Antecedent- 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 101 

ly under no obligation to obey the law wliicli he aihninistered, 
yet having voluntarily subjected himself, as incarnate, to its 
scope, he came by that free act under obligation to comply with 
its demands. If it was possible for him to be "made under 
hiw." it was possible for him, as an individual, to be obligated by 
its authority. 

But the question is in regard to his obedience considered as 
that of the head and representative of his elect seed. What, in 
that capacity, did he by his obedience secure ? In the general, 
the answer must be: all the benefits of redemption. But foremost 
among these blessings — the special ansAver is — he secured justi- 
fication for himself and for his seed in him. 

It may be objected to this statement, that it is inadmissible to 
affirm that Christ was justified, and that all which can properly 
be said is, that he secured the justification of his seed. This ob- 
jection cannot be supported upon grounds derived from the Cal- 
vinistic conception of the principle of representation as employed 
in the plan of redemption. That Christ, upon the completion of 
his covenanted obedience, was justified, is evinced, in the first 
place, by the analogy between him as the federal representative 
of his seed under the covenant of grace and Adam as the federal 
representative of his posterity under the covenant of works. If 
Adam had performed the condition of the covenant, he would 
have been justified as federal representative. As Christ fulfilled 
the condition of the same covenant botli as to its precept and its 
penalty, he was justified as federal representative. The consid- 
eration that Adam's obedience was contingent, while Christ's was 
not, makes no difference as to the result contemplated. The cer- 
tainty, that Christ would fulfil the condition upon which justifi- 
cation was supended, only rendered that justification certain. 
Both the first and second Adams were probationers under 
the provisions of a legal covenant, which conditioned justifica- 
tion upon perfect, personal obedience to law. The difference 
between them is, that in one case the stipulated reward was 
missed, and in the other it was won. In the second place, the 
justification of ChriSt is proved by the fact that he voluntarily 
assumed the guilt of his seed, and that it was judicially imputed 



102 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

to him by God the Father. If he had not been justified from it 
by the authority whicli formally attached it to him. that guilt 
would have remained upon him. Either he was, before his re- 
surrection, federally guilty or he was not. If he was not, the 
guilt of his i)eo{i]e was not transferred to iiim, and therefore con- 
tinues upon them. 1' hat is out of the (juestion. If he was, his 
guilt liad to 1)0 removed in order to the removal of theirs, for his 
guilt was theirs. But the non-imputation of guilt, or, what is 
the same thing, its removal, is an essential element of justifica- 
tion. Now, Christ's voluntarily assumed guilt was not imputed 
to him after his resurrection and ascension. Consequently, he 
was justified. He had perfectly satisfied infinite justice by the 
sacrifice of himself for sin, and the Father publicly and formally 
absolved him from the guilt which he had })reviously reckoned to 
his account. 

The only diflSculty which can attach to this view is one which 
springs from the grievous misapprehension, that it iiniilics the 
pardon of Christ as a personal sinner. It would certainly be 
rank blasphemy to intimate that he labored under an inherent 
and conscious guilt which needed to be remitted. It is (juite 
anotlier thing to say, that his imputed guilt was removed by 
God's justifying sentence: a reward to which he had entitled 
himself by his unimpeachable obedience to law. 

But, further, the justification of Christ involved the justification 
of his elect seed. Not that it is now intended to affirm — what, of 
course, is true — that his justification secured that of his ))eoj)le, as 
one to be subjectively and consciously experienced by tliem in the 
course of their mortal existence. What is meant is, that at the 
very moment and in the very act of his justification theirs was, in 
a sense, effected. They were justified when he was justified. This 
is not the Antinomian doctrine of an actual justification in eter- 
nity. To that extraordinary' notion it is impossible to attach any 
intelligible meaning. What divines have termed decretive justi- 
fication, that is, the eternal purpose of God to justify the elect, 
is at once true and apprehensible; but one finds as much diffi- 
culty in grasping the idea of an a(;tiial eternal justification as in 
conceiving "a chimaera buzzing about in a vacuum." 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 103 

There is a distinction -which is now strangely neglected, but to 
■which the Calvinistic theology ought to be recalled, as vital to its 
consistency and completeness. It is one Avhich was maintained 
by some of the most eminent divines of the sev^enteenth century — 
by such men as "Witsius and others of the Dutch school, and 
Owen, Charnock, and Ilalyburton. It is the distinction between 
what was variously termed fundamental, or general, or active, or 
virtual, justification on the one hand, and what Avas denominated 
passive or actual justification on the other. The import of it is 
that, on the one hand, the elect were, in mass, justified in foro 
Dei, in the justification of Christ as their federal head and repre- 
sentative; and that, on the other hand, they are severally jus- 
tified in foro conscientice, when in the period of their earthly 
history they actually exercise faith in Christ. In the fir<t in- 
stance they are conceived as justified constructively, federally, 
representatively; in the second, subjectively and consciously. 
In the first, they were justified independently of their voluntary 
concurrence; in the second, they are justified through their con- 
scious exercise of faith. 

In the vindication and enforcement of this great discrimina- 
tion, I shall employ the terms virtual and actual justification, 
in compliance with an old usage, albeit for the sake of accuracy 
representative and conscious might be preferred. 

If the doctrine of the Covenant be scriptural, it is too plain to 
need proof that there is a federal oneness of Christ and his seed. 
When as their representative he ^'ielded obedience to the law 
in order to justification, they yielded that obedience in him. 
His representative acts and experiences, in relation to that 
end, were theirs. Otherwise the principle of representation 
is a figment and the term representative a sham. Did he as 
their representative obey the precept of the law ? They obeyed 
in him. Was he crucified ? They were crucified with him. 
Did he rise from the dead ? They rose with him. What hin- 
ders, then, that we should hold that when he was justified, 
they were justified with him? That conse(|uence must follow if 
he was justified as their head and representative. Not subjec- 
tively and consciously, but federally and representatively, they 



104 THE FEDERAL TlIEOLOdY: 

(il)C'V('(l. (lied, rose again, and Avore, in Gods heavenlv court, ius- 
tifit'd, in Christ. 

Now, inasnmc'li as no justification at Gods bar is conceivable 
except upon the ground of a jx-rfoct riLditeousness, it is obvious 
tliat the elect seed of Christ must have been, in some sense, 
adjudged to be righteous in order to their virtual justification. 
That sense is, that they Avere righteous by imputation. In no 
other way could those who were not conceived as having con- 
sciously wrought righteousness have by the divine Judge been 
regarded as righteous. Indeed, the most of those so justified, 
including nearly the whole New Testament Church, were not 
even in existence, and of course were not the subjects of regen- 
eration. Christ's righteousne.ss was, in God's court, imputed to 
them in order to their justification in him. Here, then, it 
deserves to be noticed, we have a case of ''antecedent and imme- 
diate imputation" of righteousness — antecedent, since the imputa- 
tion preceded the sjiiritual l)iitli of the elect: immediate, since it 
■was not conditioned by or mediated through inherent and con- 
scious holiness. 

The elect seed of Christ having been thus, in the court of 
heaven, virtually justified in him their rej)resentative, were invest- 
ed with a right and title to eternal life. Then, Avhen their earth- 
ly history emerges, their righteous Advocate and priestly Inter- 
cessor, at God's appointed time, sues out for tliem the gift of the 
Holy Spirit, who, imparted to them by the mediatorial King, 
enters into them, convinces them of their sin and misery, illumi- 
nates them in the knowledge of Christ as a Saviour, regenerates 
them, and enables them to exercise that faith which conditions 
their conscious and actual union with Jesus. Not now are they, 
foi- the first time, federally and representatively, but subjectively 
and consciously justified. This is their actual, in contradistinc- 
tion from their virtual, justification. In the order of production 
it succeeds regeneration, as, in that order, virtual precedes it. 

In opposition to the view which lias thus been expounded in 
regard to the o})erati(»n of the re])resent:itive j»rinciple, the objec- 
tion may be urged, that as the elect, in their natural, unregene- 
rate condition, are in a state of condemnation, it is difficult if not 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 105 

impossible to conceive how at the same time they are in a state 
of justification ; that is to say, how God can regard them as at 
one and the same time justified and condemned. Tliis difficulty 
is by no means insuperable. 

1. The statement of the objection supposes that the terms jus- 
tification and condemnation are always employed respectively in 
the same sense. If this Avere true, the difficulty would be unan- 
swerable. It would involve a contradiction to say that one is 
justified and not justified in one and the same sense; or that, in 
one and the same sense, he is condemned and not condemned. 
But it does not imply a contradiction to affirm that one is justified 
in one sense and not justified in another sense; or that he is con- 
demned in one sense and not condemned in another sense. Now 
virtual justification is one sort of justification, and actuid is an- 
other; so that it involves no contradiction to say that one is vir- 
tually justified and not actually justified at one and the same time. 
Nor does it imply a contradiction to maintain that one is actually 
condemned and not virtually condemned at one and the same time. 
Virtual justification and virtual condemnation are mutually exclu- 
sive, but not virtual justification and actual condemnation. The 
latter may co-exist without contradiction. It follows, therefore, 
that God is not inconsistent with himself when at the same time 
he regards the elect unregenerate sinner as virtually justified and 
as not actually justified. These two sentences are consistent 
with each other, inasmuch as they have respect to different kinds 
of justification. To say that a thing is round and square at 
one and the same time would be a contradiction, but it would 
ifot be contradictory to assert that, at one and the same time, it 
is round and white. 

The same thing is made still more apparent by varying the 
terms and thus viewino; it in difi"erent li<i;hts. The elect sinner 
may be considered as justified de jure, but not de facto. He has 
in Christ, previously to actual justification, a right to be actually 
justified; that is, not a right in conscious possession, but one exist- 
ing in the judgment of God. So an infant may be de jure a sove- 
reign, Avhile he is de facto a subject. Or, the elect sinner may be 
contemplated as potentially but not actually justified. So a be- 



lOG THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

liever, in this world, is potentially possessed of heaven, but not 
actually; and it involves no contradiction to say of him that lie is, 
at one and the same time, possessed of heaven and not possessed 
of it. And it enhances the view now urged to remember that the 
]K)tentiality is in Christ and not in the elect unregenerate sinner 
himself. It is not one which is evolved into fact by an inherent law 
or tendency, but developed by virtue of a divine arrangement into 
which his subjective e.xperienec in no degree enters as a ground. 

2. The case receives additional clearness when we rellect that 
these respective sentences of justification are issued in different 
courts — the one, in God's heavenly court, the other, in the court 
of the elect sinner's conscience. It is true that the Judge who 
passes sentence is one and the same: it is God who justifies in 
either case; but as the sentences are related to different kinds of 
justification, so the spheres of emission are distinct — the courts 
are different in which they are respectively pronounced. While, 
therefore, in accordance with the facts of representation God just- 
ly declares the elect unregonerate sinner justified in the court of 
heaven, with equal justice, in accordance with the subjective and 
conscious facts of experience, he treats him as not justified but 
condemned. The elect unconverted man sustains, at the same 
time, two different relations. In accordance with one he is en- 
titled to God's favor; in conformity with the other, he is subject 
to his displeasure. 

3. If it be still contended that it implies inconsistency to say that 
God has in Christ justified the sinner, and therefore regards him 
with a love of complacency, while yet the sinner is under his 
wrath and curse, it may be rejilied : first, that the same <lifiiculty 
holds, in part, of God's electing love. The truth is, that in both 
cases, God loves the sinner complacently before his conversion, 
because he views him as in Christ ; and at the same time he dis- 
approves him as viewed in himself. In Christ, and for Christ's 
sake, he is entitled to love ; in himself, as apart from Christ, he 
is deserving of hate. Secondly, even after the elect sinner's 
actual justification, he is in God's regard lovable and damnable 
at one and the same time — lovable as contemplated in Christ, 
his glorious head ; damnable as viewed in his sinful self. 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 107 

Enouo-h has been said to show that the doctrine of a virtual or 
representative justification of the elect seed of Christ in God's 
court, and the "antecedent and immediate imputation"' to them of 
Christ's righteousness and its resultant rewardableness, is not 
encompassed with contradictions. It is the only doctrine of 
justification which harmonises the Calvinistic system with itself, 
and saves it fi-om a Baxterian compromise with Arminian views. 

Let us now, in the light of this exposition, turn to the parallel 
case of the operation of the great principle of federal representa- 
tion in the covenant of works. The limits of this discourse will 
not allow a development of the scriptural proofs that the covenant 
of works existed, or that Adam was the federal representative of 
his posterity. The record in Genesis, the very definite and pre- 
cise comparison instituted between the first Adam and the second 
in the fifth chapter of Romans, the brief but pregnant statement 
of the same comparison in the fifteenth chapter of First Corinth- 
ians, and the argument in the second chapter of Hebrews, in 
respect to the necessity of the incarnation, and of the conform- 
ity of the second Adam to the law by which the relation of the 
first to his seed was controlled — these passages of the inspired 
word furnish conclusive evidence of the positions advanced. But 
these proofs being, as admitted by the whole Calvinistic body, 
now assumed, and regard being especially had to the analogy 
between Christ and Adam, as the heads of their respective cove- 
nants, and representatives of their federal constituents, the ques- 
tion will be considered. What was the result whi^h might have 
floAved, Avhat the result which did flow, from the representative 
relation which Adam sustained to his seed ? 

According to the constitution by which Adam was appointed a 
legal, in contradistinction from a merely parental, head and repre- 
sentative, all that he might have done in rendering obedience to 
law might have been done by his seed, and the fatrfl act which he 
did was done by them. This, if he were strictly their representative, 
must be true in accordance with the universally admitted maxim, 
qui facit per aliumfacitper se. He was their agent; he acted not 
only for himself, but for them, and they acted in him. It may be 
incidentally remarked that one holy act of Adam did not induce 



108 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

justification. A course of obedience — liow extende*!, wc cannot 
know — Avas required of liiui in order to tlie acquisition of the 
reward. ('()nse(iuently, liad Adam stood, the whole series of holy 
acts up to the moment of justification would have been represen- 
tative acts, and would therefore have been legally shared by his 
seed. But there was no necessity that all his sinful acts should 
be representative. A single act of transgression, from the nature 
of the case, entailed condemnation. It was the signal of doom. 
The legal probation was closed ; the reward of the covenant was 
forfeited, and its death-penalt}^ incurred. 

iS'ow, had Adam fulfilled the condition of the covenant, that is, 
perfect obedience to law, during the specified time of his trial, his 
posterity would have fulfilled the condition, would have rendered 
the obedience in him. So was it, we have seen, in the case of 
Christ and his seed. The obedience of the representative is the 
obedience of the represented — yielded not subjectively and con- 
sciously, but federally, legally, representatively. Nor does this 
destroy the reality of the constituents' obedience. A representa- 
tive obedience is as real as a conscious. They are differently 
conditioned, but they are both real. 

It follows, also, that had Adam been justified, his posterity 
would in him have been ju-stified in foro I)<'i. They would have 
had. j)veviously to their conscious existence, a virtual justification 
in him as their head and representative. The analogy holds 
between the virtual justification of Christ's seetl in his justifica- 
tion and the virtual justification of Adam's descendants in him, 
on the supposition that he had fulfilled his probation. As nojus- 
tification can take place except upon the ground of a perfect 
righteousness, the race, according to the supposition sharing his 
justification, would have been, in the court of heaven, justified 
on the ground of Adam's righteousness imputed to them. There 
woidd, then, it is clear, have been an "antecedent and immediate 
imputaticm" to them of the righteousness of their federal repre- 
sentative — antecedent, as anticipating their personal existence 
and inherent holines-; ; iuimediate, as directly terminating on 
them without being mediate<l through their conscious virtue. And 
when they emergeil into individual existence, they would — I am 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 109 

bold enough, pursuing the analogy, to think — have been actually 
justified upon their conscious acceptance of God's appointed 
method of justification ; they would, in a word, have been both 
virtually and actually justified on the ground of imfjuted right- 
eousness. It would have been nature's plan, as it is that of recov- 
ering grace. 

But Adam fell. Following the lead of the representative prin- 
ciple, we cannot err in affirming that his act of disobedience was 
the race's act of disobedience. "They sinned in him, and fell 
with him in his first transgression." They sinned in him, they 
performed his fatal act, not subjectively and consciously, but 
federally, legally, representatively. It is equally evident that his 
condemnation Avas theirs. He was condemned not merely on his 
own individual account, but as their legal representative ; conse- 
quently, they were condemned in him. The sentence, passed in 
God's heavenly court, terminated at the same time upon him and 
upon his federal constituents. It was pronounced not in foro 
conscientiie, but in foro D^i. But as no sentence of condemna- 
tion can be justly pronounced except upon the ground of guilt, 
and as Adam's posterity were not in conscious existence when 
they Avere thus condemned, his guilt — the guilt of his first sin as 
representatively their sin — Avas imputed to them as the ground of 
their condemnation. It Avas not their guilt as contracted subjec- 
tively and consciously, but as incurred federally, legally, repre- 
sentatively. In the former sense, the guilt Avas that Avhich 
attached to another's sin — peecatum alienum ; in the latter, it 
was a guilt Avhich resulted from their own sin. The distinction 
is scriptural and obvious, and it is the only one Avhich even 
approximately relieves the difficulties which the speculative reason 
encounters in its attempt to construe the facts of the case. But 
whether the thinking faculty is satisfied by it or not, faith accepts 
the exposition Avhich it recognises as furnished by Inspiration 
itself. 

Here, then, we have again an "antecedent and immediate 
imputation" — the imputation of Adam's guilt to his posterity, 
Avhich Avas antecedent to their personal existence and sulyective 
depravity, and Avhich Avas immediate, as not conditioned by or 



110 THE FEDKRAL THEOLOGY: 

mediated tlirough tlieir conscious corruption. The parrtllelisra 
between the two Adams and their respective seeds is, in the points 
indicated, without a jarring element, condemnation being substi- 
tuted for justification in the instance of the first Adam and his 
race. Christ obeyed the hiw ; his seed representatively obeyed 
the law in him. Adam disobeyed the law ; his seed representa- 
tively disobeyed the law in him. Christ was justified in God's 
court; his seed were representatively justified in him in God's 
court. Adam was condemned in God's court ; his seed were 
representatively condemned in him in the same court. Christ's 
righteousness and its consequent merit were imputed to his seed 
as the ground of their justification in the court of heaven ; 
Adam's sin and its consequent guilt were imputed to his seed as 
the ground of their condemnation in the same court. The impu- 
tation of Christ's righteousness and its merit to his seed, in God's 
court, as the ground of their justification was antecedent to their 
spiritual birth, and the existence of subjective holiness ; the 
imputation of Adam's sin and its guilt to his seed in God's court 
as the ground of their condemnation was antecedent to their 
natural Ijirth and the existence of subjective depravity. The 
second l)irtli designates the parties upon whom the covenant of 
grace takes effect ; first birth designates the parties upon whom 
the covenant of works terminates. The new birth in holiness of 
Christ's seed is the judicial consequence of their antecedent jus- 
tification in God's court. The first birth in corruption of Adam's 
seed is the judicial consequence of their antecedent condemnation 
in God's court. The creation of Christ's seed in holiness is the 
glorious reward of his obedience ; the birth of Adam's seed in 
corruption is a penal infliction for his disobedience. All who 
were rejiresented in Christ live ; all who were represented in 
Adam die. All who were in Christ legally lived in hini, when 
he by his consummate obedience entitled himself and them to the 
reward of the highest life — confirmed holiness and bliss. All 
who were in Adam legally died in him, when he, by his inex- 
cusable disobedience, subjected himself and them to the deei>est 
curse — confirmed corruption and woe. ]iorn by a supernatural 
generation into the kingdom of grace, all who were in Christ live 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. Ill 

spiritually and cwporeally, by a resurrection from the death of 
sin and the dust of the grave ; and live, as invested with a right 
and title to supreme and everlasting felicity. Born by a natural 
generation into the kingdom of Satan, all who were in Adam 
are dead spiritually and die corporeally; brought forth in sin, 
sinking into the agony of dissolution and the rottenness of the 
tomb, and made liable to death eternal which consigns soul and 
body to the pains of hell for ever. All who were in Adam die ; 
all who were in Christ live. "By one man sin entered into the 
world, and death by sin" ; but "they which receive abundance 
of grace and the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, 
Jesus Christ." "For, as by one man's disobedience many were 
made sinners ; so by the obedience of one shall many be made 
righteous." The analogy is perfect between the first and second 
Adams and their respective seeds, so far as the operation of the 
principle of federal representation is concerned ; the modes of its 
application in the two cases, and the results attained, were as 
different as are mere grace and recovering mercy, as legal and 
priestly representation, as are justification and condemnation, as 
life and death, heaven and hell. 

II. The import of the federal theology, according to the Calvin- 
istic conception of it — and it is the scriptural conception — having 
been thus briefly exhibited, let us pass on to consider its regulative 
influence : first, upon the doctrines of natural religion — the 
religion of law ; secondly, upon those of supernatural religion — 
the religion of redeeming grace. 

1. It makes short Avork with non-Calvinistic hypotheses in 
regard to the relation of the race to Adam, and the eftect exerted 
upon them by his sin. 

It sweeps all standing ground from the Pelagian doctrine. The 
wild and monstrous dream that men are born destitute of moral 
principle and of impulses to moral action, and that they elec- 
tively determine their character as sinful by virtue of an imitative 
disposition, is at once dissipated in the light of a doctrine which 
affirms the imputation of guilt to the race and their condemnation 
in God's court antecedently to their conscious existence — the 
previous passage of a just legal sentence, which, upon judicial 



112 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

grouiifls, necessitates their birth in corru])tion. Tliey are born 
•lea<l in trespasses and sins, l)ecause the deatii-sentence of the 
divine hiw had already been pronouneed upon them. 

It sliows the utter incompetency of the Arminian theory. In 
that theory, the terms, covenant, federal., representative, are all, 
it is true, employed, but employed abusively. What is meant is, 
that Adam was the parental representative of his posterity. The 
consequences of his sin are entailed upon them, just as those of 
the sins of ordinary parents are visited upon their children. The 
theory, according to the express statement of Richard Watson, 
in his Theological Institutes, corresponds Avith tliat of Dr. Isaac 
AVatts.' The feature which distinguishes Adams influence from 
that of parents in general is, that, as he was the first parent, the 
results of his sin are inflicted uj)on the whole family of niankind. 
This theory, whatever may be the language it speaks, does not 
include the principle of federal representation. There are two 
elements entering essentially into the operation of that jjrinciple, 
which the theory discards. The first is, that those who are repre- 
sented do the very acts of their representative — do them really, 
l)Ut not subjectively and consciously ; do them legally and repre- 
sentatively. In this sense, the descendants of Adam comuiitted 
his first sin. This the federal theology affirms, and this the 
Arminian theory denies. The second element is, that the very 
sentence which is pronounced upon the representative is pro- 
nounced upon liis constituents. The sentence of condemnation 
which was, in (rod's court, passed upon Adam, was at the same 
time j)assed upnn his posterity. This also the federal theology 
affirms, and this also the Arminian theory denies. The rejection 
of these elements of the federal system by this theory, were it 
not explicitly made,^ can easily be shown to result logically from 
the analogy which it maintains between the case of Adam and 
that of ordinary parents. For it is very certain that children do 
not perform the very acts of their parents ; and it is equally cer- 
tain that they are not subject to the very sentences which may 
have been passed upon their parents for their crimes. No ciiild 

' \ ol. ii., I'urt ii., Chap. xviii.,p. 53. 

- Watson, Theo. Inst., Vol. II., Part II., p. 53. 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 113 

is sentenced to death because his father was. He is not hanged 
because his father came to the gallows. The distinction cannot 
be overlooked between the penal infliction of the retributive con- 
sequences of the representative sin of Adam upon his federal 
constituents and the visitation of calamities upon children because 
of the offences of their parents. It deserves to be considered, 
too, that there are no results flowing to their children from the 
acts of godly parents Avhich illustrate, by analogy, the conse- 
quences accruing to his seed from the obedience and justification 
of Christ. The federal and parental constitutions are different 
things. In short, the federal theology, embracing the principle 
of strict legal representation, being once established, the Arminian 
theory falls to the ground. 

2. The federal theology, as embodying in itself the principle of 
federal representation, shows to be baseless, at least to be useless 
and superfluous, those metaphysical theories propounded by Cal- 
vinistic divines, Avhich attempt to explain the responsibility of the 
race for the first sin upon other grounds than those of legal repre- 
sentation and the imputation of another's guilt, and maintain the 
position that they are accountable for that sin by the fact that it was 
theirs in the very same sense in Avhich it was Adam's. They did 
not commit it legally and representatively in him as their federal 
head, but in the exercise of their own proper agency. Into this 
class fall the Realistic theory of generic unity, the theory of 
Numerical Identity, advocated by Dr. Baird and Dr. Shedd, and 
President Edwards's theory that God, by a naked exercise of sov- 
ereignty, constituted Adam and his posterity the same agent, and 
that he effects the sameness by successive acts of creative power. 
He creates each of tlte race what Adam Avas, and as doing what 
Adam did. They are created one and the same. The theory is 
part and parcel of his philosophical doctrine of Continuous Cre- 
ation. 

These theories are reducible to unity upon a common principle, 
namely, the justice of imputing to one the guilt of an act which 
he has performed strictly in his own proper, subjective capacity. 
But this is exclusive of the principle upon which the justice is 
aflBrmed of imputing to one the guilt of an act which is strictly 



114 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

and properly another's, and \vliicli is oidy one's own in tlie sense 
that he performed it legally and representatively in that other. 
It is manifest that tliese two principles cannot be applied to one 
and the same act. If the guilt of Adam's sin be imputed to his 
posterity because it was their own subjectively, it cannot be also 
imputed to them because it was theirs representatively. And the 
contrary supposition must be equally true — if it be imputed to 
them because it was theirs representatively, it cannot be imputed 
to them because it was theirs subjectively. Both cannot be, one 
or the other must be, true. If, tiierefore, the principle of federal 
representation determined the relation of Adam's guilt to the race, 
the theories under consideration are excluded. The federal 
theology accounts sufficiently for the facts of the case. It is not 
intended to deny that the community of nature between Adam 
and his posterity may have rendered it fit and proper that he 
should be the person to represent them, that the natural relation 
grounded the propriety of the federal. What is affirmed is, that 
as he was appointed their legal representative, they became impli- 
cated in his guilt by virtue of their relation to him in that 
capacity : it was the federal relation which grounded the imputa- 
tion of guilt. 

3. The principles of the federal theology also rule out as inad- 
equate, if not unnecessary, the theory of Propagation ; for, even 
supposing that it explains the transmission of corruption, it gives 
no account of the derivation of federal guilt. The attempt is 
made to harmonise the two by the view, that corruption is propa- 
gated through the parental channel and guilt derived through the 
federal. To my mind, the reconciliation is hopeless, and the 
reduction incompetent. For, if corruption 'descend by propaga- 
tion, it is plain that guilt is imputed to each descendant of Adam, 
in consequence of his own subjective depravity. It is his own 
inherent corruption and his own personal guilt. Where, then, is 
the necessity of supposing the descent of federal guilt ? And 
then, further, what originally grounded the justice of the propa- 
gati<m ? To these questions the theory, either as modified or 
unmodified, furnisiies no answer. Tiie theory of Planeus was 
really that of Propagation. The conscious corruption of the 



ITS IMPORT AXD ITS REOULATIVE INFLUENCE. 115 

descendants of Adam grounds the imputation of their own, and 
not another's, guilt to tliem. The extraordinary hypothesis of 
the mediate imputation of Adam's guilt was an afterthought, and 
its meaning is only conceivable on the supposition that each man^ 
by his own conscious, voluntary acts, approves and — so to speak — 
endorses Adam's sin, and the imputation of the guilt of that sin 
is thus mediated through his own conscious sins — a supposition 
"which is destroyed by the simple consideration that, according to 
it, notwithstanding the existence of original sin in the infant, 
there would be no imputation of Adam's guilt until the period of 
conscious, voluntary agency be reached. The federal theology 
disposes of this whole theory, Avith its troop of difficulties, by 
affirming the antenatal imputation of Adam's guilt. Corruption 
is the judicial result of an antecedent imputation to the race of 
the guilt which they representatively contracted in Adam. Na 
satisfactory account can be furnished of either the propagation or 
the existence of corruption, except upon the supposition of such, 
an imputation. 

4. There is still another theory which, with profound respect 
for the eminent persons by whom it has been supported, I am 
constrained to say is ruled out by the principle of federal repre- 
sentation. As it maintains that federal guilt and subjective 
depravity so concur in the same concrete and inseparable expe- 
rience that neither is in order to the other, it may, for the sake 
of convenience, be styled the theory of Concurrence. 

There are two main aspects of this theory — a negative, in which 
objections are urged against the doctrine of Immediate Imputa- 
tion ; a positive, in which the attempt is made to show that the 
imputation of Adam's guilt to his posterity is neither mediate, as 
conditioned by their subjective depravity, nor immediate as ante- 
cedent to that depravity ; but that men are born in a condition 
in which depravity and the imputation of guilt coexist as facts in 
one concrete whole, there being no relation of production between 
them. There is not room enough for anything like a thorough 
discussion of these points. Only a brief criticism of the theory 
will be offered, in Avhicli it will be laid alongside of the line and 
plummet of the principle of representation, and judged through 
that comparison. 



116 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

First, it is objected that the doctrine of Immediate Imputation 
supposes the existence, if only for an instant, of each descendant 
of Adam, in personal innocence, before the imputation to him of 
the guilt of the first sin ; and that, consequently, such imputa- 
tion is causeless, gratuitous, arbitrary. The objection is easily 
discharged. According to the federal theology, every man, 
before his earthly history begins, had a legal and representative 
existence in Adam, and so in him really performed representative 
acts which really entailed legal conse((uences. In "this sense, 
every man really sinned in Adam, and fell with him in his first 
transgression. And, in this sense, every man was condemned in 
Adam, in the moment of Adam's condemnation. The guilt of 
the first sin, which w^as really, although not subjectively and con- 
sciously, his sin — which was his sin by virtue of the representa- 
tive relation he sustained to it, was imputed to him, in God's 
court, as the ground of his condemnation. It follows that every 
man comes into the world already condemned on the ground of 
imputed guilt. This the doctrine of Immediate Imputation has 
for the very burden of its teaching ; this, precisely this, it was 
formulated to enforce. How, then, can it suppose the subsequent 
existence in innocence, even for one instant, of any soul of man ? 
Why, it is this doctrine, and this alone, which accounts for the 
beginning of earthly existence in inherent corruption. It does 
this by showing that every man had, Ijoforo birth, lost his inno- 
cence, and was condemned, and that therefore no man could, 
consistently with divine justice, be brought into earthly existence 
in innocence. The previous sentence supposed guilt antecedently 
to birth, and therefore necessitated birth in corruption. Every 
descendant of Adam was guilty before birth, and is therefore 
guilty and inherently corrupt at birth. Further, the theory 
under consideration admits the existence of guilt as well as inhe- 
rent corruption at the moment of birth. Now, how will it account 
for guilt ? It cannot say that it is the result of propagated cor- 
ruption, for it expressly denies that corruption is in order to guilt. 
It cannot say that the infant contracts it, for it must concede that 
the infant cannot perform any voluntary act which would incur 
guilt. How, then, will it account for the presence of guilt? It 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 117 

cannot, except upon the ground that it was imputed antecedently 
to birth ; and that is the position which it was framed to deny. 
But that being denied, its charge against the doctrine of Imme- 
diate Imputation of implying a gratuitous imputation of guilt 
recoils upon itself. It furnishes no explanation of the presence 
of guilt at birth. The doctrine objected to does furnish one, and 
it is one which springs from the principles of the federal theology. 
In the second place, let us briefly contemplate the positive 
element in this theory, which is, that neither does guilt ground 
depravity, nor depravity ground guilt, but that they concur as 
co-ordinate facts in one concrete and undivided condition of the 
soul. In justification of this position reference has been made to 
what is pronounced the analagous case of Adam. As in his case 
depravity and guilt came together Avithout any causal relation 
between them, so it is with us. Now, then, the question arises, 
How was it with Adam ? We may consider his case either in 
respect to the relation between his guilt and his act of sin, or 
between his guilt and his state of depravity. Take the former 
relation. It is perfectly clear that Adam's first act of sin was in 
order to the first imputation of guilt to him. Otherwise, guilt 
w^as causelessly and arbitrarily imputed to him. Guilt cannot be 
justly imputed where there has been no precedent wrong-doing. 
If then our case be analogous to Adam's, a conscious act of sin 
must precede and ground our guilt ; and the theory of Placpeus is 
admitted. But hoAv could that be possible in the case of an in- 
fant incapable of conscious acts of sin ? Let us take the latter 
relation — that of Adam's guilt to his state of depravity. It is 
evident that that state was a penal consequence of the guilt con- 
tracted by his first sinful act. He sinned; God charged the guilt 
of that sin upon him ; and then punished him by the withdrawal 
from him of his grace, which necessarily sunk him into confirmed 
depravity. Here the imputation of guilt grounded the settled 
condition of corruption. Now, if our case be like Adam's, in 
this regard, the imputation of guilt grounds our state of depravity ; 
and the doctrine of Immediate Imputation is admitted. If, there- 
fore, our case be considered analogous to Adam's in the first as- 
pect, the result is the doctrine of Mediate Imputation ; if in the 



118 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: " 

latter, tliat of Immediate Imputation. If this analo^jy be pressed 
in favor of the theory in liaiid, the election must be nuide between 
these alternative doctrines. There is no possibility of a middle 
supposition. In fine, it is clear that depravity must ground guilt, 
or guilt depravity. If depravity does not ground guilt, why 
are we held guilty ? If guilt does not ground depravity, how 
came avc to be born depraved ? The federal theology pre- 
sents the fact of 'immediate and antecedent imputation" as 
the only key to these difficulties. In Adam we representatively 
committed the first sinful act. That grounded the imputation 
of guilt to us. That in turn grounds our inherent depravity, 
and that again induces conscious acts of depravity, and tiiey 
ground the imputation of conscious guilt. First, the repre- 
sentative act of the first sin ; secondly, representative guilt result- 
ing from it; thirdly, the state of inherent dej)ravity, beginning 
at birth, as the judicial consequence of the imputation of that 
guilt; fourthly, actual transgressions; fifthly, conscious, personal 
guilt — that is the order enforced by the principle of federal repre- 
sentation as the genius of the federal theology. 

5. The regulative influence of the federal theology is in nothing 
more signally manifested than in the fact, that it affords the only 
toleraljle solution of the profound and awful mysteries which hang 
over the moral liistory of the race. We are born in sin ; we be- 
gin our earthly career in spiritual death, disabled for the ))er- 
formance of any holy act, and bound, apart from God's redeem- 
ing grace, by a fatal necessity of sinning; I say not, of commit- 
ting this or that particular sin, but of sinning. We are required 
to render a perfect obedience to the divine law which we have no 
ability to yield; failing that, we are commanded to exercise faith 
in Christ which we have in ourselves no power to put forth ; we 
cannot deliver ourselves from this mournful captivity to the law 
of sin and death, we are bound in affliction and iron : and still 
we are justly hehl responsible for this condition, are rigliteously 
condemnable for its existence and are liable, on account of it, to 
the eternal pains of hell. Is it any wonder that reason reels and 
staggers under the ap|)arent contradictions of the case? that she 
fumbles like the blind and feels after some guiding hand? Now, 



. ITS IMPORT AXD ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 119 

if this were our original state, if thus we were at first created, if 
our history had no other beginning than one thus conditioned, 
the blackness of darkness would settle down upon the problem. 
But reason cannot be satisfied by such a supposition. She 
craves and demands anotlier. Kant's hypothesis of an extra- 
temporal condition, and Julius ]M'uller's and Edward Beecher's, of 
an ante-mundane existence, in which each individual determined 
his destin}- by a free self-decision, attest at once her anxiety and 
her inability to escape from the gigantic difficulty. Scripture, 
philosophy, and consciousness being her guides, she is estopped 
from taking that road for deliverance. Here the word of God 
comes to our help, and darts a morning beam into the deep mid- 
night of the case. It informs us that our history began not at our 
birth but at the creation of Adam, not in the place of our nativity, 
but in Paradise. In our first parent, appointed of God our head 
and representative, we had our legal probation under a covenant, 
which conditioned upon obedience for a limited time the attain- 
ment of justification and adoption — of indefectible holiness and 
bliss. In him we had freedom of Avill to elect the path of recti- 
tude and to stand in integrity, in liim we were endowed with 
amply sufficient grace to meet all the requirements of the trial. 
But he sinned and we sinned in him. He fell and Ave fell with 
him. We wilfully threw aAvay our ability to render obedience to 
God, and, passing under the curse of a broken law, sunk into our 
present condition of helpless inability as the punishment of our 
foul and inexcusable revolt. This is the solution which the fed- 
eral theology affords of the mysteries which enshroud our moral 
state. Our inability is not original; it is penal. Discard this 
solution furnished by the Oracles of God, and we shall find that 
every other oracle is as dumb as the Theban Sphinx. Even this 
explanation does not dispel all the difficulties which emerge when 
we attempt to think the case, but it is certainly more satisfactory 
than any which reason can furnish ; while faith bows reverently 
at the shrine of Inspiration and thankfully accepts the measure 
of light which it gives. 

6. Still further, the federal theology exerts a regulative influ- 
ence in determining the question of the salvability of the race, 



120 THE FEDERAL TIIEOLOOY: 

apart from the remedial provisions of the gospel. It definitely 
reveals the doctrine, that God has never dealt with human beings 
except througli covenant methods, and that justification has never 
been made possible to man save through the vicarious obedience 
of a federal head. How then can a sinner be justified? The 
covenant of works, as a covenant of life, is shattered, and naught 
issues from its ruins but the thunder of its penalty preluding the 
trump of doom. Its federal head was himself condemned, and 
he who would now turn to it for hope presents the mournful 
spectacle of a dying man seeking life from Adam's grave. There 
is no hope but through the vicarious obedience of the second 
Adam, which grounds the bestowal of the blessings that are pro- 
mised to faith by another and better covenant. 

And then, also, the solemn question springs up and chal- 
lenges an answer, How can the heathen be saved ? They must 
be brought into relation to a federal liead who, as their sponsor 
at the divine bar, can answer for them ; who having impetrated 
their salvation, can sue out its application to them. The first 
Adam cannot avail them. He is a dead and buried representa- 
tive, nor can his tomb be rent except by another representative 
who cries at the gates of Death's empire: I am the resurrection 
and the life. But they know not the second Adam. There is 
no covenant of life with which they are brought into contact. 
Aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, strangers to the cove- 
nants of promise, they are without Christ, and therefore without 
God and without hope. How loud, how urgent, how imperative 
the call to the Christian Church to evangelise a world lying in 
wickedness and in the region and shadow of death I The federal 
theology settles the (juestion of the salvability of the heathen. It 
enforces, in no uncertain tones, the doctrine that there is no sal- 
vation for them except through the knowledge of Jesus Christ, 
the glorious representative of sinners in the eternal cin-enant of 
redem])tion. 

Having indicated, in part, the regulative influence, of the fed- 
eral tlieology upon the doctrines of Natural Religion, I proceed, 
as necessity recpiires, very briefly to exhibit the same upon those 
of Supernatural Religion or, wiiat is the same tiling, the gospel 
scheme. 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 121 

Apart from the conception of the federal system which has 
been imperfectly sketched in the preceding remarks, no Calvinist 
can state the successive steps in the application of the benefits of 
redemption, without plunging himself into inextricable perplexi- 
ties. Just look for a moment at some of the difficulties attending 
such an attempt. So ftir as we can see, it might have pleased 
God to bring the elect seed of Chi'ist into earthly existence 
regenerated, to render their first and second birth coincident. 
This does not appear to be his ordinary method of procedure. 
They come into this world unregenerate, and at God's appointed 
time they are regenerated by the creative power of the Holy Ghost. 
He views them lying in their blood in the field of rebellion and 
bids them, live ! But whatever supposition may be made as to 
this matter, it is the doctrine of the Calvinist that regeneration, 
in the order of nature at least, precedes justification. Now if it 
be maintained that there was no justification previous to regener- 
ation, it would follow that God confers the blessing of life, while, 
in every sense, he denounces the curse of death ; that the princi- 
ple of holiness is infused into the soul while, in every sense, it 
lies under the penalty of a condemning law; that it lives spirit- 
ually while legally dead, and that it is united by regenerating 
grace to Christ the source of life, while yet the death-sentence 
is, in no sense, removed. If it be said, that the difficulty is met 
by the consideration that regeneration and justification take place 
synchronously, it is obvious to reply, that regeneration may be, 
and no doubt sometimes is, effected in the case of infants, the dif- 
ference in time being palpable between their new birth and their 
actual justification; and that in the case of adult elect sinners, 
their regeneration, in the order of production, is a condition pre- 
cedent to their actual justification, so that without its occurrence 
that justification could not be effected. The very question is, 
how regeneration can be effected in ordei- <o justification; how a 
sinner can be renewed in holiness before the removal of guilt and 
His deliverance from the curse. 

These difficulties press still more heavily upon those who, 
rejecting the doctrine of an immediate imputation of Christ's 
righteousness and an antecedent justification in for o dlvino, con- 



122 TJIE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

tend that repentance, in the narrow sense of penitence, precedes 
actual ju'itification. On that supposition, as it is inconceivable 
that a penitent soul could be destitute of the divine fjivor which 
implies pardon, and yet exercises penitence as a condition prece- 
dent to justification throuffh which alone pardon is actually im- 
parted, it must be regarded as at one and the same time actually 
pardoned and actually unpardoned; which is a contradiction. 

It is evident that a sinner cannot be regenerated and perform 
hol}"^ acts, until in some sense his guilt is removed and his obliga- 
tion to punishment remitted. In a word, he must be pardoned 
before he can be renewed and exert holy cncrijies — not conscious- 
ly pardoned, but pardoned representatively in Christ. Those 
who oppose this view are shut up to the necessity of holding, that 
an unpardoned, that is, a condemned, sinner is the recipient of 
the transcendent blessing of regeneration; that he then, as still 
unpardoned, puts forth the holy exercise of faith, and is then for 
the first time pardone(l and invested with a right to life. 

These are insMi)erat)le difficulties to those who discard the doc- 
trine of a virtual or representative justification of Christ's seed 
and an ''antecedent and immediate imputation" of his righteous- 
ness to tiiem, conditioning, consistently with the divine perfec- 
tions and honor, the actual application to them of the purchased 
benefits of rdemption. To those who hold that doctrine these 
difficulties do not exist. According to it, the order in which the 
great case is developed may be thus compendiously stated : first, 
Christ the representative of the elect, having fulfilleil the condi- 
tions of the covenant which were required of him. was justified, 
and they were implicitly justified in him — that is, they were, in 
mass, pardoned and invested with a right to indefectible life in 
him, by virtue of a judicial sentence passed in the divine court; 
secondly, at God's appointed time, during the j>eriod of the 
earthly history of each individual of fheui, his representative and 
High Priest, interceding for him in tlie heavens, sues out the 
grace of the Holy Sjjirit to be actually bestowed upon him, and 
pardon to be actually imparted to him ; thirdly, God, consistent- 
ly with his infinite justice and holiness, now comes through the 
Holy Spirit into jtersonal contact with the sinner, actually and 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 123 

consciously condemned and unregenerate, but regarded as virtually 
and representatively justified — pardoned and accepted in Christ 
his head; convinces him of his sin and misery, moves him to 
pray for mercy, enlightens him in the knowledge of Christ as a 
Saviour from sin, death, and hell, regenerates him and thus 
unites him vitally and spiritually to his federal head; fourthly, 
the sinner now born again consciously exercises, as the first 
function of spiritual life, faith in Christ, and is actually justi- 
fied in the court of conscience. The pardon Avhicli had been 
impetrated and sued out for him is now actually imparted to him, 
and he is actually and formally invested with a title in Christ to 
eternal life. The adoption, sanctification, and glorification of 
the justified man follow as constituent elements of the reward 
promised to his federal head, and as integral parts of the salva- 
tion purchased by his blood. The ordo salutis is clearly settled 
by a strict construction of the federal scheme. 

A full discussion of this subject would necessitate a detailed 
exposition of the bearing of the federal theology upon the par- 
ticular doctrines of the gospel scheme. But of this time Avill not 
admit. All that can now be done is in a few words to indicate 
its influence upon those elements of Calvinism, through which it 
comes into open conflict with other systems of theology. 

Observe its bearing upon the doctrine of Election. It must be 
admitted that, in the order of thought, the election of those to be 
redeemed preceded the formation of the covenant contemplating 
their redemption, and the appointment of their federal head. 
But the fact, definitely revealed in the Scriptures, that the Father 
gave the elect to the Son as federal head, to be represented and 
redeemed by him, fixes the scope of the electing decree, and deter- 
mines it as unconditioned by anything in the elect themselves. 
That a definite number, chosen from the fallen mass of mankind, 
were given to the mediatorial head to be represented by him, is 
proved by the consideration, that if all had been given to him to 
be represented, as his federal obligations were perfectly fulfilled, 
all must be saved. But the fact is incontestable that all are not 
saved. It follows that all were not represented by the federal head, 
and that, therefore, all were not objects of the electing decree. 



124 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

That the federal arrangement proves the electing decree to b? 
unconditioned upon anything in the elect themselves, is evinced 
by the fact that the only condition upon which the impetration 
of salvation was suspended, was the meritorious obedience of the 
federal head himself; and that lie was freely elected by the Fatlier 
in order to the performance of that condition, and not because of 
any foresight of its fulfihnent. The covenant itself and the 
appointment of tlie federal head himself were results, not the 
conditioning ground, of election. This settles the ([uestion of the 
unconditional nature of the electing purpose. If it was not con- 
ditioned upon the foresight of Christ's federal obedience, it most 
certainly was not upon the foreseen faith and good works of the 
elect. 

Next, notice the bearing of the principle of representation upon 
the Extent of the Atonement. The doctrine of a Particular Atone- 
ment is necessitated by it. If Christ was really the legal rejire- 
sentative of his seed, then, in accordance with the maxim already 
mentioned, what they did and suffered through him they them- 
selves did and suffered. This must be allowed, or a strict con- 
struction of the federal system be abandoned. When, therefore, 
by his atoning sacrifice Christ rendered perfect satisfaction to 
divine justice, he paid their debt to law as a standard of justifica- 
tion, and they paid it in him, and are consequently pardoned and 
for ever absolved from the obligation to punishment. Now, if 
Christ's atoning obedience were vicariously rendered for all men, 
it would follow, from the demands of the representative principle, 
that all men having complied with the requirements of the law in 
him as their federal head would be pardoned and eternally dis- 
charged from obligation to punishment. Facts prove this to be 
untrue. The conclusion is inevitable, that all men were not repre- 
sented by Christ in the accomplishment of atonement. It was the 
elect seed, given to him by the Father to be redeemed, who alone 
were represented by him wlien as a federal priest he offered him- 
self an atoning sacrifice for sin. The truth is, that atonement 
made by a federal head and representative cannot, from the nature 
of the case, acquire merely possible, contingent, amissihle lienefits, 
but must secure results which are definite, uncontingent, immut- 



ITS IMPORT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 125 

able. Those must be pardoned and saved for whom he acts. 
Such results do not terminate on all men. Therefore, all were 
not represented in Christ's atoning obedience. 

The determining influence of the federal theology is also obvious 
upon the doctrine of Vocation. The elect seed of Christ who 
were represented by him in the impetration of redemption must 
in time be called into spiritual and living union with him as their 
head, or his obedience unto death would prove an utter failure. 
But they are in themselves spiritually dead, in consequence of 
the breach of the covenant of works by their first representative. 
The vocation must, therefore, of necessity, be accomplished by 
almighty and creative power. Such power is efficacious and irre- 
sistible. Nothing, before it is created, can resist the power which 
calls it into existence. The dead cannot resist the power that 
raises them. This power which calls the elect from spiritual death 
into vital union Avith their federal head is Grace. The doctrine 
of efficacious, irresistible grace is thus briefly but conclusively 
established by the requirements of the federal system. 

It is scarcely requisite to remark, that the doctrine of the Final 
Perseverance of the Saints is a necessary inference from the prin- 
ciples of the federal theology. The obedience which Christ, as 
the representative of his elect seed, rendered to the law is perfect ; 
it is finished. The eye of justice, the scrutiny of Omniscence, 
detect in it no blemish. It has been examined at the divine bar 
and judicially pronounced satisfactory. It cannot be invalidated; 
there is no contingency of failure in its results. But Christ's 
seed representatively rendered that obedience in him. It there- 
fore grounds, with absolute certainty, their everlasting holiness 
and happiness, their complete and indefectible life. The federal 
representative is in glory ; the federal constituency must also be 
glorified. If not, the principle of representation is a figment, and 
the covenant of redemption breaks down amidst the jeers of hell. 

A few remarks will be added in regard to the results achieved 
by the employment of the principle of federal representation, and 
this discussion, too long for the occasion, but too short for the 
subject, will be brought to a close. 

The enthronement of Grace is secured. Neither the federal 
nor the representative principle can be conceived as original in 



12C) THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY: 

the moral government of God: neither springs from the essential 
rohitions of creatures to the Creator, of subjects to the divine 
Ruler. These principles are not one and the same. For aught 
we know, it might have pleased God, without collecting our race 
into legal unity, to have entered into a covenant with each indi- 
vidual, promising him justification upon the condition of an obedi- 
cnci' limited as to time. This would have been the free and 
spontaneous suggestion of his grace. But this he did not destine 
to be historically realised. He grouped the race, appointed for 
it a federal head and representative, and suspended its confirma- 
tion in holiness and lia))])iness ujion the easy performance by him, 
thoroughly (jualified for it as he was, of a temporary obedience. 
This was grace upon grace — rich, abounding, exu)>erant grace; 
and had the reward of the first covenant been attained, a justified 
world, as its generations unmowed by death rolled on to ever- 
multiplying myriads, would have poured out a doxology, con- 
tinually swelling in volume, at the throne of free and sovereign 
grace. 

But the first representative of the race fell from a paradise of 
innocence and bliss, and dragged it down with him into an abyss 
of ruin relieved by no gleam of hope. Truth thundered, the soul 
that sinneth it shall die; justice demanded eternal punishment; 
law brandished the awful sword of its penalty; and the holy 
universe looked on to see the mass of rebels swept by tlie arm of 
power, like the fallen angels, into the open mouth of hell. But 
grace failed not in the dreadful emergency. No longer contem- 
plating the case of the merely undeserving, it assumed the 
lovelier aspect of mercy — pitiful, recovering, redeeming jnercy — 
commiserating the ill-deserving, the miserable, the lost. When < 
there was no eye to pity and no arm to save, it provided another 
representative, chosen from among the persons of the ever- 
blessed Godhead, and allied to man by Adamic blood — a divine- 
liuman representative, who undertook the desperate case of the 
seed of Abraham. an<l for them satisfied the law in life and in 
death, brought in everlasting righteousness, con({uered sin and 
Satan, the grave and hell, gained the paradise of God, and won 
imperishable life. Grace illustrated in the sinner's triumphant 
and ascended representative, shines fortji with new and more 



ITS IMPOllT AND ITS REGULATIVE INFLUENCE. 127 

splendid effulgence, and is enthroned amidst the acclamations of a 
redeemed and glorified Church. Grace ! grace ! will be alike 
the key-note and the refrain of the new and everlasting song. 

Tlie enthronement of Justice and Law is secured. It was 
impossible tliat infinite justice, the ultimate basis of the divine 
government, or an infinite law, the formal expression of that 
aAvful and venerable attribute, should ever be compromised or 
relaxed. Upon the supposition that the guilty and unholy were 
to be restored to the fiivor of God, the problem of the reconcilia- 
tion of that fact Avith the inexorable demands of those funda- 
mental elements of moral rule, was suspended for solution upon 
the employment of the principle of federal representation. 
Infinite wisdom proposed that method of harmonising the claims 
of justice and law on the one hand, with those of grace and mercy 
on the other. The harmony was accomplished in the person and 
work of the representative of sinners, who, on the eternal throne, 
responded to his Father's call, saying, Lo, I come ; in tlie volume 
of the book it is Avritten of me ; I delight to do thy will, my 
God : who incarnated himself, was made under the law, fulfilled 
all its requirements, preceptive and penal, burst the bands of the 
grave, "was published to the universe as the justified substitute of 
his seed, and ascended to heaven, recognised and hailed as the 
reconciler of justice and grace, of condemning law and pardoning 
mercy. Jesus ascends the throne, on which these attributes are 
equally glorified, by steps tinctured with representative blood. 
And as justice and law must be felt in unrelaxed rigor by all 
who reject the principle of representation, and so the enemies of 
Christ and his people be overthrown ; as all whose salvation is 
grounded in the operation of that principle will attuin an im- 
mutable security of life, the triumphant Church will strike her 
cymbals, and chant the blended praises of avenging justice and 
savin cr grace — "the song of Moses and the Lamb." 

Finally, the glorious and eternal exaltation of Jesus is secured. 
The peoples of this world celebrate the exploits of the heroes 
who stood in the deadly breach and were willing to sacrifice their 
lives for their native lands. Let them hail them as deliverers and 
saviours. Jesus immeasurably transcends them all. The repre- 
sentative and champion of his Father's honor, of justice and law, 



128 THE FEDERAL THEOLOGY. 

of grace and mercy, of ruined, undone, despairing sinners, tried 
but undismayed, met all his stupendous obligations, discharged 
the momentous trusts reposed in him, and returns a victor to the 
heavenly city from fields of bloody conflict with the powers of 
earth and the columns of hell. It was fit that he — the hero of 
heroes — should be lifted to an unparalleled exaltation. Attended 
by ten thousands of his holy ones, and making an open show of 
his captive foes, he rises from the theatre of battle to the throne 
of triumph. Every attribute of God demands his exaltation, 
the other persons of the Trinity welcoiuo him to liis merited 
honors, the angelic Avorld cast their crowns before him, and the 
vast congreffation of ransomed human beinffs breaks like a 
heaving ocean into the "multitudinous laughter" of joy and the 
thunders of unending praise. The hand, which once represent- 
ing the impotence of guilt, was nailed to the tree, wields a sceptre 
Avhich is the badge of irresistible dominion, and upon the head 
which, formerly gathering upon itself the accumulated shame of 
his people's sins, was dishonored by a crown of platted thorns, 
blazes the manifold lustre of an imperial diadem which is the 
symbol of universal sway. And if the numberless worlds of the 
physical s3^stem, which seem to the eye of man to sweep through 
the infinity of space, be tenanted by intelligent populations, the 
music of the rolling spheres will be accompanied by the psalmody 
of redemption, and the boundless universe will burst into an 
ascription of glory to the Lamb that was slain. The insignia of 
the Representative Economy will be indelibly impressed upon the 
throne on which .Jesus sits, the recipient of universal and peren- 
nial honor. "And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many 
an<rels, round al)out the throne, and the livinjr creatures and the 
elders, ;ind the nuniberof them was ten thousand times ten thou- 
sand, aixl thousands of thousands, saying with a loud voice, 
Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive ])ower and riches 
and wisdom and stn-ngtli and honor and gloi"y and bk-ssing. And 
every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and umler 
the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all tiiat are in tlicm, 
heard I, saying, Blessing, honor, glory, and power, be unto him 
that sitteth u])on the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and 
ever." 



PART III. 



HTSTOmC^L SKETCHES. 



I. HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL 

SEMINARY. 

BY EEV. GEORGE HOWE, D. D., LL. D. 

II. HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS AS RE- 
LATED TO THE SOUTHERN PRESBY- 
TERIAN CHURCH AND COLUMBIA 
SEMINARY. 

BY REV. J. LEIGHTON WILSON, D. D., SECRETARY OF FOREIGN 

MISSIONS. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL 
SEMINARY. 

BY REV. GEORGE HOWE, D. D., LL. D. 

That the ministers of religion should be prepared for their 
work by a suitable training, seems fully warranted by scriptural 
example. Our Saviour chose the twelve, and kept them under 
his OAvn instruction during his public ministry, before he said, 
"Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel. " Nor is the 
Apostle Paul, though "born out of due time," an exception, for 
he, of all others, enjoyed the advantage of a thorough education. 
(Acts xxii. 3; Gal. i. 14). Luke, ''the beloved physician," be- 
longed to a learned profession, and these two, between them, were 
chosen to write nearly one-half of the New Testament. 

The Levitical cities were so many universities, where the priests 
and Levites were trained, and to which the people might resort 
for their counsel. It was required that "the priest's lips should 
keep knowledge" (Mai. ii. 7). The prophets, too,, seemed ordi- 
narily to have received a preparatory education in those prophetic 
schools existing from Samuel doAvn. Yet not invariably, for 
Amos speaks of himself as an exception (Amos vii. 14). These 
examples justify the separate existence of institutions for the 
education of the ministry. 

Most of the ministers of the Presbyterian Church of South 
Carolina, and all those of Georgia, before the war of the Revolu- 
tion, were of foreign origin. Like the people they served, they 
were from England, Scotland, Ireland, France, or from the colo- 
nies farther north. One church, that of Dorchester, was organ- 
ised in Dorchester, Massachusetts, so called from Dorchester in 
England, sailed with their pastor, the Rev. Joseph Lord, an 
Englishman by birth, on the 14th of December, 1695, threaded 
their way up the Ashley River, celebrated their first communion 
under a spreading oak on the 2d of February, 1696. The same 
church migrated with its pastor, the Rev. Mr. Osgood, to Mid- 
way, Liberty County, Georgia, in 1754. 



132 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Others came, the people apart and the ministers apart, and the 
ecclesiastical bond between them was formed here. * Some few 
were licensed and ordained by the old Scotch Presbytery of 
Charleston previous to the Revolution. Francis McKemie, who 
has been regarded as the earliest Presbyterian minister in Amer- 
ica, though tliis has been called in question, contenij)lated a set- 
tlement on Ashley River, but was borne in the providence of 
God to the eastern shore of ^Maryland, and afterwards of Vir- 
ginia. The Rev. Josiah Smith, grandson of the Landgrave 
Smith, was born in Charleston in 1704, was graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1725, was ordained in Brattle Street church, 
Boston, in 172G, as a missionary pastor to the Bermudas, was 
subso(piQbtly settled as pastor of the Presbyterian church at Cain- 
hoy, probably as early as 1728; was pastor from 1734: of the 
church in Charleston, since known as the Circular church, in 
Avhich, until 1734, Presbyterians and Congregationalists wor- 
shipped together. 

Dr. Goulding, my first colleague, as he sometimes humorously 
said to me, "was the first native of Georgia that became a Pres- 
byterian minister since the foundation of the world." lie was 
born in Liberty County, Georgia, March 14, 1780, was licensed 
by Harmony Presbytery in December, 1813, was ordained and 
installed by the same Presbytery at White Bluff, below Savannah, 
on the 1st of January, 1816.' A few ministers of the Presby- 

' Dr. Siiinuel K. Talniiiiio, in Spriiiiiie's Annals, Vol. IV., p. 401, also 
says of Dr. Goulding, "lie was the first native licentiate of the Presby- 
terian Ohurch in Geor^^ia." Since the delivery of this discourse the 
author has been informed that this can only be true when our attention is 
conlinfd to our own branch of the l*resbytorian Churcli. Tlie Kev. Isaac 
Gricr, D. D., was born in Green County. Goori^ia, in tlie evontlul year 
of 177*>. lie received his early education under Drs. Waddel, Cuininins, 
and ('unnin;:liain : was ;!;raduated at Dickinson College, P.i., under Dr. 
Nisljet in llSUO; was licensed at Long Cane, Abbeville Dist., S. C, Sept. 
2d, 1802; was ordained at Sardis church, N. C, in 1804; received the 
de;iree of D. D. from .lefferson College, Pa., in IS.'iT. He died S(!pt. 2d, 
1842. His father was a member of the Uelbrmed Presbyterian Church, 
who was married to Mar^iret Livinj^stnn, then of North Carolina, in 
177"). On her f^rave, that of Margaret Grier, the mother of Dr. Isaac 
Grier, in the liurying ground of Sardis church, X. C, is placed a head- 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 133 

teviaii Church liad arisen in South Carolina in the hatter part of 
the last century, Avho were either natives of the State or were 
licensed and ordained by its Presbyteries. Between the war of 
the Revolution and the beginning of the present century thirty- 
three young men had entered the ministry who Avere Southern by 
birth or had been so licensed. Of these, twelve had been grad- 
uated at Mount Zion College at Winnsboro. 

This College was founded by the Mount Zion Society, the cen- 
tre of whose deliberations, for some years, was the city of Charles- 
ton, though its members, among whom were found men of the 
hiffhest distinction, were scattered over the State. It was incor- 
porated February 12th, 1777, "for the purpose of endowing and 
supporting a public school in" what was then "the District of 
Camden, for the education and instruction of youth." It is sig- 
nificant that the preamble of its Constitution should have been 
prefaced by Isaiah Ix. 1, andlxi. 11: "Arise, shine, for thy light 
is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. To ap- 
point unto those that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty 
for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for 
the spirit of heaviness ; that they might be called the trees of 
righteousness, the planting of the Lord, that he might be glori- 
fied." The very language is jubilant with hope and courage, and 
the very quotation may have suggested the name the Society 
adopted. 

The earliest strictly Theological Seminary in this country was 
that founded by the Associate Presbyterian Church of North 
America. It was a very unpretending institution, taught by a 
single Professor, John Anderson, D. D., a native of England, 
born on the Scotch border, a man of deep piety, a sound theolo- 
gian, but a man little versed in the ordinary afiairs of life. It 
was located in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, west of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. A log building of moderate dimensions Avas 

stone which speaks of her as "The mother of the first Presbyterian min- 
ister born in Georf^ia." Spra2;ue's Annals, Vol. IX., p. 110, of the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Church. Dr. Isaac Grier was the sjrandfather, and 
Martha Grier the ffreat-f;rand mother of our esteemed brother, Rev. W. 
M. Grier, D. D., the President of Erskine College, Due West, S. C. 



134 HISTORY OF COLrMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

erected for its students, fV(»ni five to ten in niuiil)t'r. A library 
of about 1,000 volumes ^vil8 donateil to it by bretliren in Scot- 
land. Dr. Anderson filled tliis office for twenty-six or twenty- 
seven years, resigning in 1819. This school, having been moved 
from place to place, is now established at Xenia, Ohio, where it 
has thirty-eight students, is airanged for four rrofessoi-ships, and 
has educated some 627 candidates ibr the ministry during the 
eighty-nine years of its history. 

Tiie second strictly Theological Seminary f )iinded in this coun- 
try was that set on foot by the Rev. John j\Iitchell Mason, I). D., 
of the Associate Reformed Church, which went into operation in 
the citv of New York in 1804, Dr. Mason, havintr discharged 
the duties of his Professorship with distinguished ability for six- 
teen years, broken in health, was compelleil to reiin((uish his 
place, and in May, 1821, the institution which had educated no 
less than ninety-six ministers, suspended its operations. 

The t/iinl was that of Andover, founded in 1806. 'She fourth 
Avas that of New Rrunswick, which was opened in 1810 with five 
stuilents by Dr. John Henry Livingston, of the Dutch Relbrmed 
Church, who, however, had been a Professor of Theology since 
the 19th of May, 1785, and is said to have taught upwards of 
one hundred and twenty young men in their preparation for the 
ministry. 

The fifth is that of Princeton. The Presbytery of Philadelphia 
brought the subject before the (jcneral Assembly in 1809, and 
that bndy, after submitting the matter to the Presbyteries in dif- 
ferent forms, resolved upon the founding of one Seminary, and 
located it at Princeton.' They elected Dr. Archibald Alexander 



' Tlio siihjoet hiivinir boon l)roii;:ht Ix'foro the (Joncral Asscnihly of the 
Prc.sl)yt<'rian Church l>y tlie Preshytery of" IMiihidoIpliiu, aixl bt'iiijj; sub- 
mitted to a Special Committee, three modes of accomplishinff the object 
were su^rirested. (1st.) The establishment of one j^reat school in some 
place central to the whole Church. (2d.) The establishment of two 
schools, one in the North, another in the South, (-'xl.) The estal>iish- 
mont of one in each Synod. These plans were submitted to the l'nsl)y- 
terics, mIio sent up their responses in ISO'). Ten (10) were in favor of ii 
single school. (bi<>(l)iii favor of the establishment of two schools. Ten 
(10) were in favor of a school in each Synod. Six (G) expressed the 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, 135 

Professor in 1812, Dr. Miller in 1813, and Dr. Hodge as Assis- 
tant Teacher of the Original Languages of Scripture in 1821, so 
that at Princeton there were but two Professors for the first nine 
years. 

The sixth in chronological order is our elder sister, the Union 
Theological Seminary in Virginia, Avhich was opened January 
1st, 1824, under the Rev. J. H. Rice, D. D., and within whose 
walls a large portion of our Southern Presbyterian ministers have 
been educated. 

Next, probably, was the Theological Seminary of the Associate 
Reformed Church at Pittsburg, in which the Rev. Joseph Kerr, 
D. D., Avas the- first, and for four years the sole. Professor. Then 
comes our own Seminary, in 1829, and its contemporary, the 
Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny, Pennsylvania. 

Previous to the existence of Theological Seminaries, there had 
been Professors of theology in our colleges, as in Harvard, Yale, 
Dartmouth, Princeton, perhaps, and Hampden Sidney ; but they 
seem rather to have been the spiritual teachers and pastors of the 
whole body of students than professional trainers of men for the 
ministry of the gospel. If there was any specific instruction in 
theology at all, it was obtained from some more or less distin- 
guished private minister, as was the case with the student of 
medicine or of law. And even when the schools of Theology 
had arisen, it was the custom in some Presbyteries, for example, 
in that of South Carolina, that the candidate for the ministry 
was committed to the care of some one who w^as caWedlus patro)i, 
who should superintend his preparatory education, provide for 
his necessities, keep a careful watch over his conduct, and render 
a report of the same at each meeting of the Presbytery. 

But before any attempt had been made for a Theological school 
in our own vicinity, we were invited to unite Avith the Synod of 
North Carolina in endowing a Professorship at Princeton. This 
was acceded to at a meeting held at Upper Long Cane church, in 



opinion that it was inexpedient to found any at present. From the re- 
maininij Presbyteries there was no answer. The Assembly resolved on 
the establishment of one Seminary, and located it at Princeton. — Min- 
utes, 1809, 1810, 1811. 



136 HISTORY OF C0LUM15IA THEOLOGICAL PEMIXARY. 

Abbeville County, in November, 1820. The Synod of North Caro- 
lina was to raise ^15,000. and the Synod of South Carolina and 
Georiiia the same. Of this the Presbyterv of South Carolina 
assumed $5,000 as its share, that of Harmony $7,000, and 
Georgia ^8,000. 

It appeared in 182.3, that the Synod had paid $10,061 toward 
this Professorship, that $3,480 more was subscribed, and that for 
$1,359 no provision had as yet been made. In 1828, the lioard 
of Directors of the Princeton Seminary were requested to allow 
the interest accruing from the sum already paid to be added to 
the principal until the sum pledged should be made up. This 
drew from the Directors the earnest retjuest that the interest 
might be used as heretofore, stating that the pressing wants of the 
Seminary required it. Their request was complied with, and the 
agents to collect the subscriptions continued. 

A scholarship was commenced by the ladies of Camden and 
Sumter churches. Down to 1821, more than $19,000 had been 
paid into the treasury of the General Assembly for the perma- 
nent and contingent fund of this Seminary. Some of the sums 
thus given were large. The donation of John Whitehead, of 
Burke County, Ga., amounted to $3,275 ; the Nephew Scholar- 
ship, founded by James Nephew, of Liberty County, Georgia, 
$2,500; Mrs. Hollingshead's legacy, $1,000^ Charleston Female 
Scholarship, $2,500 ; the Augusta Female Scholarship, $2,500 — 
in all, there were subscribed and jiaid in the Synod, for the Prince- 
ton institution, before the endowment of its own Seminary, between 
$42,000 and $43,000. 

But the rise and progress of 'T/cf hiternrij and Theological 
Si'ininary of the South,^' more nearly concerns ourselves. 

Dr. John S. Wilson, in his Necrology ("The Dead of the Synod 
of Georgia"), says that, "to Hopewell Presbytery belongs the 
honor of taking the initiative for establishing a Theological Semi- 
nary in the South." In 1817 a Committee was appointed by 
that body to draw up a plan for a theological school. The early 
death of Dr. Finley, soon after his election to the Presidency of 
Athens College, prevented the report of that Committee (he being 
one of its prominent members). In 1819, a new Coniniittee hav- 



HISTOilY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 137 

ing brought in its report, tlie Presbytery proceeded to the choice 
of a location for the same, when Athens and Mount Zion were 
put in nomination. The vote Avas carried for Athens. No further 
progress was made in the enterprise. Of this, Dr. Wilson sug- 
gests that the conflict as to the location was the cause. 

The effort of the Presbytery of South Carolina was more suc- 
cessful. At its forty-ninth sessions, held at Willington church, 
on the 1st of April, 1824, the Rev. Wm. H. Barr, D. D., Rev. 
Richard B. Cater, D. D., and ruling elder Ezekiel Noble, were 
appointed a Committee to draught the outlines of a Constitution, 
and the Rev. Henry Reid and John Rennie were appointed 
to prepare an address to the public. A Constitution Avas 
reported and adopted, the substantial provisions of Avhich were 
as follows : That it should be called "The Classical, Scien- 
tific, and Theological Institution of the South ;" that the Pres- 
bytery of S6uth Carolina should be ex-officio its Board of Trus- 
tees ; that it should be located in the District of Pendleton ; that 
the advantages of the Institution should be open to all denomina- 
tions ; that no student should be admitted to the classical and 
scientific department but upon a certificate of good moral char- 
acter, nor to the theological, unless he be hopefully pious ; that 
the Professor of Didactic Theology should be the Principal of the 
Institution, and prior to his inauguration should solemnly pledge 
himself to the Board not to teach any doctrines contrary to those 
contained in the Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church ; 
that as soon as the permanent funds shall amount to $15,000, the 
Institution should go into operation. The Rev. Richard B. Cater 
was appointed a special agent to visit the low country, to solicit 
contributions. 

As they advanced in this enterprise, the Presbytery became 
more and more aware of its magnitude and importance. They 
appointed their agent, the Rev. Richard B. Cater, to visit Charles- 
ton, to confer with the members of Charleston Union Presbytery 
on the subject, and to solicit contributions Avherever he went. 

A conference with the members of Presbytery was held, in 
which they expressed their willingness to cooperate on the plan 
contemplated by the Presbytery of South Carolina, provided the 



138 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SKMIXARY. 

same were submitted to and accepted by the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia. This was communicated to tlie Presbytery 
of South Carolina at its meeting in A])ril, l<S2o. A Conuuittee 
was appointed by that body to bring in a minute on that subject, 
and the Constitution Avas so altered duriii'f their October meeting, 
"that tiie said Seminary may be taken under the patronatfeof the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia at tlieir next sessions, pro- 
vided that such alterations do not affect that part of the Constitu- 
tion Avhich requires the Seminary to be located in the District of 
Pendleton, S. C." Minutes of Presbytery of South Carolina, 
Vol. I., p. 136. 

The site selected for the institution was about two miles and a 
quarter from the village of Pendleton, on the road to Orrsville, 
and was donated by Messrs. Martin Palmer. John Hunter, and 
Henry Dobson Reese. (Minutes of Synod, Vol. I., p. 150.) A 
Committee was appointed by the Board, consisting of Rev. Hugh 
Dickson, Wm. H. Barr, D. D., Col. Kobt. Anderson, Charles 
Story, and Horace Reese, to attend to the erection of suitable 
buildings. To this Committee Samuel Cherry and James C. 
Griffin were afterwards added. The Rev. R. B. Cater and the 
Rev. R. W. James were emj)loyed as agents to collect funds for 
the institution in the South, and Rev. Henry Reid in the North. 
In 1820, Col. Robt. Anderson was appointed Treasurer, and Rev. 
Wm. A. McDowell, Secretary. Rev. Dr. Barr, Rev. Hugh 
Dickson, Committee of Trust. In 1827, the Building Commit- 
tee reported a plan, viz., that the building should be of lirick. and 
should cost ^8,000; and the (.'onnnittee of Trust reported a j)lan 
to regulate investments. 

The Constitution ado})ted l)y the Synod in 1(^25 contenqtlated 
a Liter.ary and Theological Seminary for the South, substantially 
on the Presbytery's plan, to be under the direct control of a Hoard 
of Trustees, consisting of twelve clergymen and twelve laymen, 
who should have the power of appointing the Literary Faculty, 
subject to the approval of the Synod of South Carolina and 
Georgia ; the Synod, however, reserved to themselves the right 
of creating Professorships in the T/wolai/ical dej)artment. It also 
declared that a preparatory school, where souinl ami accurate 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL .^EMIXARY. 139 

instruction shall be given, may be attached to the Seminary, and 
shall be under the control and government of the Faculty. This 
Constitution was published in Charleston, in 1826.^ 

The address to the public was issued by the Committee, written, 
we suppose, by Mr. Rennie, setting forth in appropriate and 
vigorous terms the views and objects of its founders. 

"In presenting this view of our eftbrts to the world," say they, 
"we are at a loss how to express our feelings. We are conscious 
'the ground on which we stand is holy.' That in the economy of 
divine Providence, we are called, as it were, to prepare another 
wheel in that grand moral machinerv, which centuries have been 
constructing ; and which is destined, by the eternal decrees, to 
crush the powers of darkness, and usher in the brightness of milen- 
nial glory. That the world is about to experience a wonderful 
moral change, the most senseless must perceive. Andover and 
Princeton have already told us what part Theological Seminaries 
are destined to bear in the illumination and reformation of the 
present age ; and Avhen Ave find another about to rise, almost in 
the extremity of our continent, surely 'the ears of the deaf must 
begin to hear, the tongue of the dumb to sing, and the lame to 
leap as an hart.' 

"We say, we feel as though the ground we occupy were con- 
secrated ; and we only ask a half awakened world to assume 
some eminence of moral and scientific height, and trace the rays 
of light these institutions are shooting into the darkest corners of 
the earth, and gaze upon the wonders of reform these rays are 
effecting, and then say if the arm of the Lord be not visible ? 
Should not we feel as though Almightv God had called us, and in 
calling hath honored us, to light up another sun which shall throw 

^ The names of the Trustees were as follows : 

Clergnmen — Rev. F. Cummins, D. D., Rev. "W. II. Barr, D. D.. Rev. 
Henry Reid, Rev. Hu,o;h Dickson, Rev. B. M. Palmer, D. D., Rev. A. W. 
Ross:. Rev. Thomas Goulding, Rev. R. W. James, Rev. T. C. Henry, D. D., 
Rev. W. A. McDowell, Rev. John Rennie, Rev. II. S. Pratt. 

Laymen — James Wardlaw, James K. Doui^lass, -John Nesbitt, William 
Seabrook, Thomas Gumming, Joseph Bryan, Ezekiel Noble, Thomas 
Napier, David R. Evans, Thomas Means, Thomas Flemming, Robert An- 
derson. 



140 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA TIIEOLO(SICAL SEMINARY. 

Still farther west the light of the gospel, to shine upon the path- 
way of the benighted, and those who have long groped in the dim 
twilight of unenlightened reason '! Tlie types and shadows of 
the Jewish Church have been lost in the star which iiung over 
Bethlehem. The four hundred and odd years of Paganish dark- 
ness which succeeded the rising of that star have rolled over. 
The ])onip and splendor with whicii regal power for centuries 
clotlied the Church have almost, and we trust soon will entirely 
perish, as must everything that is not of God. The years of 
religious intolerance and ecclesiastic tyranny have expired, we 
hope, for ever. Our own happy country has since been discovered, 
and by 'her mild laws and well regulated liberties,' hath not only 
furnished an asylum for the oppressed, but a government accord- 
ing witli the spirit and congenial to the extension of our Redeem- 
er's kingdom. Hundreds of years have counted their last 
minutes, thrones have crumbled, and empires fallen, to l)ring 
these days of the Prince of Peace, which Ave see, and which 'the 
prophets desired to see, but died without the sight.' 

"And now, standing where we do, what nuist we feel ; or, 
rather, what must we not feel ? Those who have lived before us, 
who belonged 'to the household of faith,' have acted their part to 
extend the dominion of Christ amidst the obscurity which over- 
shadowed them ; the difficulties, the opposition, and persecutions 
which surrounded them ; and have, we firmly believe, entered the 
mansions of eternal bliss. We have to advance under auspices 
more favorable, what they only begun : and we begin in this insti- 
tution wiiat unborn generations will not only behoM, but feel and 
admire. And when the clods of the valley which shall serve to 
point the stranger to the spot where these bodies mingled with 
their kindred earth, shall vegetate, and even present a forest, this 
institution, which we are about to establish, will rise in the splen- 
dor of its meridian, and shine among those other satellites which 
have long been fed by the light of the Sun of Righteousness." 

In Aj)ril, 182G, the Charleston Union Presbytery resolved to 
endow in the Seminary a Professorship of Sacred Literature and 
Biblical Criticism (Minutes, Vol. I., pp. 51, 52), and entered 
vigorously upon the work. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 141 

In 1827 the Board recommended to the Synod so to alter the 
Constitution of the Seminary as to make it simply a tlieological 
institution. This would simplify the plan, would remove the 
objection that it would interfere Avith literary insfructions already 
existin<r, and would have a tendency to unite the feelings and 
efforts of all parts of the Church under the care of Synod, for it 
was objected that the literary part of the institution was designed 
to be a college ; and, further, that to maintain the integrity of the 
Synod, those who had subscribed to the enterprise on its present 
plan should be released from their obligations if they so desired. 
The recommendations of the Board were adopted by the Synod, 
but gave great dissatisfaction to many of the early friends of the 
institution, and to Mr. Cater, who had labored indefatigably for 
its endowment. They were, however, approved by the Charleston 
Union Presbytery (Minutes, p. 67), and were adopted by the 
Synod without a dissenting voice (Minutes, Vol. I., p. 184). 

The whole amount of subscriptions pledged under Mr. Cater's 
agency, including also that of Rev. R. W. James, and tliat of 
Rev. Mr. Reid (whose visit to the North was attended with small 
success), was ^28,937, of which $4,765.30 had been collected. 
Of this, $1,011.40 Avas refunded to the original subscribers, leav- 
ing but $3,173.90 (after expenses were deducted) to go to the 
new account. But the sums Avithdrawn Avere more than counter- 
balanced by the subscriptions of those Avho favored the change. 

Then arose 

THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF THE SYNOD OF SOUTH 
CAROLINA AND GEORGIA. 

It Avas not till December 15th, 1828, that the Synod resolved 
to put the Seminary into immediate operation. The Rev. Thomas 
Goulding, pastor of the church at Lexington, Oglethorpe County, 
Georgia, Avas elected Professor of Theology, Avith liberty to retain 
also, for the time, his pastoral charge. During the folloAving year, 
1829, there were five students under his instruction, who seem to 
have pursued, for the most part, a course of preparatory study. 

At the meeting of Synod in 1829, the Presbytery of South 
Carolina had been approached by the Board of Directors, through 



142 HISTORY OF COLIMHIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, 

a committee consisting of Rev. Dr. Barr, Jas. K. Douglas, Rev. 
S. S. Davis. Rev. Mr. Talniage, and Mr. Hand, to know whether 
they wouhl be willing to release the Synod from their pledge of 
locating the Theological Seminarv in the District of Pendleton. 
The release was generously made, though not without an expres- 
sion of disappointment at the result. When they reserved the 
location, they had especial reference to the Literary Department. 
Much zeal had been manifested fortius in the upper country; 
verbal pledges of cooperation had been made from the upper part 
of North Carolina ("which," said they, "is the most dense and 
respectable body of Presbyterians in the Southern country"); 
that, with the blessing of heaven, the Literary would have been 
a nursery to the Theological depai'tment ; that a Theological 
Seminary w ithout a literary institution under Christian uumage- 
ment was a useless thing. They have never concealed that they 
were not pleased with the College of South Caroliiui, which was 
throwing all the literature of the State into the scale of infidelity. 
And they had thought that the literary department of the Semi- 
nary, with the patronage of the Church and such advantages in 
point of location, would prove an honorable rival to the College 
of the State, and finally be the means of correcting the evil com- 
plained of It was not expect-ed that the State of Georgia, or 
even Charleston, would do anything for the literary department; 
but it was believed they avouM endow the Theological Professor- 
ships. When the literary dejiartment was abolished, there was 
great disappointment in the upper country, and confidence in the 
Synod and Presbytery was destroyed. The Presbytery expressed 
themselves thus frankly, but '"-Jicsolved, That the Pres])ytery do 
relinquish all right or claim, which they may be supposed to have 
to the location of the present Theological Seminary of the South, 
and without any reserve whatever, commit it into the hands of the 
Synod to locate it wherever they judge it most expedient." 

Much might be said on the two sides of the question thus set 
forth. The judgment of the Board and Synod was right. No 
Theological Seminary in this country, where there is no Christian 
denomination established by law, can be supplied with an ade(piate 
number of students by any one literary institution. They must 



niSTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 143 

come from many. The Theological Seminary in Columbia has 
not been Avithout its influence, however quiet it may have been, 
in concert Avith influence from other branches of the Church, in 
restoring the reign of sound religion in the College of the State. 
Howeyer liberally the academic department of the proposed insti- 
tution might have been opened to other denominations, the Baptist 
College at Greenville, the Methodist at Spartanburg, the Associate 
Reformed at Due West, the Lutheran at Newberry, would have 
arisen, and even the Presbyterian of Oglethorpe and Davidson 
might not have been superseded. 

The Board of Directors now felt at liberty to compare advan- 
tages ofi"ered by diff'erent locations. The Trustees of Mount Zion 
College in Winnsboro made overtures for the location of the 
Seminary there, Athens was advocated by others, but the Board 
eventuallv fixed on Columbia, where Col. Abraham Blandins: 
proposed to procure for it the eligible site it now enjoys; and the 
Synod concurred with the recommendations of the Board Decem- 
ber 5th, 1829. Early in January, 1830, Dr. Goulding, with the 
few students attending him, removed to Columbia and were placed 
in occupancy of the former parsonage of the Presbyterian church, 
which Avas temporarily procured for this purpose. His inaugur- 
ation took place on the ITth of March, 1830. On the 25th of 
January, 1831, the exercises of the Seminary Avere commenced 
in the buildings procured by the kindness and energy of Col. 
Blanding. The Seminary was now modelled after those of An- 
dover and Princeton ; the students Avere admitted to the Seminary 
proper, and the first regular class was formed. The missionary 
feelings of John Leighton Wilson and James L. Merrick, since 
missionaries in Africa and Persia, led to the formation, at the 
very beginning, of the Society of Inquiry on Missions, Avhich was 
organised in the Library Room of the Seminary on the evening 
of the 7th of February, 1831, and has exerted a great and salutary 
influence on the Seminary and the church in Columbia ever since. 

THE BUILDINGS OF THE SEMINARY. 

The buildings were not all, however, what you now see. On 
the site of Simons Hall stood a small unpretending structure, a 



144 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA TUEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Story and a half in height, intended for the domestics of the house. 
This was occupied by the fjiniily of Ainsley Ilall, to whom the 
residence opposite had formerly belonged, and who resided in this 
small building while the larger one (the Mifldle Building) was in 
process of construction. Another corresponding Ijuilding occuitied 
the site of Law Hall, of the same proportions. Other minor build- 
ings stood on the premises wliich were eventually removed. The 
gardener's house, a wooden structure on the east side of the scjuare, 
was removed to the west side and enlarged for a refectory and 
dining room. Fourteen thousand dollars was to be the purcluise 
money of the property as it first stood, and for finishing the build- 
ing. Of this, some ^8,000 were raised and paid by Col. Blanding, 
our friend. Legal difficulties intervened, and the whole debt was 
not paid until October 23d, 185L 

In these buildings, for a season, both professors and students 
were accommodated, although in the two small wings, in tlie upper 
story, a student, if tall, was obliged to uncover his head, if not for 
reverence, yet if he should desire to stand erect and in a manly 
and commanding attitude. 

When the professors were accommodated elsewhere, the stu- 
dents took possession of the upper story and the basement of the 
central building, while the middle story was used for the Lecture 
Rooms and Chapel. 

These inconveniences were borne with for a season. In 1852 
the Board recommended to the Synods the erection of a building 
large and convenient in place of one of the small ones, on the 
faith of certain outstanding subscriptions, supposing it might be 
done at a cost of some ^5,000; and, further, that some vigorous 
efforts be made to enlist the Synods of Alabama and Mississippi 
in the enterprise of erecting "suitable accommodations for a 
great Southern Seminary." It wa,s proposed that the other small 
buihling, on the west side of the square, should be superseded by 
another to correspond to the one now to be erected (Minutes, 
1850, p. 38). The building first projected was finished in 1854 
and in memory of ^L•s. Eliza Lucilla Simons, of Charleston, who 
had left a legacy of 35,<K)0 to the Seminary, by which, and other 
outstanding subscriptions, tiie cost of the structure was defrayed, 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 145 

it is known as "Simons Hall." It was erected at a cost of 
$7,025.35. It was furnished throughout with such articles as 
students need by friends in the city of Charleston, and was occu- 
pied in 1854. 

Mrs. Agnes Law had promised $5,000 toward the wes'tern 
wing, and had paid the first instalment of $1,000. She Avill be 
long remembered. In her hospitable mansion many ministers of 
the gospel found a temporary home in days past. Her engage- 
ments to the Seminary were punctually met. The building was 
completed in 1855 at a cost of $8,426.41, and was called "Law 
Hall," in commemoration *of herself and her husband, the Treas- 
urer of the Seminary, and who served in this responsible office so 
long and so well. A man he was of great simplicity of character, 
tenacious of his purpose, tenax propositi., whom nothing could 
swerve from the path of integrity, and who, in his last will and 
testament, made provision for the augmentation of the two older 
professorships and the founding of a new scholarship. But, alas, 
for the fortunes of war. His hospitable mansion was destroyed 
by the enemy, with its valuable contents, among which was the 
valuable library of Dr. Adger. She w^as found in the corner of 
her garden under a miserable extemporised shelter. Rooms were 
offered her in the Hall of the Seminary which bears the name of 
Mrs. Simons. These she occupied till the last brick of her former 
dwelling was sold. But her friends and surviving relatives pro- 
vided for all her wants till she followed her husband, Avho had 
preceded her to the grave. 

Other purposes of building were entertained. The attempt at 
maintaining a Commons Hall at the Seminary had, for a season, 
been abandoned, and the students obtained their board elsewhere 
in approved families in town, a small sum being added from the 
beneficiary funds of the Seminary to meet the additional expense. 
A wealthy planter of Abbeville District, Mr. John Bull, who in 
early life had devoted himself to the ministry, and was prevented 
by disease from pursuing his education, had made a handsome 
bequest to the Seminary. With this it was determined to erect 
another building for a Steward's Hall, and to furnish additional 
10 



141.) HISTORY OF COLr.MBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

accommodations of various kinds for students.^ A building com- 
mittee Avas appointed to carry this purpose into exeeution, but 
tlie demand at this time for buihling material and workmen for 
the new State House, then in the process of construction, pre- 
vented its aecomplishment. In its stead the ftrnier hoarding 
Hall was cnlargetl, and the former stable and carriage house was 
converted into a chapel. We were comforted by remembering 
that our Saviour was said to have been born in a stable and 
cradled in a manger; and so sweet have been our seasons of reli- 
gious instruction and enjoyment in that place often since, that 
Ave have forjiotten that it ever was a stable at all. We have 
"looked," sometimes, almost like John in l^itmos, "and behold a 
door opened" unto us also "in heaven." 

THE LIBRARY OF THE TlIEOLixilCAL SEMINARY. 

This has arisen from small beginnings. As early as 1828 the 
Board of Directors appointed certain brethren, Rev. Messrs. W. 
James. D. Humphreys, J. B. Davies, H. S. Pratt, J. S. Stiles, 
E. White, and B. Gildersleeve, to collect books for the Seminary 
and to solicit pecuniary aid. In 1829 committees were appoint- 
ed in each Presbytery, whose names have been preserved. In 
1829 they reported between two and three hundred volumes col- 
lected. In 1831 the Library amounted to 1,096 volumes. In 
1836 to 3,012 volumes, 783 of which had been purchased. In 
1841 to 3,784 volumes: in 1846 to 4,475 volumes; in 1850 to 
4,582 volumes; in 1854 to 5,296 volumes. In 1856 the Smyth 
Library was purchased, adding 11,520 volumes, and with the in- 
crease of the old Library and some additions to the Smyth Lib- 
rary, the whole number of volumes in 1S6(> was 17.549 volumes. 
In 1863, when the Seminary came under the care of the General 
Assembly, the catalogue of the Li])rary shows a registry of 17,- 
778 volumes. The register of the Smyth Library at the jn-esent 
time shows a total of 12,026 volumes, and of the old Library a 
total of 8,300 volumes, of which 225 were from the Library of 
Rev. Philip Pearson, deceased, and 1,372 volumes were a becjuest 
of the Rev. John Douglas, a graduate of the Seminary, one of its 

'The Bull legacy, when realised, amounted to about $11,000. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 



147 



Directors for years, the founder of one of its scholarships, and to 
whom it is indebted for other fjivors. The registered volumes of 
the Library amount at the present time to 20,326 volumes. Of 
these some 200 volumes or more have ])robably been lost by fires 
in Columbia and Charleston during the disastrous years through 
which we have passed. 



THE ENDOWMENT OF THE SEMINARY. 

We have seen that of the handsome subscriptions pledged to 
the Rev. Mr. Cater, but $3,173.90 were realised to enter into the 
the new account. This was in 1827. In May, 1862, after the 
lapse of thirty-five years, there was, besides a small balance in 
the treasury of $260.67, the following: 

The investments of the S. C. Professorship, origi- 
nally commenced by the Presbytery of Charles- 
ton Union as the Professorship of Biblical Liter- 
ature, but since known as the South Carolina 

Professorship, 28,630 00 

The Cxeorgia Professorship, .... 28,500 00 

The Third Professorship, 34,780 84 

The Fourth Professorship, .... 36,560 00 

Cash in hands of the Treasurer, . . . 1,007 28 

Notes and subscriptions of doubtful value, $2,- 

592.77 (not carried into this account). 
The Perkins Professorship, founded by Judge 

Perkins, of Mississippi, .... 29,987.50 



jScholarshijJS. 

Lanneau Scholarship, ..... 
Congregational and Presbyterian Scholarship, 

founded by the Ladies' Education Society of 

this name in Charleston, 
Telfair's Timothy Scholarship, 
Joseph Ellison Scholarship, 
Sarah Fabian Scholarship, 
Nephew Scholarship, 
Blair Legacy, 



$2,250 00 



2,200 00 
2,500 00 
2,495 00 
2,500 00 
2,500 00 
1,666 66 



148 nrsTORY of Columbia theological seminary. 

8. Douglas Scholarship, 2,300 00 

Additional investments <tf the unexpended income 

of the above Scholarships, .... 2,325 00 



Making the sum of .... §2U,73G G(j 

9. An additional sum of $10,000 was given to this object by 
Judge Perkins, of Mississippi, as well as $10,000 also, for the 
su])i)ort of disabled ministers of the gospel and their widows and 
children, the preference in both cases being given always to citi- 
zens of Mississippi and Louisiana. Both these last mentioned 
sums when realised passed iiito the possession of the Seminary in 
Confederate money, and being invested in Confederate securities 
were lost. The whole amount of the above investments in May, 
18(12, was $2(>7,324. Against this amount stood the debt on the 
Smyth Library increasing alarmingly at compound interest, hav- 
ing reached the sum of $18,487 in May, 18(11, wlicn $(!l)0 was 
paid on the interest account.^ It continued, liowever, to increase 
anew, until the Seminary passed, in 18(!3, under the care of the 
General Assembly, before which, chiefly by the efforts of Dr. 
Adger, the debt was paid, and a small Library fund was created. 
Before the Seminary was tendered to the Assembly, a contingent 
fund of $11,000 was also collected, and the Professorships were 
increased, until the entire endowment reached, in 18(54, $2()2,- 
024.85. (Minutes of the Assembly, 18(14, p. 295.) This, how- 
ever, was in the third or fourth year of the Confederate war. 

^ From the repeated conversations Dr. Smyth had with me during his 
lifo-timo, I have no doubt that there were two objects that were near his 
heart as to the Seminary. One was to provide a fund for the ^rradual 
increase and the preservation of its Library and to pay a sabiry to 
its Librarian ; and another was to found a Lccturesliip like that which 
produced the Boylean and the Hulsean Lectures: the Lecturer to be 
selected by tho Board and Faculty ; the Lectures to be published at 
the expense of the fund, and to be the literary property of the Lec- 
turer and to enure to his benefit. There may be traces of this pur- 
pose in his last will and testament. But the misfortunes of our war 
have rendered thus far these purposes of his unavailin;:;. The small 
Tiibrary fund we do have, and the income of which is not to be used 
till it shall have inoreased to $U),(X)0, is the result of these purposes. 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 149 

The market value of all securities had greatly depreciated, and 
at the close of the war the estimated value of the entire en- 
dowment did not exceed $95,500. $90,050.00 had been in- 
vested in Confederate Bonds, which were a total loss. In all 
probability the estimate of the Treasurer was not reached in the 
final adjustment of the remaining funds. The Nephew scholar- 
ship seems to have been merged in the Georgia investments from 
the beginning. And the investments of the Lanneau scholarship 
and the Joseph Ellison scholarship appear to have been a total 
loss, so that, unless the Nephew scholarship should be set off pro- 
portionally from the Georgia endowment, some $5,810 is all that 
remain to represent the $20,736.06 before mentioned. 

In the earlier times the current expenses of the Seminary were 
provided for by contingent contributions, there being, of course, 
no permanent fund at the beginning. During the twenty years 
commencing with 1828, South Carolina contributed $18,703.30 
to the contingent fund, while Georgia contributed to the same 
fund $2,070.83. Towards the buildings South Carolina contrib- 
uted during the same twenty years $10,436.84, and Georgia, 
$105. For the Library South Carolina contributed $3,057.35, 
and Georgia, $589. For the permanent fund South Carolina 
contributed $32,433.81 ; Georgia contributed during the same 
period $18,419.70. 

And if, during this period, the contributions of Carolina ex- 
ceeded those of Georgia, this was as it should be. The Semi- 
nary originated in a Presbytery of this State, whose records from 
the beginning show great faithfulness and enterprise. It is 
located in the very centre of this State. Our sister Synod of 
Georgia has been fiiithful towards us. The Church in Carolina 
which is, to a certain portion of that in Georgia, its mother, is the 
oldest, and, in the earlier times, the larger. It ought to have 
given to it in the past in the proportion of three to one. 

In 1833, '34, and '35 an effort was made to obtain a Profes- 
sorship in the Northern States. The Rev. S. S. Davis, assisted 
by Rev. Mr., afterwards Dr., Chester Cortland Van Rensselaer, 
were engaged in this effort, and it was further prosecuted by Rev. 
Horace S. Pratt and the present writer. In this effort some 



150 IITSTriRY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL PEMIXARY. 

$20.78") were subscribed. Some ^13,748 were collected, which, 
after expenses were deducted, realised some ^l:^,0r)2. The losses 
incurred by business men, especially in New York, rendered fur- 
ther collections impracticable. Of this Northern subscription, 
$8,581.58 entered into the Georf^ia investments, and ,«S8.5'20.53 
into those of Carolina. The whole of the Boston subscription is 
said to have been collected. Such had been the efforts in the 
years referred to, antedating, by some fourteen years, the time of 
the reception of the Seminary by the General Assembly of the 
South. 

In 1857 the Synod of Alabama came into a close and organic 
union with the Synods of South Carolina and Georgia in the 
support of the Seminary. They "do hereby," they say, '-adopt 
the Seminary as their own, and place its name among those of 
the institutions which we call 'ours,' and which we are to cherish 
and care for, support, help, and encourage as our own.'' They 
have ever since maintained a standing committee to whom is 
referred all matters pertaining to this institution. And tliey 
have been true to their engagements. 

In the downfall of the Confederacy, the resources of the Semi- 
nary were cut off. Only one item of the whole endowment, 
amounting to less than $3,000, yielded for a season any imme- 
diate income. Yet the Professors felt bound to keep the doors 
of tlif institution open. Provisions were sent for their relief, 
their salaries were paid in unconvertible coupons, in provisicjns 
sent by individuals and accounted for at their market value, and 
some small amounts in current coin. 

During a period of eleven years, beginning with lS(i7, the con- 
tributions were nearly as follows: From South Carolina, $11,- 
828.72; Trom Georgia, $10,383.73; from Alabama, $5,974.04; 
from Mississippi, $5,000.70; from the Synod of Memphis, $1,- 
122.53; from Nashville, $113.10; from Kentucky, $830.40; 
from abroad, $1,812.50; from Arkansas, $12; from Texas, 
$41.05. The next year, 1878-0, the amount sent in from vari- 
ous (piarters was $l,!)03.71. Our recent embarassnu'iits began 
in tlH> year 187!' in the loss of half, or, as it was first believed, 
the larger portion of tiie iV'rkins Professorship, and in the loss of 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 1")1 

subscriptions to the amount of several thousand dolhirs, for which 
the parties had given their notes, on which interest had hitherto 
been punctually paid, and of certain other securities hitherto 
believed to be valid, to which may be added the suspension and 
constant shrinkage, at least for years, of certain city bonds, for- 
merly in high repute as safe and profitable investments. But a 
brighter day, we trust, is now before us. 

The scholarship funds established before the war have been 
alluded to. The entire loss of two of them, and the shrinkage 
of some of the others have been mentioned. Their value had 
been reduced from ^20,736 to $5,810, unless proportional allow- 
ance should be made for the Nephew scholarship which was absorbed 
in the Georgia investments. There have been added since the war, 
"The Persian Scholarship," $1,880, a bequest of Rev. James L. 
Merrick, of the class of 1833, who was for ten years a missionary 
in Persia — this scholarship being one of four which he founded 
in the four institutions where he was educated ; the Martha 
Waddel Gray Fund, a bond of 1,000 of the city of Memphis ; 
the Wynkoop Scholarsliip, $3,000, in bonds of the city of New 
Orleans (recently sold for $972.68, less than one-third of its 
original value) ; the Charles Jessup Scholarship, $2,500, in the 
Atlantic and Gulf Railroad ; the Gresham Scholarship, being 
scrip for thirty shares in the S. W. R. R., $3,000 ; the bequest 
of Lawson Williams, Esq., son of Rev. Aaron Williams, who was 
formerly of Bethel Presbytery, $1,386.60, and which is invested 
in Little Rock, Ark. (T. R. Welch, D. D., agent); the proceeds 
of a building and lot in D^s iVrc, Arkansas, the bequest of Rev. 
J. AV. Moore, who departed this life on the 28th of January, 1873. 

Such is a general history of our financial condition, down to 
the late disasters which have closed temporarily the doors of our 
beloved Seminar3^ 

The following more complete view of our present financial con- 
dition is from the report of Rev. Dr. Mack, our financial agent, 
recently presented : 



l')2 HISTORY OF COLUMRIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

INVESTED FUNDS. 

Jfowe Memorial Professorship. 

Chester and Lenoir Kailroud bonds, . . ^5,000 00 

South Carolina (Def.) bonds, . . 8,800 00 

Talhipoosa County (Ala.) bonds, . . . 4,400 00 

South "Western (Ga.) Railroad stock, 10 .shares, 1,000 00 

Charleston City (4 per cent) bonds, . . 5,000 00 

5 bonds and first mortgages, . . 6,696 76 

2 interest bearing notes of ^500 each, . . 1,000 00 

Sumter County (S. C.) certificate, . . 100 00 

§31,996^76 
Second, or Georgia Professorship. 

Augusta City bonds (L. D.), . . ^9,750 00 

Georgia R. R. and Banking Co., stock, 32 shares, 3,200 00 

South Western (Ga.) R. R. stock, 50 shares, . 5,000 00 

" " " scrip, . . 1,600 00 

Interest-bearing note, C. A. Redd, . . 100 00 

$19,650 00 
Third Professorship. 

Chester and Lenoir Railroad bonds, . . $5,000 00 

Charlotte, Columbia and Augusta Railroad bonds, 4,500 00 

Columbia City bonds, . . . 12,000 00 

" certificates, ... 95 27 

South Carolina consols, . . . 5,442 24 

" " (Def.) stock, . . . 1,547 09 

Fanners' and Planters Bank (Baltimore), 33 shares, 825 00 

Interest-bearing notes. Miss S. D. Adger, . 500 00 

" " " J. A. Adger, . 250 00 

$30,159 6^ 
Fourth Professorship. 

South Carolina consols, . . . $13. (547 00 

Savannah City bonds, .... 5,000 00 

Mobile City bonds, . . . 8,500 00 

South Carolina (Def.) bonds, . . . 600 00 

2 bniids and first mortgages, . . 4,000 00 

$26,747 00 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 153 

Perkins Professorship. 

Mol)ile and Ohio Railroad bonds, . . $5,000 00 

debentures, . . 5,000 00 

Cliester and Lenoir Railroad bonds, . 5,000 00 

Bond and first mortgage, W. J. Duffie, . 3,000 00 

$18,000 00 
Contingent Expenses Fund. 
St. Charles Street (N. 0.) Railroad stock, $10,400 00 

Students' Fund. 
Farmers' and Planters' Bank, (Baltimore), 100 shares, $2,500 00 
Legacy of La-svson Williams, of Little Rock, Ark., 

(invested in individual notes), . . 4,386 00 

Atlantic and Gulf Railroad bonds (Charles Jessup 

scholarship), .... 2,500 00 

Chester and Lenoir Railroad bonds, . . 5,000 00 

Memphis City bond (Martha Waddel Gray scholarship), 1,000 00 

South Carolina consols, . . . 3,000 00 

(Def.) bonds, the S. R. Wynkoop 

scholarship, . . 1,000 00 

South Western (Ga.) Railroad stock (LeRoy Gresham 

scholarship), 30 shares, . . . 3,000 00 

$22,386 00 

Smyth Library Fund. 

Charleston City bonds, . . . $4,900 00 

" " stock, ... 10 00 

South Carolina (Def.) bonds, . . . 1,300 00 

$6,210 00 

Besides these investments, there are as yet not distributed, of 

South W^estern Railroad scrip, . . $1,280 00 

Over $2,000 in private notes, . . . 2,000 00 

And cash in the hands of the Treasurer, over 3,000 00 

$6,280 00 
The whole amounting to . . . $171,829 36 

with the prospect of further increase. 



154 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

THE FACULTY OF THE SEMINARY. 

And now tlie forms of )ny own associates of the Faculty pass 
before nie — of Dr. GoiiMin^, whom I f )unl in the harness, and 
who served the (,'!iareh faithfully in this office for six years; of 
Dr. A. W. Leland, of connnandin;: person and hiirh native endow- 
ments, who served the Seminary as Professor, first of Theology, 
and then of Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology, for thirty-one years, 
till disabled by disease ; of Dr. Charles Colcock Jones, the man 
of systematic diligence, of faith and piety, who had devoted him- 
self, in early life, to missionary labors among the most degraded 
of our people, but was raised by the suffrages of his brethren, on 
two occasions, to the chair of Ecclesiastical History and Polity, 
and who was so greatly beloved; of Alexander T. Mcljill, 
D. D., LL.D., his successor, for a short time, in the same Pro- 
fessorship, and since of Princeton ; of B. M. Palmer, D. D., 
LL.D., called, for three years, to occupy the same chair ; of the 
matchless J. H. Thornwell, D. D., LL.D., Professor, for six 
years, of Didactic and Polemic Theology ; called away, alas I too 
soon for us, to the skies ; of J. B. Adger, D. D., the able Pro- 
fessor, for fourteen years, of Church History and Polity ; and of 
Joseph R. Wilson, D. D., the able and successful Professor, for 
four years, of Pastoral and Evangelistic Theology and Sacred 
Rhetoric ; and to those brethren so dear to us, whether removed 
from the earth or living still, we have to add another, nomen 
claruvi ct vcyicrabile, William S. Plumer, D. D., LL.D., whom 
our Lord and Master has called home to himself from a life of 
great usefulness and unremitted toil. I have no need to mention 
my colleagues who yet survive, but for whom I pray that their 
useful lives may be spared to the Church yet, and this for many 
years. Nor can I forbear to mention that ripe scholar the Hebrew 
Tutor for four years, the Rev. Bazile Lanneau, afterwards Pro- 
fessor at Oakland College, and Rev. James Cohen, of Jewish 
birth, a native of Algiers, to whom the Arabic Wiia his vernacular 
language, both of whom have passed away ; and Professor 
Charles R. Hemphill, who for four years filled the same office 
witii distinguished success, and whom we now welcome back to us 
as Associate Professor of Biblical Literature. I could speak 



HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 155 

much more freely of these honored names were it not that they 
are to be brouglit before you in a manner more complete and 
ample by other brethren who are to follow me. It has been a 
privilege, never, never to be forgotten, to have been associated 
with such men; to have been enlightened by their wisdom 
and stimulated daily by their example, and to emulate their 
achievements, it may be, whenever that was practicable ; for 
neither by nature nor education are we made wholly alike, as is 
doubtless wisely ordained in the government of God. 

In concluding this discourse, already too extended, we remark 
that our Seminary, with all its troubles, has been attended with a 
good degree of success. Immediately before our civil war, the 
largest number of students at any time in attendance was in the 
year 1860-61, when there were sixty-two students listening to 
our instructions. At that juncture there Avas a considerable 
number of worthy young men in the several classes from the 
North who were highly esteemed b}^ their associates. These, as 
might be expected, left us sadly, and returned to their own 
region. The majority of our Southern students left this place of 
their studies, at what they believed their country's call. In 
1866, there was no graduating class. In 1867-68 a few, not 
more than five in number, exempt from military service, finished 
their studies with us. In 1873 the attendance had reached fifty- 
seven, the largest since the war. 

The Southern Presbyterian Reyieav for July, 1866, states 
that since the downfall of the Confederacy, the funds of the 
Union Seminary had sunk to ^90,000 or ^100,000, none of which 
yielded an income, and those of Columbia to $69,000 or $70,000, 
only $3,000 of which yielded any income. As we have before 
said, the churches sprang nobly to our relief. And though we 
had our full share of poverty and loss, we yet survive. 

In conclusion, we may say that since Dr. Goulding's appoint- 
ment as Professor in 1828, there have been about five hundred 
and fifty students under the instruction of the Professors as can- 
didates for the ministry, only a small fraction of whom have 
failed for any cause, other than sickness or death, from entering 
the ministry ; that one hundred and thirty-three have finished 



150 HISTORY OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

their work on earth and entered into their rest; that more than 
tliree-fourths of the ministers and licentiates of the Synod of South 
Carolina, more than half of those of the Synod of Georgia, about 
one-third of those of the Synods of Alabama and Arkansas, that 
nearly one-half of the Synods of Memphis aiid Mississippi were 
students of this Seminary ; ^ that some twenty-one have devoted 
themselves to missions in Syria and Turkey, in Persia and II in- 
dostan, in China and Japan, in Africa, in South America, and 
among our own Indian tribes ; and if the Seminary shall outlive, 
as we hope, its present disasters, a future far brigliter may yet 
lie before it. and service far greater and more fruitful may be 
rendered to him to whom the Church looks as its Head, who 
ascended from Calvary and Olivet to sit on his Father's throne, 
and to whom he has pledged the heathen as his inheritance, 
and the uttermost parts of the earth as his possession ; and which 
is to be won chiefly by ministers of the gospel by him called, 
qualified, and sent forth. 



' As our ministers change their locations from time to time, these pro- 
portions are variable quantities, in some years greater, in others less. 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS, AS RE- 
LATED TO THE SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH AND COLUxMBIA SEMINARY. 

BY REV. J. LEIGHTON AVILSOX, D. D., SECRETARY OF FOREIGN 

MISSIONS. 

The history of Avliat may be called the Foreign Missionary 
work of the Southern Presbyterian Church antedated, by a good 
many years, the separate and independent existence of the Church 
itself. At one time our churches, as did most of the Presbyterian 
churches in the country at large, cooperated with the American 
Board of Commissioners of Foreign INIissions in promoting the 
evangelisation of the heathen nations of the earth. They were 
specially active in this great woi'k during the years 1833—4-5-6. 
During those years, they not only contributed largely of their 
means for its support, but a large number of our young men 
entered upon the work themselves, among whom may be mentioned 
Rev. Samuel R. Houston, D. D., Rev. George VV. Leyburn, and 
Mr. Venable, of the Synod of Virginia ; Rev. Daniel Lindley, 
D. D., Rev. T. P. Johnson, and Rev. Alexander Wilson, M. D., 
of the North Carolina Synod ; Rev. George W. Boggs, Rev. Jno. 
B. Adger, D. D., Rev. John F. Lanneau, Rev. J. L. Merrick, 
and Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, D. D., of the Synod of South 
Carolina. The wives of all these brethren, with one or two 
exceptions, were natives of the South, and rendered important 
aid in the work. 

From the year 1838 to the breaking out of the civil war in 
1861, our churches cooperated with the Northern Presbj'^terian 
body in this, great cause. Her contributions, previous to her 
separation from that body, amounted to more than 340,000 per 
annum. At the same time a large number of her sons and 
daughters devoted themselves to the work in different parts of 
the world, a fuller account of many of whom Avill be given in the 
subsequent part of this paper. 

After the breaking out of the civil war, it became impossible 



158 HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

for tlic Xew York Board to do anything for the support of the 
missions in the Indian country. Previously, these missions had 
])eeii sustained by the joint contributions of the two sections of 
the Church ; and according to an understanding between the 
seniitr Secretary of that Board and the writer, it was agreed that 
the attention of the Southern Church shoukl be called to the 
matter, with the view of providing for their support. This the 
writer did on his arrival in South Carolina in the spring of 1861, 
and the churches responded most heartily to the call. A Pro- 
visional Committee, consisting mainly of ministers then residing 
in Columbia, was formed, which conducted the work until the 
Church was regularly organised, when she assumed tlie responsi- 
bility herself. 

During tlie war, and for a year or two after its close, the 
Foreign Missionary labors of the Church were confined to the 
missions in the Indian country, of which there was one among the 
Cherokees, another among the Creeks, and another among the 
Choctaws and Chickasaws, the last two being virtually the same 
people. It was not possible for the Church, during the war, and 
for several years afterwards, to do anything to promote the cause 
of evangelisation in regions beyond her own boundaries. She 
never lost sight, however, of her great obligation to do all she could 
to extend the knowledge of salvation to all mankind. In 1867 
the difficulties witli wliidi she had been surrounded were par- 
tially removed, and slieat once, and with great heartiness, entered 
upon the work that lay before her, first to restore lier own broken 
down walls, and then do all she could to extend the knowk-dge 
of salvation to the farthest ends of the earth. During the six 
years intervening between 1867 and 1873, missions were estab- 
lished in China, in Italy, in Brazil, in the United States of Co- 
lombia, in Greece, and in Mexico, in addition to those already 
estal)lished in the Indian country. Of these, the mission to the 
United States of Colombia was given up something more tharr 
five years ago, partly from the want of funds, and partly from 
the conviction that the people of that region were not yet pre- 
pared to receive a pure gosj)el. The missions to the Creeks 
and the Cherokees were also given uj) about the same time, in 



HISTOKY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 159 

part from the want of funds, and in part from the fjict that other 
Protestant denominations were doing all that seemed necessary to 
promote the spiritual welfiire of those tribes. 

The mission to Italy has never been regarded as a regularly 
organised mission ; nor is it proposed to make it such. A fine 
school of fifty pupils is managed by an Italian lady, a member of 
our Southern Presbyterian Church, the spiritual results of which, 
by common consent, are gathered into the venerable Waldensian 
Church, and our people feel great pleasure in promoting in this 
indirect way the highest interest of that grand old Church. 

In the prosecution of the task assigned us, we can give only a 
brief outline of the work of the Church as it exists at the present 
time. 

Our Indian missions present themselves first both in a chrono- 
logical and geographical point of view. The extent of the work, 
though now restricted to the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes, is, in 
many important respects, a good deal in advance of what it was 
when first taken up by the Church. The working force at the 
present time consists of three ordained ministers from the States, 
and their wives ; ten ordained .native preachers and one licentiate. 
In addition to these, there are a number of young men under 
training for the work of the ministry. There are twenty-seven 
regularly organised churches connected with the Indian Presby- 
tery, which is an integral part of the Synod of Arkansas, and 
which embraces a membership of something like 1,200 members. 
Up to the present time a large school, familiarly known as Spencer 
Academy, has been maintained in efficient operation, the fruits and 
results of which will continue to be gathered for many years to 
come. 

The Mexican mission stands next in geographical order, but in 
point of* time is the youngest of all our missions. It was founded 
in the Avinter of 1874, by Rev. A. T. Graybill and Mrs. Gray- 
bill, at Matamoras, on the Rio Grande. They were reinforced in 
the autumn of 1878 by Rev. J. G. Hall and Mrs. Hall, who had 
been previously connected with the mission in the United States 
of Colombia. The present missionary force consists of Rev. A. 
T. Graybill and Mrs. Graybill, located at Matamoras ; Rev. J. G. 



160 HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

TTiill ;uhI Mrs. Hall, located at Brownsville, Texas ; Miss Janet 
11. Jloustoii, teacher at Brownsville; Kev. J. Walter Graybill 
and Mr.s. Graybill, on their way to the mission. The native 
force consists of Rev. Leandro Mora, located at Jeminez, to the 
southwest of Matarnoras ; llev. Edwardo Carrero, native evan- 
gelist, located at Victoria, to the southeast of Matarnoras ; and 
Miss Virginia Mora, teacher at Matarnoras. Two young men 
are prosecuting their studies with reference to the work of the 
ministry. This mission has been greatly blessed almost from its 
iii<i|iiency. Three churches have been organised; one at Mata- 
nionis, oiie'at Brownsville, and a third at San Juan. These three 
churches embrace a membership of something like two hundred 
and fifty persons, all of whom have been gathered into the fold 
of Christ within the last seven years. Besides the four princi- 
pal stations above mentioned, there are fifteen out-stations, seven 
on the north side and eight on the south side of the Rio Grande, 
where regular monthly preaching is maintained. The Church has 
great cause to be thankful to Almighty God for bestowing such 
rich blessings upon this particular department of her work. 

In Brazil we have two separate missions ; one in Pernambuco, 
a lai-ge commercial city in Northern Brazil, and the other in 
Campinas, in the Province of Sao Paulo, in Southern Brazil, being 
1,200 miles distant from each other. The one at Pernambuco was 
founded in the early part of 1873 by Rev. J. Rockwell Smith, 
who was reinforced a few months later by the arrival of the Rev. 
John Boyle and Mrs. Boyle, who, however, were transferred 
in the early part of 1875 to Campinas, whilst Rev. William 
LeConte, a member of that mission, Avas transferred to the Per- 
nambuco mission. In the course of a year, Mr. LeConte was 
summoned to his rest above, wliich left Mr. Smith the sole 
laborer for several years. In the early part of 1880, R»v. Bal- 
lard F. Thompson, of the Nashville Presl)ytery, arrived in Per- 
nambuco, to occupy the post vacated by the death of Mr. Le- 
Conte. In the mysterious providence of God, he was called to 
his rest in iieaven in two months from the time of his arrival. As 
soon as intelligence of the death of Mr. Thompson reached this 
country, Rev. DeLacy Wardlaw, afriemi and co-presbyter, offered 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 161 

his services to fill the breach occasioned by the sudden death of 
Mr. Thompson, and as the result, he and Mrs. Wardlaw sailed for 
Pernambuco in August, 1880, where they have since been labor- 
ing with efficiency. 

The missionary force now employed in the work consists of Rev. 
J. Rockwell Smith and Mrs. Smith, Rev. DeLacy Wardlaw and 
Mrs. WardhiAv, and three native laborers variously emplo^'cd in 
promoting the general work. 

Notwithstanding the severe afflictions with which this mission 
has been visited. God has been pleased at the same time to visit it 
with many tokens of his favor. Two churches have been organ- 
ised; one in Pernambuco, embracing twenty-four communicants, 
and another in Goyana, of thirteen members. Measures are 
being taken for tha establishment of two others in the Province of 
Parhyba. The mission has under its care three young men who 
are being trained with reference to the work of the ministry. 
Four colporteurs are employed in circulating the Scriptures, sup- 
ported by the American Bible Society, but acting under the 
direction of the mission. Several important translations have 
been made, but fr.)m the want of means have not yet been pub- 
lished. These are very important and encouraging results, in 
view of the short time that the mission has been in operation, and 
the very great opposition that had to be encountered in a com- 
munity that had heretofore been Avholly given up to Romanism. 

The Campinas mission, located in the central part of Sao Paulo, 
was founded in the latter part of 1869, by Rev. G. Nash Morton 
and Rev. Ed. Lane. It has two principal stations ; one at 
Campinas, and the other at Mogy-^lirim, forty miles to the 
north of Campinas, but in the same Province. Its history extends 
over a period of twelve years. Its missionary force consists of 
Rev. Ed. Lane and Mrs. Lane, Rev. John W. Dabney and Mrs. 
Dabney, Miss Nannie Henderson, and Sen. Rodrigues, connected 
with the station at Campinas ; Rev. John Boyle and Mrs. Boyle, 
and Mr. Wingerter, colporteur, at Mogy-Mirim. There are a 
number of natives besides those above mentioned, that render 
important aid in the prosecution of the work, but have no official 
connexion with the mission. Since its organisation, five regularly 
11 



162 HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

organised cliurclies have been formed, wliilst steps have been taken 
for the formation of several others. These churches embrace in 
all more than one hundred and fifty members. The Campinas 
Institute has formed an important feature in the history of this 
mission. It has been the occasion of anxiety, and has undergone 
some important ciianges, but is no\v, it is believed, resting upon 
a jtroper and solid foundation, and promises to be a great blessing 
to that part of the world. It embraces at the present time about 
soventy-tive pupils, one-fifth of whom are girls. Measures have 
been adopted for the enlargement of the female department. The 
missionaries on the ground reo;ard the field as one of much more 
than ordinary promise. A rich spiritual harvest will no doubt be 
gathered before long, as the natural result of the good seed that 
has been so abundantly solved for years past. 

Our Greek mission was undertaken in the latter part of 1873, at 
the earnest request of Rev. M. D. Kalopothakes, a native Greek 
preacher, but a member of what was formerly known as the United 
Synod of Virginia. He was the founder of the mission, and for 
a number of 3'ears was its main and only support. He sustained 
it by preaching the word, by editing and circulating two semi- 
monthly maga/.ines, and by circulating the Scriptures and other 
religious books. By the aid of Christian friends in Europe and 
America, he had erected a neat house of worship in the city of 
Athens, and had gathered into it a goodly band of evangelical 
Christians. The field he aimed to cultivate embraced free Greece, 
or Greece proper, the Grecian islands, and the Greek provinces 
in European Turkey, embracing a population in all of something 
like o,()00,0()0. The whole of this ground Avas unoccupied, or 
verv nearly so, by other evangelical denominations, and our Com- 
mittee, when they assumed the responsibility of tlie mission, 
determined, with the helj) of God, to cultivate the whole field 
contemplated by Dr. Kalopothakes. 

Rev. George W. Leyburn. who hail labin-cd many years pre- 
vioivsly in Greece (wlio liad been the honored instrument in the 
conversion of Dr. Kaloj)othakes), his son. Rev. G. L. Leyburn, 
Rev. T. R. Sampson, an<l Rev. J. Phipps, and tlieir wives, have 
been sent out successivelv to reinforce that mission. The first 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 163 

mentioned, in the mysterious providence of God, was taken to 
his lieavenly home soon after his arrival in Greece, whilst his son, 
Rev. G. L. Leylnirn, after remaining something more than a 
year, returned to this country, and is now engaged in the work of 
the ministry at home. Besides the brethren above named, there 
are three native ministers and one licentiate actively enofa^ed in 
the work. Five regular preaching stations are maintained, viz. : 
at Athens, Volos, Salonica, Yanina, and the Pirscus. It is 
expected that a Presbytery will be formed in the course of a few- 
months, that will be composed entirely of Greeks. Two churches 
have been organised ; one at Athens and another at Volos, and it 
is hoped that a third will soon be formed at Salonica, the ancient 
Thessalonica. A large amount of religiou:, literature, includinof 
the sacred Scriptures, has been diffused in all parts of the conn- 
try ; in view of Avhich there is reason to hope that Greece willi 
ere long be more thoroughly evangelised than it was in the davs; 
of primitive Christianity. 

What a great honor it will be to our beloved Church, if she 
shall be made the favored instrument, of not only raisino- the 
Greek people from the deep mire of superstition into which ther 
have sunk, and in which they have remained for so many centm- 
ries, but of restoring to her all the blessings of that pure gospel 
that was made known to her eighteen centuries ago, by the 
great Apostle to the Gentiles ! 

The mission to China is the oldest of all our missions outsi^fe 
of the boundaries of our own country. It was founded in the 
autumn of 18(37, by the Rev. Elias B. Inslee, at a time when our 
country had but partially recovered from the effects of the war. 
Mr. Inslee had labored several years previous to the war as a 
missionary in China. During that time he was under the direc- 
tion of the Board in New York, but was ecclesiastically connected 
with the Southern Church. Since that time, the folio win (rbreth- 
ren have been connected with that mission, viz. : Rev. M. H. 
Houston and wife. Rev. J. L. Stewart and wife. Rev. H. C. Du- 
Bose and wife. Rev. John W. Davis and Avife, Rev. T. E. Con- 
verse and wife. Rev. A. Sydenstricker and wife, Rev. Ben. Helm, 
Rev. G. W. Painter, Dr. Fishburn, Mrs. A. E. Randolph, Miss 



1G4 HISTORY OF FOREItiX MISSIONS. 

Helen Kirkland, and Miss A. C. Saffonl. All of these brethren, 
excejjt Mr. Inslee, who dieil in New Orleans in 1872, Rev. IJen. 
Helm and Rev. T. E. Converse, who are laboring in this country, 
are actively engaged in the Chinese work. 

The whole missionary force at the present time consists of six 
ordained ministers from this country, one missionary physician, 
eight friiiale assistant missionaries, and fifteen native helpers, 
making in all thirty laborers. 

The two princijial points occujjied are the cities of TInngchow 
and Soochow, one hundred miles distant from each other, and 
each having a population of 500.000. Churches have been 
established in both of these cities, though their joint membership 
is only about forty, one-fourth of whom were added during the 
past year. Two boarding-schools are in full operation in Hang- 
chow, and one in Soochow. Besides these, there are ten day- 
schools in the two cities, which are conducted under the oversight 
of the ladies of the missions. Besides the two principal chapels, 
there are as many as six street chapels that arc open daily for 
I'eligioMs worship. One brother speaks of having preached seven 
bundled tin\es during the past year. Extensive missionary tours 
are made every year by all the Itretbren for the twofold ])urpose 
of preaching the word and circulating religious bonks and tracts. 
Five or six separate volumes have been translated by our mis- 
sionary brethren into the Chinese, and are extensively useil both 
in the schools and for general circulation. The amount of religious 
knowledge that has been disseminated in the cities and the sur- 
rounding country during the past ten years has been immensely 
great, and under the direction of the Holy Ghost must contribute 
largely to the general enlightenment of that v;ust empire of <lark- 
ness. 

This brief survey of the missionary work of our Church Avill 
show at once that she is no idle spectator of that mighty mission- 
ary niMvcnieiit of the day which aims at the spiritual renovation 
of the whole family of man. Notwithstanding all the endtarass- 
ments that attended her earlier years; the poverty and prostra- 
tion of the country at the time of her birth, and the necessarily 
expensive nature of the missionary work; yet at no time has she 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 165 

ever forgotten her obligations to the great Redeemer or to a 
perishing heathen Avorhl. To-day she can lift up her eyes 
over tiie benighted nations of the earth and count one hundred 
reapers, either sent forth from her own bosom or trained by those 
who were sent out by her, who are gathering the rich harvest 
that is ripening in every direction. She can behold her own 
sons and daughters scattered over six diiferent nations and pro- 
claiming the unsearchable riches of Christ in as many different 
languages. She can point to as many as twenty Christian 
schools, in which there are more than 500 native youths being 
trained to carry the glad tidings of salvation to the most remote 
resrions of the earth. She can enumerate more than one hun- 
dred volumes of Christian literature that have been translated by 
her missionaries into the languages of the people among whom 
they live, and been circulated by the thousands and tens of thou- 
sands of copies. She can point out more than forty Christian 
churches that have been organised mainly in the last seven years, 
and into which have been gathered more than 1,500 souls, who 
are to-day rejoicing in the same salvation with ourselves. jMore 
than this. She can point to scores and hundreds and thousands 
of villages and towns in Mexico, in Greece, in Brazil, in China, 
and among the American Indians, where the good seed has been 
sown in great abundance, and from which a rich spiritual harvest 
■will be gathered at no distant dav. If our beloved Church has 
not abundant cause of gratitude to Almighty God for such dis- 
tinguished honor bestowed upon her, then we know not what can 
be a legitimate cause for joy and thanksgiving. 

II. Our second inquiry is, as to the relationship of the Colum- 
bia Theological Seminary to this great work of foreign missions. 
And here, at the very outset, we are prepared to assume that this 
Seminary has always been pervaded by a deep and earnest mission- 
ary spirit. Her Professors, so far as we are aware, without a 
single exception, have always felt a deep interest in this great 
cause. One of them was himself a foreign missionary for many 
years, and it was his constant aim, while a Professor, to promote a 
missionary spirit in the hearts of the young men under his care. 
We must be allowed to make special mention of his interest in 



16G HISTORY OF FOREIGN MIrfSIOXS. 

this cause, wliose semi-centennial we to-day celebrate. The 
speaker feels that it is due to himself, as well as to this venerahle 
father, to give utterance to tlie feelings of profound gratitude 
which he has always felt towards him, for the kind interest he 
took in him when in(|uiring about the path of duty ; for the wise 
counsel he gave to him when he knew as vet nothintr of the trials 
ami [»erils of the missi(marv life; and especially for the heart- 
felt ]irayers that he offered up to God that his young servant 
might be guided into the path of duty. If the speaker ever knew 
what consecration to God meant, it was while he and this vener- 
able father were kneeling in priyer in the fojjndation-roum <»f the 
Seminary building. To his memory, even in the deepest wilds 
of Africa, that southwest corner room has always been a place of 
peculiar sanctity. 

The history of the Seminary dates back to that period when 
all the Presbyterian Churches of the country, jis has already been 
mentioned, were carrying on their missionary work through the 
agency of the American Board of Foreign Missions. Some of 
her curlier pupils engagcMl in the work under the aire of tiiat 
Board ; others, at a later period, went out under the Presbyte- 
rian Board in New York; and, more recently, others have gone 
forth under our present Committee of Foreign Missions. We 
propose now to give a brief sketch of the lives of all those foreign 
missionaries who weie connected with this Seminary, and in this 
way we shall be enabled to form a proper estimate of the Semi- 
nary's relationship to the great cause of foreign missions. 

And here we are met with a remarkable fact at the very out- 
set. Of the first class, consisting of six members, and Avhich was 
graduated in the spring of 1888, three of them consecrated them- 
selves to the cause of foreign missions, vi/.. Btv. .1. L. Meniik, 
Rev. James M. Aflams, and Rev. J. Leighioii Wilson. Mr. Adams, 
though deeidy inteix'sted in the cause, and having been acc('i)ted 
as a missionary by the Ameiican Board, was ])revcnted never- 
theless by family considerations from entt-ring ujxtn the work. 

Ri:v. Jamks Lyman Mkuhkk was a native of Munson. Mas- 
sachusetts, and was boin on the 11th of December, 181)8. He 
received his academic trainin*; in his native town and was <nad- 



HISTORY OF FOIJEIGX MISSIONS. 167 

uated at Amherst College in 1880. He joined this Seminary 
the following year anl continued here until he completed his 
theological studies in the spring of 1883. He was licensed to 
preach by the Charleston Presbytery about the time of his grad- 
uation, and on the 14th of April, 1884, he was ordained by the 
same body as an evangelist. When lie offered his services to the 
American Board, it was with the condition that lie should be s?nt 
to labor amono; the Mohammedans of Persia. The Board, beinij 
very doubtful about the propriety of attempting to establish a 
mission in that part of the world at that time, at first declined to 
send him there, it being distinctly known that every proselyte 
from Islamism would thereby forfeit his life. Mr. JNlerrick de- 
cided that if he could not be sent to Persia, he would decline to 
eno-ajje in the foreign missionary work altogether. He had long 
had his heart set upon going to Persia. He had great admira- 
tion for the character of Henry Martyn, and no doubt felt an 
earnest de.^ire to carry into effect the plans which that nolde man 
had formed for the evangelisation of that interesting, but bigoted, 
nation. The Prudential Committee reconsidered the matter, think- 
ing that God in his providence might have purposes in relation 
to that people that were not yet disclosed, and sent him to watch 
on those outposts for a time, to see what could be done. He sailed 
for this new mission on the 6th of October, 1885. He remained 
in Persia seven years, but the Committee, seeing that there was no 
probability of any good impressions being made upon that people, 
he was transferred by their direction to the Nestorian mission. 
Mr. Merrick was never satisfied with the action of the Commit- 
tee in removing him from Persia, and he remained in the Nesto- 
rian mission only three years, when he returned to this country. 
It is impossible to form any definite idea of the results of his seven 
years' labor in Persia, or what they would have b"&en if he had 
continued there until the close of his life. So far as is known 
there were no conversion.'?. He was tutor to the Prince of Per- 
sia, and it is said was highly esteemed by him. He was married 
to an Engli.sh lady while in Persia, who accompanied him to this 
country in 1845, but died not very long after her arrival. His 
time after his return to this country Avas spent in preaching in 



1G8 HISTORY OF FOREIGN xMISSIONS. 

his native State. He also hcM an a))pointnient as Professor of 
Persian in Anilierst College. lie j)uljlislieil a volume of poems 
after liis return, which, however, ilid not seem to have attracted 
very nuich attention. lie died in 186(3, having left a scholjvr- 
sliip to this Seminary, amounting to something like ^2,000. 

.Mr. Merrick, in some respects, was a very remarkable man, 
especially for his earnest ])iety, his industry and systematic habits, 
his earnest devotion to the cause of foreign missions, and his uni- 
foi inly amiable deportment in all his intercourse with his fellow- 
men. He may have been carried too i'ar l)y his fixed and almost 
unalterable purpose to labor in no other part of the uncivilised 
■world except Persia. But no doubt his prayers, as well as those 
of Henry Martyn, whom he so much admired, in ln'half of that 
people, will yet be answered in a way that was entirely unknown 
to them, as well as ourselves. 

The writer, the other member of the first class, who engtigetl 
in the foreign missionary- work, was born in Sumter County on 
the 25th of March, 1809. His father, William Wilson, was well 
known as an elder of the Presl)yterian church, and was greatly 
esteemed by all who knew bim. 'J'he writer received his aca- 
demic training partly at Darlington C. II., and ])artly at Winns- 
boro, S. C, under the instruction of Dr. Sainuel Stallbrd, who 
was well known in his day as a very skilful teacher He also 
spent one winter under the instruction of his uncle. Rev. Robert 
W. James, of Indiantown, a man well known to the Presbyterian 
Church in South Carolina, eminent for his extensive learning, 
and who jn-obably did more towards the establishment of this 
Seminary than any other man of that day. The writer entered 
Union College, New York, in 1827, and was graduated in duly, 
1829. He taught school at Mount Pleasant, near Charleston, 
S. C, for six months. He entered this Seminary at its opening 
in Columbia, January, 18.50. Rev. James lieattie and Rev. 
Will. Moultrie Reid being tlie only other iiieiiibers at the time. 
He graduated in the sjiring of 1S;}H, and spent the summer 
months at Andover, Mass., studying the Arabic as an important 
preparation for going to Africa. He sailed from Baltimore in 
the autiniiii of 1833, accomi)anieil by Stephen K. ^Vyllkoop, a 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 169 

classmate at Union College, on an ox])loring tour to Africa, from 
wiiich tliey returned the next sj)ring, having fixed upon Cape 
Palmas as the most suitable ])lace for commencing the missionary 
woik. In the autumn of 18o4, having been united in marriage 
to Miss Jane E. Bayard, of Savanmdi, Georgia, he and his wife 
sailed for Cape Palmas, where they lived and labored for seven 
years, and were then transferred to the Gaboon in the Gulf of 
Benim. During their residence at Cape Palmas several hundred 
native youths of both sexes were educated; a church was formed 
of thirty or forty members ; the language for the first time was 
reduced to writing, and portions of the New Testament, as well as 
other religious books, were translated into it. A dictionary and 
a grammar of the language Avere also published. The fruits of 
this mission, when the writer left for the Gaboon, were turned 
over to the Episcopal mission located at the same place. We 
remained at the Gaboon from 1842 until 1853, when failure of 
health compelled our return to this country. Here again, at this 
place, the language was reduced to writing for the first time, into 
which considerable portions of the New Testament were trans- 
lated; a number of schools were established; and a church was 
organised, which continues to the present time to be in a flourish- 
ing condition. From 1853 to the breakino; out of the war the 
writer acted as Secretary of Foreign Missions, in New York, for 
the whole Presbyterian Church. Since then, as is well known, 
he has acted as Secretary both for Home and Foreign Missions 
of the Southern Presbyterian Church up to the present time. 

The next member of the Seminary who engaged in the foreign 
missionary work was Rev. S. R. Brown, D. D., who graduated 
here in 1838. He was a native of Munson, Mass. He was the 
son of Mrs. Brown, the author of the beautiful hymn, 

•'I love to steal awhile away 
From evei'v cuinberin</; care." 

He graduated at Yale College, and spent some time at Union 
Theological Seminary in New- York before he came to Columbia. 
He went out as a missionary to China in the first instance, in 
connexion with the Morrison Education Society, but returned to 
this country after remaining there a year or two, on account of 



170 HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

tlie failure of his wife's liealtli. Whilst in tliis country he jdaced 
liiinself in connexion with the Boanl <tf Missions of the KefDrnied 
(Dutch) Church, and went out the second time, not to China hut 
to Japan. Aftei' leniaining there .some time, it is not known 
exactly how li>ng, his house, with all of his papers, Avas destroyed 
by fire in Yokohama. He returned to this country, remained 
some time, and went back the second time to Japan. His later 
years in that country were devoted mainly to the translation of 
the New 'restanient into the Japanese lanf];ua<^e. He acted as 
chairman of the committee ai»|iointed to can-y this work into exe- 
cution. His last literary labors were emj)loyed in translating; the 
book of Revelation into that laiiiiuajje. He was compelled to 
return to this country the third time in greatly enfeelded health. 
In 1880, while .sojournin;^ at the house of Yang Wing, Minister 
Plenipotentiai'v of China to the United States, he wn)te his auto- 
biography, which is said to be intensely interesting, to which, 
however, we have not had access, but which, it is expected, will 
be published at some future day. On his way to New Haven to 
attend a meeting of his class, he visited Munson, his native place, 
where lie buried his father, his mother, his sister, and two Japan- 
ese pu[)ils. After \i^iting their graves, and spending the even- 
ing in .social intercourse, he retired to rest (it being Saturday 
night, the 10th of June). That night he died as it were in sleep. 
One who knew him well writes: "Dr. Brown was a remarkable 
instance of what perseverance will accomplish, notwithstanding 
all the difficulties that may surrcnind ones caily life." 

Kkv. T. L. McBryde, D. D., was the next member of this 
Seminary who went on a foreign mi.ssion. He graduated in the 
class of 1880. The same year he was ordained by the Charles- 
ton Picsbytery as a foreign evangelist and sailed for Singajiore, 
the place to which he had been appointed, in March, 1840. 
He ren)ained in the mission fiehl less than three years, when he 
was CdMipi'lU'd by failure of health to return. Soon after he be- 
came pastor of l*i"(»vidence and Rocky liiver churches, in Abbe- 
ville C(»unty ; and subscMjuently of Hopewell church, in remlle- 
ton, S. C. In both of these positions he labored with great 
acceptance and with important results. The degree of D. D. was 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 171 

conferred upon him by Erskine College. He died Api-il loth, 
1§63. 

Rev. William Curdy Emerson, a native of Abbeville Coun- 
ty, S. C, took a full course of study in this Seminary, and grad- 
uated in 1841. He afterwards spent one year at Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary. At the close of the civil war he emigrated 
with a considerable number of citizens of the upper ];art of South 
Carolina to Brazil. On his arrival there he spent one year at 
Rio Janeiro, editing an emigration paper r.nd circulating religious 
tracts. He did not go out under the auspices of any missionary 
society, but he carried the spirit of missions with him and did 
all he could to promote the spiritual welfare of those avIio went 
out with him, as well as of those he found there. After remain- 
ino- in Rio one vear or lonsrer, he removed to Santa Barbara, in 
the Province of Sao Paulo, where most of the South Carolina 
colonists had settled, and where he died in July, 1875, in the 
58th year of his age. His friend, Rev. Robert Baird, who was 
with him in his last illness, testifies that he died in the full tri- 
umph of the Christian faith. 

Rev Richard Q. Way, a native of Liberty County, Geor- 
gia, graduated here in the class of 1843, and was ordained a for- 
eign missionary by the Charleston Presbytery before the close of 
the same year. Mr. Way and his wife, the daughter of the Rev. 
Robert Quarterman, pastor of the old Midway church, were ap- 
•pointed to labor in Siara, and sailed from Boston for that place 
on 18th of November, 1843. On their arrival at Singapore they 
found that the mission there had been broken up, and they con- 
tinued their voyage to Ningpo, China, Avhere he and Dr. McCar- 
ty founded what is now well known as the Ningpo mission. Mr. 
and Mrs. Way remained in Ningpo for sixteen years, when fail- 
ure of health compelled them to return to their native country. 
While in Ningpo Mr. Way had charge of a large boys' boarding 
school, but in consequence of the death of the mission printer, he 
was compelled to take, in addition to these duties, the supervision 
of the mission press. He was for four years pastor of the native 
church at Ningpo, but was disabled for this kind of labor Ijy a 
severe attack of bronchitis, and by the advice of his missionary 



172 HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

associates he acted for a short time as Americiin Consul. Mr. 
Way, while at Ningpo, prepared a geography in the Chinese lan- 
guage, which is still extensively used in the schools both in China 
and Japan; he also translated the Gospel of Mark into the Ning- 
po collo([nial for the use of schools and for the common people. 
Since his return to this country in 1859 he has spent most of his 
time in evangelical labors in the southern part of Georgia. 

Rev. J. W. QuARTERMAN, the son of Rev. Robert Quarter- 
man, and brother of Mrs. Way, graduated here in the class of 
1845. He was ordained as a missionary to China by the Presby- 
tery of Georgia, in 1840, and reached Ningpo in 1847. He 
labored here most zealously and .successfully for ten years. In 
the year 1857 he died of a severe attack of small-pox, and lies 
buried in the mission cemetery there. He translated Dr. C. C. 
Jones's Catechism for colored people into the Chinese language, 
which is extensively used in the Chinese mission schools to the 
present time. One of his friends remarks of him, that "he was a 
man of unusual consecration to the service of his Master, of more 
than ordinary intellectual endowments, and was greatly beloved 
by all who knew him." 

Rev. Joseph K. Wiciit graduated with the class of 1847, 
but had remained f)nly one year in the Seminary. He went to 
China in 1848, and in consequence of failure of health returned 
to this country in 1854. He went out the second time in 1855, 
and returned two years after from the same cause. Since his- 
return he has been preaching in a quiet way at New Hamburg, 
in the State of New York. 

Rev. M. a. Williams, whose name is mentioned as a returned 
missionary, belonged to the class of 184!*. It has been impos- 
sible to obtain any information about his movements, excej)t that 
he is mentioned in the Minutes of the Assembly of 18(50 as a 
domestic missionary in Jacksonville, Oregon. 

Rev. Andrew M, Watson is the next on our list. He Avasa 
native of Yorkville, S. C, and graduated with the class of 1S51. 
Rejoined the Choctaw and Chickasaw mission in 1852, having 
his resi<lence at Boggy Depot, and labored there several years, 
but was compelled to leave on account of the unhealthincss of 



HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 173 

the place. Since his return to the States he has occupied pastoral 
charges both in Alabama and Tennessee. 

Rev. Marcus M. Charlton, a graduate of Amherst College, 
wa=5 connected with the class of 1854. When he applied to be 
sent as a missionary to Northern India, some hesitation was felt 
about commissioning him on the score of his health. This was 
not a Avell-founded apprehension, however, inasmuch as he has 
lived twenty-five years in that country, and has probably enjoyed 
better health there than he would have done in this country. On 
his arrival in India, he found that he could not perform what was 
regarded as station Avork, and has not, therefore acted in concert 
with the missionaries in the field. He has devoted his time 
mainly to founding and maintaining Christian colonies on ground 
granted by the Government for this purpose. Two of these he 
has had under his care for a number of years, and both of them are 
represented as being in a flourishing conilition. In a recent letter 
received from him by a friend in Columbia, he mentions that 
he spends the hot season in the Himalayan mountains and the cool 
season on the plains, and that he conducts as a regular thing as 
many as eight religious services during the week. 

Rev. Candor J. Silliman, a native of York District, S. C, 
a member of Tuskaloosa Presbytery, a graduate of Oglethorpe 
College, is the next foreign missionary from Columbia on our list. 
He graduated in the class of 1853. His parents removed to 
Kemper County, Miss., in 1832, whilst the Choctaw Indians were 
still residing in that part of the country, and he in consequence 
grew up among them. From the time of his conversion, when 
he was nineteen years old, he made up his mind to labor as a 
missionary among the Choctaw Indians. He was an inmate for 
some time of Dr. Stillraan's family, while he (Dr. S.) was pastor 
of the Eutaw church in Alabama, who says of him : "He was 
a conscientious, earnest, and simple-minded Christian." He 
was sent out by the Presbyterian Board to the Choctaw country 
in the autumn of 1855. He remained in the country only to the 
following June, Avhen failure of health compelled his return. He 
never reached his native home, but died on his Avay in Texas, on 
the 19th of June, 1856, and was buried by unknown friends. 



174 HISTORY OF FOREKJX MISSIONS. 

Rev. Charlton Henry Wilson was a graduate of the same 
class with Mr. Sillinian. lie was a native of Marion County, 
S. C, and the son of William T. Wilson, Esij., an elder for many 
years in llopewcll cliurcli, in the same County. He received his 
academic training in the neiglihorhood of his hirtli-place, hut 
spent one year under the instruction of Dr. Alexander Wilson, 
at (ireensboro, N. C. He was graduated at Oglethorpe in 1850, 
and took the first honor. After leaving college, he sj)ent one 
year teaching in Alabama, and was associated with Rev. James 
Woodrow, D. I)., during that time, between whom there was 
an intimate friendship until the close of ]\Ir. Wilson's life. He 
entered the Seminary in 1852, and completed his studies in 1855, 
and was soon after ordained by Harmony Presbytery. The same 
year he was appointed by the Board in New York to take charge 
of the large scho;)l for girls at Wapanucka, in the Chiekasaw 
country. That institution, at that time, was involved in very 
serious difficulties — such as were threatening its continued 
existence — and Mr. Wilson was designated to that particular 
charge, because of his acknowledged executive abilities. He 
remained there four years, and was entirely successful in not only 
extricating the school from g^ll the difficulties with which it was 
surrounded, but placed it on a prosperous and solid foundation. 
He was greatly beloved, not only b}^ the teachers who were under 
his care, but by all the Indians in the surrounding country. Few 
missionaries have ever commanded the confidence of the Indians 
in a higher degree. On account of the failure of the health of 
his family, he returned to South Carolina in the spring of 1859. 
So()n after, he was installed pastor of the churcbes of Pee Dee 
and Beiinettsville, South Carolina, and labored there with accep- 
tance and success until he felt called upon, in 18(i2, to acccjit the 
post of chaplain in the army in Virginia, where he continued 
until his death, which took place a few months afterwards. The 
Presbyterian Church in Soutli Carolina experienced a heavy loss 
in the death of this most excellent brother. 

Rev. J. R. Baird was graduated in the class of 1S44, and 
was a member of Bethel Presl)yterv. He held no commissi(Ui as 
a missionarv, but went to Ura/il in IStlS with a nuiMbi'r of emi- 



i 



HISTORY OF FOREIGX MISSIONS. 175 

grants from Soutli Carolina to that counti-y, intending to act as 
their missionary. He organised a church at San Barbara of 
thirteen members, which has since embraced Brazilians as well as 
Americans, and is now under the care of our mission at Campinas. 
Mr. Baird remained ten years in Brazil, when he returned to this 
country, and is now laboring in the State of Georgia. 

Rev. John A. Daxforth, a native of Augusta, Georgia, a 
graduate of Oglethorpe College, Avas connected with the class 
that was graduated in this Seminary in 1859. Soon after his 
graduation here he was commissioned by the Presbyterian Board 
in New York as a missionary to China. At that time he pro- 
mised to be a very useful missionary. But not long after his 
arrival in China his mind became unsettled, which necessitated 
his return to this country. His mind has never been restored, 
and he is greatly to be pitied. 

Rev. J. H. Colton, a native of North Carolina, belonged to 
the class of 1862, and spent the principal part of two years as a 
student in the Seminary, graduating in 1862. He was commis- 
sioned in 1870 as missionary to the Choctaw people. He con- 
tinued in the missionary work five years, having the superintend- 
ence of Spencer Academy during that period, and also acting as 
evangelist among the people in that region of country. In both 
departments of labor he was always diligent and laborious, and 
no doubt fi^reatlv contributed to the evansrelisation of the Choc- 
taws. He is now laboring in North Carolina. 

Rev. Hampden C. DuBose entered the Seminary in 1868, 
and was graduated in the class of 1871. He was a native of 
South Carolina, and graduated at the South Carolina University, 
in 1867. His father. Rev. Julius J. DuBose, will be remem- 
bered by many still living as a preacher of more than ordinary 
power. Rev. Hampden C. DuBose was commissioned as a mis- 
sionary to China by the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions 
of the Southern Presbyterian Church, and he sailed for that coun- 
try in the spring of 1872, where he has labored with great dili- 
gence and earnestness up to the time of his recent temporary 
return to this country. Just before he left that country he had 
translated "The Rock of my Salvation," by Dr. Plumer, into the 
Chinese language. 



170 HISTORY OF FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

Ri:v. John J. Rkad, a native of Mississippi, and a student 
of Oakland College, was graduated here in the same class with 
■Mr. DuBose. He was pastor of the Presbyterian church in 
Houston, Texas, for a number of years, but at the request of the 
Executive Committee of Foreign Missions he left that charge and 
went to the Choctaw country to take charge of Spencer Academy. 
He managed that institution with great efficiency for five years, 
but in coMse [uence of the weakened condition of his health, he 
is now laborini; as an evaniielist amonij the Choctaw and Chicka- 

o o o 

saw people. 

Rev. J. G. Hall, a native of South Carolina, and a grad- 
uate of Davidson College, N. C, completed his studies here in 
the spring of 1874. He was commissioned as a missionary by 
our Executive Committee to labor in the United States of C\)lom- 
bia. He labored there three years, but in view of the fact that 
that people did not seem as yet prepared to receive a pure gospel, 
the mission was discontinued, and Mr. and Mrs. Hall were trans- 
ferred to the Mexican mission at Matamoras, for which they were 
specially fitted by tlieir previous experience and knowledge of 
the Spanish language, and where they have been laboring with 
great efficiency since the winter of 1877. 

Rev. William LeConte is a name that is fresh and fragrant 
in the remembrance of many wlio are now before me. He was a 
native of Liberty County, G^'orgia, was a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of South Carolina, and enjoyed some of the best advantages 
of education in Europe as well as in America. He made fine 
attainments in scholarship and was remarkable for his amiable 
and Christian deportment. He was graduated in this Seminary 
in the class of 1872. The same year he was commissioned as a 
mission;iry to lira/il l)y the Executive Committee of Foreign 
Missions of the Southern Presbyterian Church. He mastered 
the language in a comj)aratively short time and was soon engaged 
in preaching the gospel in Campinas and the surrounding coun- 
try. At his own rcfjuest he was transferred in the early jiart of 
1875 to the mission at Pernambuco. He remained here less than 
one year. Having been smitten with severe illness, he was com- 
pelled tit return to this country, and in the course of a few months 



HISTORY OF FOREIGX MISSIONS. 177 

died in the bosom of his fiimily. The writer knew Mr. LeConte 
in. the midst of his Labors in a foreign hind, and it affords him 
great pleasure to testify to his uniformly amiable and Christian 
deportment, his great conscientiousness in the discharge of every 
duty, and especially to his earnestness and zeal in preaching the 
gospel to the people. It is a great mystery that he was snatched 
away at so early a period in his missionary life. But God never 
errs, and what he does is always the best. 

Rev. J. C. Kennedy, a native of South Carolina, and a grad- 
uate of the class of 1859, is now laboring as a missionary among 
the Choctaws, having been appointed to that work something less 
than a year ago. It is supposed that he is doing a good work, 
although he has been there only for a short time. 

From the foregoing brief sketches it will be seen that this Sem- 
inary has furnished twenty-one laborers for the foreign field, the 
results of whose labors may be found among the Indians, in 
Mexico, in Brazil, in India, in Japan, and in China. Of these 
twenty-one, eight have been summoned to their homes above; five 
are still actively engaged in the missionary work ; one is engaged 
in directing the general missionary work ; one is disabled for any 
kind of active work ; and six are engaged in the pastoral work 
at home. 

From this it will be seen that in forming an estimate of what 
this Seminary has done for the upbuilding of Christ's kingdom 
on earth, we must look abroad as well as at home. And the de- 
mands of the foreign field, even if we had no home interests to 
care for, would be sufficient to call forth all our energies to 
restore her former prosperity. The voice of the great heathen 
world, if she had any Avay of giving utterance to it, Avould be loud 
for the speedy restoration of the Seminary to her full activity. 
12 



PART IV. 



MEMOMi^L SKETCHES 



OF 



MEMORIAL OF THOMAS GOULDING, D. D. 

BY REV. F. R. GOULDING. 

Thomas Goulding, the subject of this sj^etch, was born March 
14, 1786, in Liberty County, Georgia, and died June 21, 1848, 
at Columbus, Ga. His parents were Thomas Goukling and Mar- 
garet Stacy, of the same. County and neighborhood. He had no 
brothers. 

It has been published as a remarkable fact, that "at the time of 
his death he was the oldest of fifteen Presbyterian ministers from 
one church, occupying usefully and honorably various important 
and responsible stations in the South. He was the first native 
licentiate of the Presbyterian Church in Georgia."' What makes 
this fact still more remarkable is, that this church should have 
furnished a greater number of Presbyterian ministers than all the 
rest of the State together, wdien it is not now, nor ever has been, 
Presbyterian, but Congregational. 

About the year 1804 he went to New Haven, Conn., for the 
purpose of entering Yale College, but he became so disgusted with 
"the fagging system" introduced from Europe, requiring mem- 
bers of the lower classes in College to obey the behests of the 
upper, that he declined to apply for matriculation until the sys- 
tem should be abolished. The result was that he never entered 
College, but pursued his studies in private, keeping pace with his 
intended class until circumstances in life rendered a connexion 
with College no longer desirable, even if practicable. In seek- 
ing a place in the country for the better prosecution of his studies, 
he was led by a remarkable providence to the little town of Wol- 
cott. Conn., and to the fiimily of Rev. Mr. Woodward, where he 
met (as otherwise he probably Avould not) Anne Holbrook, who, 
not long afterwards (November, 1806) became his wife. After 
the birth of their first child — a daughter, in 1807 — he returned 
to Georgia ; and although he had already begun the study of law 

^ Article by Rev. S. K. Talmage, D. D., in "Sprague's Annals of the 
American Pulpit." 



182 MEMORIAL OF 

as a profession, he resorted to teaching scliool as the means of meet- 
ing the expenses of a now increasing family. It was wliile he was 
thus engaged, first at Sunbury, Liberty County, then at Bair- 
den's Bhiff (or Sapelo Main), Mclntosli County, that he was 
called to a spiritual knowledge of God as rightfully entitled to all 
his powers, and to whom he joyfully consecrated himself by a 
public profession of religion in Midway church, April, ISIO, 
then by conducting prayei'-meeting, and by such other modes of 
winninfi' souls to Christ as were within his reach. He had already 
chosen the law as his profession, and had made a partial prepara- 
tion for its practice, without seeing any reason as yet for a cliange 
as to his life business ; but about this time — probably early in 
1811 — two highly esteemed friends, without any collusion or 
knowledge each of the other's intention, came on the same day, 
from a distance, to ask if he had ever in(iuired as to his duty to 
prepare for the gospel ministry, and to urge this upon his atten- 
tion. Hitherto he had had no other expectation than to nuike a 
practice of the law his life business ; but when this other question 
came thus before him, his heart, all burning with love to God and 
souls of men, left him but one answer to give. 

Toward the close of 1811, he was received under the care of 
Harmony (S. C.) Presbytery as a candidate for the gospel minis- 
try, by whom he was licensed at Augusta, Ga., October 31, 1813. 
A few months after licensure, he commenced preaching as stated 
supply at Whiteblulf, a settlement of Saltzburghers, about seven 
miles southwest of Savannaii, and January 1, 1816, he was 
ordained and installed pastor of that church. Here he laltored 
for about six years, during which the warmest reciprocal attach- 
ments were formed between him and his flock ; so warm, in fact, 
that he more than once referred the origin of the <lisease which 
terminated his life twenty-six years afterwards, to the pain he 
endured in parting from them. 

In 1822, after much severe sickness, both in his person and 
family, he removed to Oglethorpe County, where he had purchased 
and f^tocked a small farm ; then, in 1824, to Lexington, the 
County-seat, where also he remained al)out six years, taking 
charge, for a time, of the acadeniieal interests of the place, but 



REV. DR. GOULDIXG. 183 

devoting himself primarily to his work as a minister of Christ. 
"Here," to quote again from the article in Sjjragues Aniials, 
"he exerted an influence over some of the first minds of the State, 
which is now telling, and will for ever tell, on the best interests 
of men. Many a community is now reaping rich spiritual bless- 
ings, the source of which, unknown to themselves, is in the hon- 
ored instrumentality of this faithful man of God. On the estab- 
lishment of the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia/ he was elected by the Synod its first, 
and for a time its only, Professor. 

"In 1829 he was honored by the University of North Carolina 
with the degree of Doctor of Divinity. During this same year, 
1829, he instructed a theological class ^ at Lexino-ton, in connexion 
with his pastoral labors, and was then transferred, by direction of 
Synod, to Columbia, S. C, the present site of the Seminary. After 
serving the Church laboriously in the department of Ecclesiastical 
History and Church Government for several years, in connexion 
with others associated with him, he resigned his chair as Pro- 
fessor, and removed (January, 1835,) to his late charge in Colum- 
bus, Ga. For thirteen and a half years he was the laborious and 
faithful pastor of that church. He found it comparatively weak, 
and by his persevering fidelity raised it to influence and strength. 

"For many years in succession he was elected President of the 
Board of Trustees of Oglethorpe University, which ofiice he held 
at the time of his death. 

"He died, as was his often expressed wish, 'with his harness 
on.' On the evening of June 21, 1848, he attended his usual 
weekly lecture. He Avas in a state of great bodily debility when 
he left home, and was attacked during service with a paroxysm of 
heart disease, under which he had been laboring at intervals ever 
since 1822, when he parted with his first charge, the Whitebluff 
church. With great efibrt he finished the services. The subject of 
his lecture was Psalm Ixiii. 1-4 : '0 God, thou art my God ; early 
will I seek thee ; my soul thirsteth for thee ; my flesh longeth 

iln the year 1828. 

' This class consisted of five pe'rsons, viz. : H. C. Carter, Isaac Waddel, 
Farwell Jones, James Beattie, and Wm. Moultrie Reid. 



184 MEMORIAL OF 

for thee in a dry and tliirsty land where no water is. ... I will 
bless thee Avhile I live. I will lift up niy hands in thy name.' It 
was a suitable topic to present in his last address to his loved 
parishioners. And happy were they who did not allow them- 
selves to be detained from the service. 

"Within one short hour after pronouncing the benediction upon 
his hearers he was called — who doubts ? — to hear the benediction 
upon himself from the li})S of the Saviour whom he loved, Well 
done, good and faithful servant; enter thou into thejoyof thy 
Lord. 

"On retiring from the place of worship he hastened to his 
chaml)er. Scarcely had he reclined upon his couch when a vio- 
lent ])aroxysm of this disease came on. lie rose to lean upon 
the mantel, his accustomed source of relief; but relief came not. 
The usual remedies proved unavailing. In great agony he said 
to a friend that he would be glad if it would please the Lord to 
take him away. To a beloved son, on whose shoulder he was 
leaning when he died, and who was overwhelmed at witnessing 
his suifering, he administered a gentle rebuke. He was presently 
heard to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly ! That prayer 
was heard; he ceased to breathe; his spirit was at rest. 

"Dr. Goulding possessed a fine intellect and a cultivated taste. 
His public performances were usually far above the ordinary 
standard. He was a well-read and polished scholar, and had 
irathered rich harvests from the fields of literature. 

"Attributes still more engaging Avere the strength and tender- 
ness of his susceptibilities, and the sincerity and fervor of his 
piety. His friendships were strong, and his feelings were of the 
most ardent kind, while there was at the same time a childlike 
simplicity that won irresistibly upon his associates. If these 
qualities had their corresponding infirmities, they were the natural 
result of his rare gifts, and he would have been the last man to 
claim exemption from the frailties of humanity. Conscious of 
integrity in himself, he looked for it in others also, and was there- 
fore peculiarly liable to be imposed upon by the crafty an<l design- 
inii; : while, awiin, the stren^ith of his attachments made him feel 



REV. DR. GOULDIXG, 185 

the want of reciprocity even in those whose cohler natures 
disqualified them for suitably responding. 

"His favorite pursuit was the investigation of theological truth. 
The inspired volume was the book he loved best to study and to 
hold up to the admiration of his fellow-men. He was well- 
informed in the doctrines and polity of his own Church, and an 
able advocate of both ; yet his heart was open to embrace all the 
real disciples of Christ. 

"In person, Dr. Goulding was of medium stature, full liabit, 
round contour of face, high forehead, with a countenance expres- 
sive of deep feeling and vigorous intellect. In his manners there 
was a graceful simplicity blended with a commanding dignity that 
was exceedingly winning. In the pulpit his manner was at once 
pleasing and impressive; its prominent elements were tenderness 
and earnestness. 

"He left a wife and nine children, having lost one in infancy. 
He lived to see most of his children members in full of the 
Church of Christ. One of his sons and two of his sons-in-law 
are ministers of the gospel." 

Hon. Joseph Henry Lumpkin, Chief Justice of Georgia, who 
was received into the Church by Dr. Goulding, and who was "for 
many j-ears a member of his Session," says of him : "His char- 
acter was formed of a rare combination of moral and intellectual 
qualities that fitted him to be at once eminently popular and emi- 
nently useful. His intellect was much above the ordinary stand- 
ard, and had been cultivated by long and diligent study. . . . 
He was a thorough Calvinist of the Genevan school ; nor could 
any considerations of policy induce him to relax, in public or in 
private, one jot or tittle of his creed. The doctrine of justifica- 
tion by feith he regarded as an epitome of the Christian system, 
and . . . formed the favorite theme of his ministrations. No 
one could sit under his ministry, with any degree of attention, 
without gaining very definite views of the system he inculcated, 
as Avell as a deep impression of the importance he attached to it. 
He was alike explicit and earnest." 

It Avas a favorite rule for his own guidance, and often expressed 
for the benefit of those who were young in the ministry ^ Let 



180 MEMORIAL OF 

every sermon preached contain so much of the plan of salvation 
that should a heathen come in Avho never had heard the gospel 
before, and who should depart, never to hear it again, he should 
U;irn enough to kiii»w what he must do to be saved. 

••Though Dr. (ioulding had, in some respects, a woman's heart, 
and was full of tender and delicate sensibilities, he was always 
Hnu to his convictions of what Avas true and right. In worldly 
matters he was the veriest child ; conscious of entire sincerity 
himself, he seemed scarcely capable of suspecting tlie sincerity of 
others. A more unselfish man never lived. In all circumstances 
he showed himself the model gentleman as well as the model 
Christian. He had an instinctive discernment of the proprieties 
of life, and he practised them with scrupulous care. In the social 
circle he was the most genial of companions, having at hand a 
fund of anecdote, both amusing and instructive, which he knew 
how to turn to the very best account. 

•'That Dr. Goulding was an eminently pious man, no one, I 
believe, ever doubted, who knew him : yet he assured me that if 
ever he was regenerated, it was wliile he was asleep. Wearied 
with his burden of sin, and with his fruitless search for a Saviour, 
he had sunk despairingly into a profound slumber, from which 
he awoke praising God for his great salvation." 

As a partial offset to this may be related the fact tliat on recov- 
ering from an almost fatal illness at Whitebluff, he said to an 
aged deacon, in whose intelligent piety he had great confidence, 
"I fear I am no Christian." 

"Why so ?" inquired the other, greatly surprised. 

"Because I was so unAvilling, nay, even afraid, to die. You 
know I have always held that when a Christian is called to die, 
he will be endowed with dying grace. But I had none of it. I 
was afraid." 

"My dear pastor," modestly re))lied the deacon, "forgive the 
liberty, but allow me to ask a question. Were you at that time 
called to die?" 

"Of course not," said he. 

"I suspect," continued the deacon, "tlieLord knew you would 
not then need dying grace, and therefore did not give it. But I 



REV. DR. GOULDIXG. 187 

have no doubt that when the time comes you will enjoy your full 
share." 

And so it was. That same son on whose shoulder he was lean- 
ing when he died, wrote of him : "A few days before his death, 
as we sat together alone, he told me that he would soon die. I 
asked him why he thought so, for he was looking uncommonly 
well and strong. He replied that all his life he had had a dread 
of death, not of the consequences ; but that all that dread had 
left him. He therefore knew he should not live long. He spoke 
of the event as calmly as if it were only a visit to the next 
house." 

Thus, as if by transition, Dr. Goulding, the pioneer ordained 
Presb}' terian minister of Georgia, and the first Professor of our 
Seminary, passed to his everlasting rest, in the sixty-third year 
of his age, and thirty-fifch of his ministry, leaving with his friends 
a history fragrant with pleasant and precious memories. 



MEMORIAL OF JAMES HENLEY THORN- 
WELL, D. D., LL. D. 

BY REV. JOHN B. AlXiKR, D. D. 

It was at noondav on the 1st of August, 18G2, at Charlotte, 
N. C, that James Henley Thornwell departed this life. His wife, 
one dauMiter, one son, and his friend, the late Rev. John Dout'- 
las, were present, with myself. I stood at his dying bedside for 
some six hours before he breathed his last, but I had no thought 
that his end was near. There were brief intervals of wakeful- 
ness when he would rouse up and speak with us for just a moment, 
but for the most part he lay witli closed eyes and seemed to be 
dreaming that he was in his class-room at the Seminary. Once 
he uttered a statement ;is to the divine attributes. Once he said, 
" Well, you have stated your position, now prove it." Several 
times he was addressed concerning his views and feelings, and 
always answered in the tones of calm confidence and trustful hope. 
His lips moved frequently as if he were in prayer. For a long 
time he lay in quiet slumber, his countenance continually lit up 
Avith passing smiles, just Jis on a summer's evening in our South- 
ern skies the heavy massive cloud illuminates itself almost every 
minute with beautifid flashes of lightning. Towards the close 
he exclaimed, "Wonderful, wonderful, nothing but space — 
expanse, expanse, expanse ! " At the last, whilst we silently 
watched him, without any sign of suffering, he suddenly threw 
back his head upon the pillow which supported it, gasped once, 
or possibly twice, and was gone. 

It is therefore nearly twenty yeai-s since this brilliant star went 
down to rise no more in our firmament. Yet is he far from being 
forgotten amongst us. How often his name [claruju ac venera- 
hile) is named in our Church courts and Church papers. What 
Thornwell lield, what Th(»niwcll said, is always felt to be a most 
potent argument for or against any debatable position. As long 
as our Church lives, .lames llenley Thornwell will live in our 
hearts and his name dwell on our lips. And in that conviction, 



MEMORIAL OF REV. DR. TIIORXWELL. 189 

simply his name was the only epitaph we inscrihed on his tomb- 
stone. 

Our distinguished Professor, therefore, has impressed himself 
in the strongest possible manner upon the Southern Presbyterian 
Church, and through her he will yet impress himself on catholic 
Presbyterianism the world over. What is the significance and 
the secret of this impression now so deep, and destined hereafter 
to be so wide ? In my humble judgment, it was not the noble- 
ness and sweetness of his character, not the depth of his piety, 
not the extent of his learning, and not the force of his intellect ; 
although in every one of these particulars he was without his peer 
amongst us ; but it was the truth and the worth of the principles 
to which he adhered, and to which he gave throughout his whole 
course the most earnest and consistent advocacy. 

And I venture with great diffidence in this presence, but firm- 
ly, to assert that it was not as a theologian that James Henley 
Thornwell achieved his highest distinction, or accomplished the 
most useful work of his life. True, he left behind him a large 
number of incomparably grand theological lectures and treatises, 
both didactic and polemic. Many and important are the points 
of divine doctrine elucidated by him. And I may surely affirm 
that had Dr. Thornwell lived to be eighty years of age, and 
spent them all in the study of theology with a wealth of books at 
his command, he might have been perhaps less original in his 
thinking, but no doubt, with the blessing of God, he had pro- 
duced such a system of theology as this country has never seen, 
nor these last ages anywhere known. And yet our Church does 
not talk of Thornwell's theolosv, but of his investigations in an- 
other department. 

Nor was it Moral Philosophy where our distinguished Professor 
wrought out his chief performances. And yet he Avas a most 
successful and renowned teacher of Moral Philosophy ; had deeply 
studied all the questions of this science and was at one time pre- 
pared to publish a volume respecting them. 

Nor yet did Dr. Thornwell accomplish his chief work in the 
field of Metaphysics, although he Avas complimented more than 
once by Sir William Hamilton and other great masters as being 



190 MEMORIAL OF 

such :i tliorough student of Aristotle and of all philosophy. But 
it is neither Thornwell's moral nor mental science which we hear 
continually referred to and quoted. 

Neither is our eminent brother best known, nor will he be 
longest remembered, as a preacher, although many of you, I feel 
quite sure, will put him, as I do, at the very head of all the 
preachers of the gospel in our day. At the same time I may say 
that if he was a very great preacher himself, he certainly made 
his mark visibly on more than one of the greatest preachers in 
our Southern Church. These survive him as his sons, and per- 
petuate his masterful power as a pulpit orator. Yes, I may also 
go farther and say that in so far as the Southern Presbyterian 
ministry is distinguished for soundness of doctrine and for evan- 
gelical preaching — for holding up to the popular gaze only Christ 
and Christ crucified, it is doing injustice to no man living or 
dead to say that in very large measure this is the result of the 
influence exerted in many various ways by our James Henley 
Thorn well. 

Thornwcll was cut off as Calvin was in the very noon of life, 
and resembling the immortal Genevese in several other respects 
he was like him certainly in this, that his chief work was in the 
field of Ecclesiastics. 

The eminent Dr. AVilliam Cunningham, late of Edinburgh, 
said of Calvin : " The systematising of divine truth in his ' Insti- 
tutio,' the most important work in the history of theological 
science, and the full organisation of the Christian Church accord- 
ing to the word, are the great peculiar achievements of Calvin." 
But he adds : " His own contributions to the establishment of 
principle and the development of truth, were greater in regard to 
Church organisation than in regard to any other department of 
discussion — of such magnitude and importance indeed in their 
bearing upon the whole subject of the Church as naturally to 
suggest a comparison with the achievements of Sir Isaac Newton 
in unfolding the true principles of the solar system. . . . We 
believe (continues Cunningham) that the leading principles which 
Calvin inculcated in regard to the organisation of the Church, 
never have been and never can be successfully assailed; while 



REV. DR. TIIORNWELL. 191 

there is certainly no possibility of any one being able again to 
bring out from Scripture a contribution of anything like e([ual 
value." 

And then Calvin's main ecclesiastical principles, Cunningham 
states thus : 

1. " The unlawfulness of introducing anything into the wor- 
ship and government of the Church without positive sanction 
from Scripture." 

2. " That the Church must be organised as to office-bearers, 
ordinances, worship, and general administration, and arrange- 
ments according to what is prescribed in the New Testament." 

3. " That no one-man power of rule is to be allowed in the 
Church — which was the origin and root of the Papacy." 

4. ''That the Church is to be governed by presbyters, one 
class of whom are ministers of the word, and the others ruling 
elders, who thougli ordained presbyters are yet engaged usually 
in the ordinary occupations of society." 

5. " That all these principles are bound on the conscience of 
the Church _;'wri^ divino.'' — (Essays on the Leaders of the Chuich, 
p. 27, and on John Calvin, pp. 342 and 343.) 

Now, perhaps, it is not for us to say that our distinguished 
Professor actually did what Dr. Cunningham says there was cer- 
tainly no possibility of any man after Calvin ever being able 
again to do. And yet I am by no means sure that, all things 
considered, Thornwell did not make a contribution to ecclesiasti- 
cal reformation in itself of as much value as Calvin's. The times 
were different in wdiich the two great men lived. To Calvin be- 
longs the honor of exhuming principles buried under the rubbish 
of ages; to Thornwell the honor of fully elucidating what the 
Genevese only hinted at, because what Calvin said on Ecclesias- 
tics may usually be comprised in a very few lines. Each fought 
a good fight — Calvin against an apostasy from the word fully 
developed and also thoroughly armed and equipped to exterminate 
the truth ; Thornwell against principles inevitably leading (though 
perhaps circuitously) to the same apostasy which threatened a 
return into the bosom of the Reformed Churches on this conti- 
nent to be their plague and final destruction. 



192 MEMORIAL OF 

Ver}' briefly I will justify these positions by essaying to state 
the ecclesiastical principles, which in an age of slack and relaxed 
Presbyterian ism our friend and brother, with his great Kentucky 
compeer, was honored not only to defend but to set up again and 
reestablish in the convictions of our ('hurcli, as unquestionably 
revealed in the woid. They were as folloAvs: 

1. That the Scriptures are the only and the sufficient rule of 
faith and practice; the ("liurch, God's servant and not his confi- 
dential agent with large discretionary jtowers: that a '^ Thus saitli 
the Lord," must be produced for every Church appointment; and 
that in relision whatever is not commanded is forbidden. 

2. That Presbyterian Church government in its main features 
and in a certain sense in all its details also is of divine right. 

3. That presbi/ter is not synonymous with preacher; that the 
aboriginal presbyterate is ruling; that preaching is a function 
superadded to the office of one class of the rulers or presbytei's; 
and that we are to assert the parity of all presbyters and not 
merely that of all ministers. 

4. That the deacon is not to be connected with the lowest 
church court merely, l)ut may be employed by the uj>per courts to 
keep the charge of all their ])ecuniary and other secular aff'airs. 

5. That the Church in all her operations, both at home and 
abroad, must act not indirectli/ through great Boards which can 
never meet, and which constitute only a barrier between her and 
her yyork^hnt directly i\\To\x^\ Executive Committees small enough 
to meet often and actually to do what is committed to them. 

tj. That the Church is to have no connexion with political or 
moral voluntary societies, 

7. That giving of our substance is an act of woi'ship to Al- 
mighty God. 

8. In respect to Church discipline, that an offence, the proper 
object of that discipline, is nothing bur what the word of God 
condemns as sinful; that in appellate jurisdiction our courts must 
not be treated as parties ; and that baptized non-communicating 
members of the Church are not to be subject to technical discijdine. 

0. I may add, that Dr. Thornwell held distinctly to Calvin's 
l)eculiar doctrines of the Lord's Supper and of Baptisu), and that 



REV. DR. THORNWELL. 193 

he showed indisputably that the Cliurch of Rome has corrupted 
the one as well as the other sacrament. 

I have not time on this occasion to run out a comparison 
between these respective contributions of Calvin and Thornwell to 
our system of divinely revealed principles, and must leave that 
comparison to be made by each of you individually. Yet suffer 
me to call your attention to the striking similarity in gifts between 
these two great men who joined to so much intellect and learning 
so great practical wisdom. The Fourth Book of Calvin's Insti- 
tutes treats of the Church, the communion of saints, and the 
external means or helps to fellowship with Christ; and it dis- 
plays the strong common sense of Calvin while it sets forth the 
mind of the Master with respect to the government and discipline 
of his people. And so the Fourth Book of Thornwell's Collected 
Writings (much of it perhaps in advance of his time as a Presby- 
terian) will nevertheless probably prove to be the most practically 
effective and useful of the whole, constituting a monument to his 
knowledge of human nature and of human affairs, as well as of 
the divine polity set up on earth by Jesus Christ and his inspired 
apostles. 

So much of the men and their respective works. A few closing 
words now of the impression of their teaching. For Calvin's 
theological instructions many students gathered at the little citv 
of Geneva from all parts of Europe, and through them his doc- 
trines permeated all die Reformed Churches of his day. France 
and Holland and Scotland all received and accepted his Church 
Government and Discipline. For one hundred years the 
Church of France maintained them in vigor and in purity, but 
St. Bartholomew and many other terrible fiery persecutions well 
nigh rooted them out of that beautiful country. Holland handed 
down Calvin's testimony through her Voetius and other Presby- 
terian divines; Knox carried it to Scotland, and Andrew Mel- 
ville, Th. Henderson, Samuel Rutherford, and George Gillespie 
passed it down after his day. But the history of Presbyterianism 
in the Kirk of Scotland has been that of one long struggle, con- 
stantly renewed and vigorously maintained to bring back Prelacy, 
which in fact often did return and was reestablished measurably 
13 



194 MEMORIAL OF REV. DR. TIIORNWELL. 

amongst our Scottish forefathers. Moderatisni frequently and 
for long periods threatened to obliterate entirely ■svhat Knox car- 
ried to them from Geneva. And so in this country, to -which 
this system was brought over from Scotland and Ireland, from 
France and Holland, much have these heaven-descended princi- 
ples of polity been diluted with tlie Congregational or Prelatic 
idea.-, wliicli liuiiiaii wisdom would substitute for wliat the Lord 
has given to his Church. It has been for Thornwcll and his co- 
adjutor, Breckinridge, to take up the testimony of (Jillespie and 
renew successfully in this country the struggle for the jun divin- 
iim prcshyterii. Our eminent Professor had no Genevan crowd of 
students, but in this little Theological Seminary he taught the 
truth long enough and to men enough to perpetuate it in new 
life and vigor, and spread it all through this Southland. Our 
little Church has formally adopted his views in great fulness. In 
all humility we may add that she seems to be in advance of her 
Presbyterian sisters the world over as to the full and complete 
reception of these principles. Reverently and modestly we declare 
that we esteem it her glorious mission to maintain them undiluted, 
uncorrupted, and to exhibit them to other bodies of like order 
and to all the world in their simplicity, purity, and power. God 
grant that this school, where once our Tliornwell taught his ]Mas- 
ters revealed will touching the Church, may never decline from 
the distinctness, simplicity, and vigor of his testimony here. 



MEMORIAL OF CHARLES COLCOCK 
JONES, D. D. 

BY 1-lEV. JOHN JONES, D. D. 

Charles Colcock Jones, the son of Captain John Jones and 
Mrs. Susannah Hyme Jones (ni'e Girardeau), was born at his 
father's phmtation, Liberty Hall, Liberty County, Georgia, on 
the 20th of December, 1804. 

His parents were born in South Carolina. His mother, of 
Huguenot descent, was a woman of great excellence of character 
and sincere piety. She was a member of old Midway church, 
and in that church her infant son was consecrated to God in bap- 
tism by the pastor, Rev. Cyrus Gildersleeve. Becoming father- 
less at three months of age, the sole care of little Charles devolved 
on his mother, who earnestly desired and prayed that her orphan 
boy might glorify God in the Christian ministry. She was sig- 
nally answered long after her lips were silent in death. Although 
bereft of her tender care before completing his fifth year, his 
mother was never forgotten. And God remembered the child 
by committing him to affectionate relatives: to the pious training 
of a godly aunt, Mrs. E. G. Robarts, and the special guardian- 
ship of his uncle, Capt. Joseph Jones, who ever Avas to him as a 
fether, and to whom he ever accorded the respect, obedience, and 
affection of a son. 

Having received at the Sunbury Academy, Liberty County, 
under the preceptorship of Rev. William McWhir, D. D. (a 
renowned educator), the rudiments of an excellent English educa- 
tion, he entered at the age of fourteen, and continued six years, in 
a countingdiouse in Savannah, While thus emploA'ed, his even- 
ings were passed in reading and study. He not only acquired 
much historical information, but disciplined his mind by a thor- 
ough mastery of Edwards on the Will. Having accomplished 
himself for commercial life, such were his energy, system, and 
integrity, that his services were in demand, and a bright business 
prospect Avas before him. About this period an opening was pre- 



196 MEMORIAL OF 

sented him for entering the military academy at West Point. But 
God had other work for him. During his commercial career a 
severe sickness hrouijht him to the verjie of the grave, and was, 
uniler (Jod, the means of his profound awakening. While still a 
resident of Savannah, he at the age of seventeen, on the fourth 
Sabbath of November, 1M22, with about fjrty others, mostly 
young persons, connected himself with Midway church. Liberty 
County, then under the pastoral care of Kev. Murdoch Murphy, 
and at once became an active Christian in the Sabbath-school and 
church. The idea of studying for the ministry was first urged 
upon his serious consideration by Mr. Murphy. After careful 
and prayerful deliberation, he felt called to the ministry of the 
gospel. At twenty years of age he entered the famous Phillips' 
Academy, Andover, Mass., and for the first time commenced the 
Latin grammar. From Phillips' Academy, after two years, he 
entered Andover Theological Seminary, then under the tuition of 
Rev. Moses Stuart, a distinguished Greek and Hebrew scholar; 
Rev. Dr. Leonard Woods, a profound theologian; and the godly 
and scholarly Dr. Ebenezer Porter. 

From Andover Mr. Jones went to Princeton Theological Semi- 
nary, and studied eighteen months under those remarkable men, 
Doctors Archibald Alexander and Samuel Miller. In the spring 
of 1830 he was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery 
of New Brunswick at Allentown, N. J. In November, 1830, he 
returned to his native County, Liberty; and on the evening of 
the -1st of December following he was married at the Retreat 
plantation, by Rev. Dr. McWhir, to Miss Mary Jones, the daugh- 
ter of his uncle, Capt. Joseph Jones. 

On the 31st of May, 1831, he was called to the charge of the 
First Presbyterian church of Savannah ; and in November of 
the same year was ordained by the Presbytery of Georgia, and 
installed pastor of said church. After eighteen months of earnest, 
laborious, and successful work for the good of both races, Dr. 
Jones resigned his first and last piistoral charge of whites, leaving 
with his people a precious memory for many years. Constrained 
by a sense <jf duty, long felt, to devote himself to the evangelisa- 
tion of the colore<l people, he decided that the time had come to 



REV. DR. JOXES. 197 

begin tlic work of his life. To tlie needy spiritual condition of 
our servants liis mind was drawn while a student of Princeton 
Seminary. 

Leaving Savannah, he returned to Liberty County, as the 
centre of his operations, in November, 1832, and gave himself, 
body, mind, and soul, to his chosen, self-denying, and, so far as 
pecuniary recompence was concerned, gratuitous work, the full 
results of which eternity alone will disclose. Although he com- 
menced his work in the most favorable location in Georgia, yea, 
in the entire South, he nevertheless encountered opposition, both 
open and secret, demanding a spotless personal reputation, a 
strong social position, and unwavering decision, combined with a 
patient manly prudence; and all animated and controlled by love 
to the Lord Jesus, and life-long consecration to his service. These 
qualifications Avere wonderfully combined in Charles C. Jones. By 
nature and by grace he seemed to be called of God to meet a new, 
most difficult, and delicate emergency; to personally o]ien and 
occupy an almost untried field. As a good brother, in allusion to 
his work among the colored people, once said, he seems to be the 
apostle to that portion of the Gentiles. And he succeeded to 
a remarkable extent in aAvakening an interest in this neglected 
people, not only in his own County, but by his extensive corres- 
pondence, his writings, and annual reports of his labors, he, under 
God, did more than any other man in arousing the whole Church 
of this country to a new interest in the spiritual welfare of the 
Africans in our midst. And how abundant, self-sacrificing, and 
untiring were his personal labors for that people ! He had three 
principal stations : Midway, Newport, and Pleasant Grove. Mid- 
way was hard by the old mother Midway. There was another 
station, Hutchison, where he occasionally preached. Three of 
these houses of worship were erected very much through his 
agency. His work commenced in the closet and study. His 
preparations for Sabbath were made most carefully, witji critical 
examinations of the original Scriptures. His sermons were often 
expository, and uniformly instructive and impressive. He gen- 
erally rode to the stations on horse-back. The labors of the Sab' 
bath were introduced by a prayer-meeting and a watchman's 



108 MEMORIAL OF 

meeting; then followed tiie reirular services of the moniinir. him- 
self leading the nmsie. Tiie third service Avas a patient inquiry 
meeting, to whicli all were invited to come who desired personal 
instruction. This meeting, to which many responded, was highly 
priiied by him, having faithfully tested its value. The closing 
e.xercise was the Sabbath-school, in which he taught hymns and 
his catechism. Into these schools hundreds of all a<fes jrathered. 
but especially children and youth. All rcciteil together. These 
schools illusti-ated the effi':iency of oral instruction. They were 
remarkable for their animation, proficiency, and accuracy, and 
their scrijituial instructions received the special sanction of God 
the Holy Spirit. 

Such were the Sabbath labors of this beloved missionary. lie 
literally worked Avhilst it was day! The sun was usually in the 
tops of the trees, and the shadows of evening fast gathering, before 
turning his face homeward. In addition to Sabbath labors, he 
had, during seven months of the year, when at his winter home, 
his plantation meetings, from once to thrice a week. These were 
at night. He would ride in the saddle, from three to ten miles, 
to some plantation, preach and return home, however late the 
hour or long the ili<tance. This ]iart of \n< work was very useful, 
but a great draught on his constitution. 

His labors Avere confined to a warm, damp, and exceedingly 
depressing climate. The plantation work was particularly drastic. 
Frecjuently he would return home in mid-winter, and at mid-night, 
with feet and clothing thoroughly soaked from Avatery roads and 
night dcAvs. From such exposures and unremitting toil, his con- 
stitution received a shock Avhich resulted in a premature decay of 
AMgor and the going doAvn of his sun, even before the autumn of 
old age. But he Avas ))ermitted to see the pleasure of the Lord 
jiro^periiig in his hands, in the ha])j>y results and abundant fruits 
of his labors. These Avere manifest in the increased intelligence, 
goo<l order, neatness, and general morality of the colored peoj)le; 
their elcA'ated regard for marriage voavs, and attention to the 
morals and manners of their chihlren. Scripture knoAvle<lge 
abounded in comj)arison Avith the pa.st; and the blessed Spirit 
sealed the Avord in the conversion of many souls. The good seed 



REV. DR. JOXES. 199 

was continually watered: and there was one season particndarly 
distinguished by a marked and protracted refreshing from the 
presence of the Lord. It commenced in 1838 and continued 
until the close of 1842; and the fruits were an addition to the 
churches of the County of three hundred memljers. And the 
oreneral results of his labors were seen in other communities and 
regions beyond: a decided attention to the physical, as well as 
the moral, condition of the race; the erection of neighborhood 
and plantation chapels; the multiplying of family and plantation 
schools, in which Jones' Catechism was taught; a greater devotion 
of time to the negroes by pastors and churches; and an emphatic 
aAvakcning throughout the South to the duty of systematic reli- 
o^ious instruction to the blacks. In fact, the work of Dr. Jones 
for the spiritual elevation of the colored race was a decided suc- 
cess. His catechism of Scripture doctrine and practice, prepared 
especially for the colored people, used extensively in the South, 
and translated into three foreign languages by our missionaries 
and adopted by them, Avill remain a witness of his devotion and 
adaptation to his work. His book on the "Religious Instruction 
of the Negroes," and other kindred writings, and his last public 
utterances before the Confederate General Assembly at Augusta, 
Ga., in December, 1861, all attest that he Avas earnestly conse- 
crated to one great mission of life. Dr. Jones had some important 
and pleasant diversions from his missionary Avork. 

In November, 1836, he was elected by the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia to the Professorship of Ecclesiastical His- 
toi-y and Church Polity in the Columbia Theological Seminary. 
His scholarly attainments and wonderful power over young men 
eminently fitted him for his new work. He passed two years in 
Columbia. During his professorship, he often presented the col- 
ored field to the students, and labored personally for the negroes 
by preaching and the formation and teaching of a Sabbath-school 
of tAvo hundred scholars. He returned to Liberty County at the 
close of 1838, and resumed labor among the colored people, avIio 
received him Avith open arms ; and his return seemed to receive 
the divine sanction by an immediate Avork of the Spirit, Avhich 
continued for four years. He continued in this field ten succes- 



200 MEMORIAL OF 

sive years, the prime of his life, imtil he was a<xain called to the 
same Chair in the Seminary. He remained in Columbia during 
1849 and the Seminary year of 1850, when the providence of 
God and voice of the Church called him to another field. He was 
greatly attached to the Seminary ; was one of its early friends 
and founders. He was for years chairman of the Seminary's 
Board of Directors, and investing agent of the Georgia funds of 
till' institution. 

On the night of the 18th of April, 1850, in Columbia, the 
housL- in which Dr. Jones live<l, with all its contents, was dcstroved 
by lire, he and laniily barely escaping with their lives. By this 
disastrous event, which he bore with beautiful resignation, the 
most valuable portion of his library, his missionary journals, ser- 
mons, and other MSS., and his lectures on Church History, were 
lost. 

Very soon after this calamity, he was elected Secretary of the 
Assembly's Board of Home Missions, as successor of the Rev. 
Dr. Wm. A. McDowell. After the most prayerful deliberation 
he accepted this call of the whole Church, North and South, and 
removed to Philadeli)hia in October, 1850, and entered upon his 
duties as Secretary. In this new and most responsible and 
lal)orious position, he manifested his usual characteristics. His 
practical common sense, .systematic business habits, manly inde- 
pendence, his thorough comprehension of the field, earnest zeal, 
and untiring energy, infused new life into the operations of the 
Board. His financial ability and watchful diligence very soon 
discovered and arrested shameful and serious defalcations in the 
Treasurer of the Board. But in this important position he was 
not permitted long to labor. His constitution, having never 
recovered from the shocks of missionary labor, now, under the 
unremitting toil of his office, completely broke down, and he was 
compelled, in the fall of 1853, to seek restoration in the (piiet 
seclusion of his own delightfid home in Liberty County. From 
this jteriod we date the invalid life of Dr. Jones, protracted 
through ten years. But he woiked on, ])ie idling and laboring 
beyond his ability, with a zeal, devotion, and success, which 
increased as his strength and years declined. When no longer 



REV. DR. JONES. 201 

able to stand, he would preach sitting in the pulpit. His last ser- 
mons Avere regarded his ablest and best. 

He was especially foithful to his own servants, giving them 
public and private instruction in the plantation chapel and the 
family mansion ; and many of them professed the Savioar. 

He attended, as he "was able, the meetings of Presbytery, 
and twice during these ten years the General Assembly. He 
was a member of the first xVsserably of the Confederate States, 
and made a profound impression on that body, as, unmindful 
of physical weakness, he poured forth what proved to be his 
last appeal to the Church in behalf of the souls of oui\ servants. 
But the chief work of this part of his life Avas the ])roparation 
of his "History of the Church of God during the period of Keve- 
lation," the foundations of which were laid in his lectures at the 
Seminary. On this he wrought untiringly with great delight, 
almost up to the day of his death, which event found it lacking 
but a few chapters of completion, and ending, strange to say, 
just where the fire in Columbia had cut short his lectures. But 
the end was drawing near. His nervous prostration culminated 
in wasting palsy, his final, fatal disease. It gradually and fear- 
fully consumed his frame, leaving his mind untouched, and 
growing and ripening to the end. No one watched his symp- 
toms with greater care than himself. With an abiding trust in 
his Redeemer, he contemplated with cheerful calmness the fatal 
disease in its gradual dissolution of his tabernacle of cl.ay. 

Some months before death he said to his eldest child: "My 
son, I am living in momentary expectation of death, but the 
thought of its approach causes me no alarm. The frail tabernacle 
must soon be taken down: I only wait God's time." Four days 
before his death, he made this entry in a journal: "March l2th, 
1863. — Have been very weak and declining since rencAving a 
cold in the church on the first instant. My disease seems to be 
drawing to a conclusion. May the Lord make me to say in that 
hour, in saving faith and love, 'Into thy hands I conniiit my 
spirit: thou hast redeemed me, Lord God of truth!' So has 
our blessed Saviour taught us by his own example, and blessed 
are they who die in the Lord." 



202 MEMORIAL OF 

Oil tlio morning of the llitli of Marcli, 18G3, the day of his 
(leparture, liaving drei^sed himself with scrupulous neatness, he 
came do\vn from his chamber and breakfast ed ^vith the family. 
Afterwards he walked for a short time on the hnvn ; but returned 
much exhausted, and retired to his study and passed the morning 
in reading and meditation, alternately sitting and reclining. After 
dining in his study with apparent relish, INIrs. Jones repeated to 
him some promises of the Saviour to be ever with his jjcople, 
even when called to pass through the dark valley. To which he 
re])lied: "In health we may repeat those promises, but now they 
are realities." She addeil: "I feel assured that the Saviour is 
present with you." lie replied: "I am nothing but a ])oor sin- 
ner; I renounce myself and all sclf-justificatinn, trusting only in 
the free unmerited riglitcousness of the Lord Jesus Christ." 
Being asked if he had any messages for his sons, he said: ••Tell 
them both to lead lives of godly men in Christ Jesus, in upright- 
ness and integrity." His feebleness increasing, she suggested to 
him to retire to his chamber and recline on his bed. He assented, 
and supported by his wife and sister, Mrs. Cumming, he left the 
study, pleasantly remarking: " How honored I am in being waited 
on by two ladies." Reclining on his bed, in a few moments, 
without a struggle, a gasp, a sigh, he gently fell asleep in Jesus. 
A glory almost uneai'thly rested on his peaceful countenance. 
Shortly afterwards he was borne back to the study, and tlii-re, 
amidst the silent loved companions of life, he lay in (juiet re]>ose, 
until the third day following. Then, just in the same garments 
undisturbed, the white cravat untouched, arrayed as by himself 
for his burial, he was carried to old Midway church ; when, after 
most appropriate, solemn, and tender services by his much loved 
nephew by marriage. Rev. D. L. Butloljjh, D. D., the pastor of 
the church, he was laid to rest in the venerable cemetery, God's 
sacred acre, where his own ])arents and many generations of saints 
await the coming of the Lord in the clouds. 

This nicnioriaj cannot be properly closed witliout an extract 
from the' funeral discourse of Rev. Dr. ]>uttitl]ih on Jcreniiah 
xlviii. 17, "How^ is the strong staff broken, and the beautiful 
rod." He thus speaks : 



REV. DR. .TONES. 203 

"Dr. Jones ■was a man of" strikino- salient points of cliavacter. 
He was born to lead. None came into contact -with him, even 
.for a short time, without feeling that he was in the presence of a 
commanding intellect. His mind was of the first order. He 
Avould have succeeded in any chosen sphere. Such were his 
strength of purpose and resolute will, that difficulties, instead of 
deterring him from his object, only aroused to increased activity 
the powers of his extraordinary mind. His judgment seemed 
almost unerring. Seldom was he compelled to reverse a decision. 
He was an independent thinker and actor. No man surpassed 
him in moral courage. He was not afraid of the responsil)ilities 
which arose in the path of duty. He feared God only. His 
ac(iuisitions in knowledge were large, and they were accurate as 
well as extensive, and alwa^^s at command. Probably no man 
ever lived who made a better use of time. He regarded it as a 
precious talent from God. He- was unsparing of himself; he 
labored diligently to the very close of life, and fell, as he desired, 
with his harness on. 

"Dr. Jones possessed qualities rarely found united in the same 
person. He was not more the strong staff than the beautiful rod. 
The stronger and the gentler graces of humanity were combined 
in liim. With his strong will and fearless courage, there Avas a 
modesty, humility, and gentleness rarely surpassed. He had a 
tender heart, alive to every kind and generous emotion. He 
literally Avept with the weeping, and rejoiced with the rejoicing. 
Blessed Avith Avealth, he regarded all he possessed as ti'easure 
loaned by the Lord, and himself as God's steAvard. He labored 
for years in the ministry at his OAvn charges, and gave liberally 
to the poor and causes of benevolence. His home Avas the abode 
of hospitality, and his cordial Avelcome Avill never be forgotten. 
But the pulpit Avas his appropriate place. His Avhole appearance 
in the sacred desk indicated the greatest solemnity and reverence. 
His subject Avas ahvays Avell chosen and digested. He seized the 
strong points, and presented them Avith a clearness and simplicity 
Avhich commanded the attention of the learned and the unlearned. 
At times, becoming all absorbed Avith his subject, he Avould rise 



204 MEMORIAL OF REV. DR. JONES. 

to the highest flights of eloquence. There Avas nlso a fervor and 
unction in his preadiing not often equalled." 

And we cannot forbear adding the testimony of the Synod in 
the following utterances at Athens in November, 1 803: "As a 
man, Dr. Jones was a fine example of the Christian gentleman. 
As a preacher, he was sound, practical, and popular. Few men 
excelled him in the clearness and power with which he uttered 
truth, and the earnestness with which he besought men to be 
reconciled to God. And for the manner in which he fulfilled his 
special mission to the colored people, his praise is in all the 
churches, and his name will be had in everlasting remembrance. 
His ministry was eminently useful, and in his death the Church 
lias sustained a great loss, and by it Ave are impressively reminded 
that our best brethren, most talented, useful, and beloved, cannot 
continue bv reason of death." 



MEMORIAL OF AARON WHITNEY 
LELAND, D. D. 

BY REV. JOSEPH BARDWELL, D. D. 

Few men could boast a nobler ancestry. The earliest of this 
name, historically known, was John Leland, an accomplished 
scholar of the sixteenth century, Chaplain to Henry YIIL, and 
by him honored with the office of King's Antiquary, or Royal 
Antiquary of England. Among his lineal descendants are found 
the illustrious theoloirian and defender of the Christian faith, 
John Leland, D. D., of the seventeenth century, and Henry 
Leland, the ancestor of the American branch of the family, who 
removed from Great Britain to this country about the middle of 
said century (the seventeenth). His lineal descendants, through 
whom we trace that portion of the family history Avhich specially 
relates to the subject of this sketch, were Ebenezer HopestiU, 
aged, at death, seventy-four ; John, aged seventy-two ; John, 
aged seventy-three ; John, aged eighty-two ; and Aaron Whitney, 
son of Rev. John Leland, born in Berkshire County, Massachu- 
setts, October 1st, 1787 ; died November 2d, 1871, aged eighty- 
four years, one month, and one day. Though "by reason of 
strength," he attained to "four score years" and four, he did not, 
in this respect, greatly differ from those of his family who pre- 
ceded him. 

Of his early academic education little is known to the writer, 
other than that it must have been liberal and thorough. He Avas 
graduated at "Williams College in 1808, and soon thereafter chose 
the South as his future home. He at once removed to Charles- 
ton, S. C, and engaged in teaching at Mount Pleasant village, 
near that city. In June of the following year (1809), he was 
married to the eldest daughter of the Hon. James Hibben, of 
Christ Church Parish, by whom he became the father of six 
sons — one of whom died in infancy — and four daughters. 

At what precise date his mind became impressed with the claims 
of the gospel ministry we are not informed. But during the 



206 MEMORIAL OF 

third scuri-animal st^ssion of Harmony Presbytery, in Ai)i-il. 1811, 
he Avas taken under the care of that Presbytery, passo(l the usual 
examination and trials, and, on the 0th day of the same month, 
Ava> liceii'^ed to preaeh the "fospel as a probationer. In this 
capacity as licentiate he served the vacant churches of the Pres- 
bytery for one year with great acceptance, and on the 2d day of 
May, 1812, was ordained as an evangelist. But so great was the 
favor witli which liis first efforts in the ministry were received, 
that lie was soon called to the pastorate of the First Presbyterian 
church in the city of Charleston — usually called the Scotch 
church — and was installed pastor of the same in 1818. 

In 1814 he received the honorary degree of A. M. from Brown 
University, and in 1815, at the early age of twenty-eight, Avas 
honored with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by the South 
Carolina Colleire. For several vears he was ])a:>tor of the church 
on James Island, in which a powerful revival of religion took 
place under his ministry. In that church he preached the elo- 
quent sermons published in the Southern Preacher^ in wliich he 
vindicated evangelical religion from the charge of fanaticism. 

In 1833 he was called from the pastoral work and installed 
Professor of Theology in the Theological Seminary in Columbia, 
which position he filled with great fidelity and eminent satisfac- 
tion to the friends of that institution till 1850 — a period of 
twenty-three years. In view of his advancing years, and the 
increased labors incident to his chair, he was then, with his own 
hearty approval, transferred to the Professorship of Sacred 
Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology, for which his taste, culture, and 
long experience eminently fitted him. To the duties of this chair 
he devoted himself with unfiagging zeal till disabled by a stroke 
of paralysis in October, 1863. On the 11th day of that month, 
while entering a store on the public street, he was suddenly 
stricken prostrate wMth paralysis, and for a time lay insensible. 
So soon as consciousness returned he was borne, or rather assistedy 
to his own home. But, punctual to his engagements, nothing could 
deter him from attempting to meet his duties at the Seminary. 
It was his turn that week to preside in the religious services of 
evening worship ; and though the distance was considerable, he 



REV. DR. LELAND. 207 

reached the Seminary with faltering and uncertain steps. "Be- 
fore any of his colleagues could anticipate him, at the appointed 
signal which assembled the students, he entered the pulpit stand, 
Commenced as usual by invoking the presence of God, read, as 
he believed, a portion of the Psalms of David, gave out a hymn, 
united in singing it, and then, with the tones and countenance of 
one wrestling like Jacob Avith the angel of the covenant, engaged 
in prayer. But in all this, though there were the usual modula- 
tion of the voice, the usual rhythm of the hymn, the wrestling 
earnestness of the suppliant, not an intelligible word was spoken. 
To all but himself it was an unmeaning jargon. The mysterious 
connexion between the thought and its audible sign was broken. 
And yet it Avas most solemn and impressive; for it was the 
mysterious intercourse of the soul with its God, in an act of 
direct spiritual worship." And so through eight long years of 
almost suspended intercourse with his fellow-men, did he main- 
tain unimpaired his life-long habits of religious study, meditation, 
and worship. The word of God was his constant companion. 
Large portions of it he had committed to memory, lis also an 
almost incredible number of our hymns of praise. And thus, 
during these years of infirmity and suffering, his days were 
passed chiefly in holy employment, till God took him to his rest. ^ 

The wife of his youtli and mother of his children was emi- 
nently endowed by nature and by grace with all those qualities 
and virtues which constitute the true wife, the devoted and faith- 
ful mother, the noble and useful Christian woman. Her memory 
will be "as ointment poured forth," shedding its fragrance over 
the sweetest and most sacred recollections of those whose happi- 
ness it was to know her friendship and share her hospitality. 
Some years after her death he became united in marriage (Dec. 
21st, 1859) to Miss Clara Blight, a native of England, and a 
lady of rare and varied accomplishments, who, with unwearied 
care and constant devotion, watched over him during those years 
of infirmity and sickness to which allusion has been made. 

Dr. Leland Avas magnificently endowed with natural gifts, both 
mental and physical. In manly beauty, dignity, and grace, he 

^See Southern Presbyterian, of November 16th, 1871. 



208 MEMORIAL OF 

•was the admiration, in his youth and early manhood, of all who 
knew him : and with a mind vigorous and strong, and well stored 
with knowledge, and an imagination vivid and powerful, coupled 
with a heart susceptible of the most intense emotion, he could 
attract and impress all who came within the charmed sphere of 
his inlhit-nce. His majestic form, courtly manners, a voice which 
was harmony itself, and a style cultivated and fervid, made an 
impression on those who heard him not soon to be forgotten. As 
a reader of the Scriptures and sacred song in public worship, he 
surpassed in excellence all whom we iiave ever heard. ''He 
could win the attention and charm the hearers as he read the 
sacred page with that fitting modulation and emphasis which 
interpreted it as he read, ere he opened his lips to set forth in his 
own often elotiuent and persuasive words the truth of God." 

Dr. Leland's chief excellence as a pastor consisted in his ear- 
nest and faithful preaching of the gospel, in his deep sympathy 
for the afflicted, and his eminent success in presenting to their 
minds the rich consolations of divine grace. At certain seasons 
he would become intensely moved for the salvation of souls ; and 
at sucli times his appeals to the unconverted would seem irresist- 
ible. At other seasons he would apjjcar in his peculiar and gifted 
character, as "one that comforteth the mourners." There were 
also times when he himself came near to "the mount that might 
be touched," and wrote bitter things against himself, heeding not 
for the moment that "blood of sprinkling that spcaketh better 
thinjis than the blood of Abel." But these seasons were few 
and of short duration ; in his happy moments, which were many, 
he was the most genial and engaging of men. 

Among his personal characteristics, which, indeed, "were 
known and read of all men," a few may be brietly mentioned. 
Fir:<t. System and order were to him indisi)ensable in all things ; 
nothing could atone for their neglect. iSecoudli/. Punctualiti/ 
characterised him in all things. It was the law of his life. This 
trait was strikin^lv illustrated bv the fact that families living 
betweeri his residence and the Seminary were in the habit of regu- 
lating their time-pieces by his passing and repassing. 

In certain frames of mind, or from constitutional idiosyncrasy, 



REV. DR. LELAXD. 209 

Dr. Leland would sometimes remain as silent as a tombstone, 
when all around were in earnest conversation. On one such 
occasion, when an attempt was made to rally him, his character- 
istic reply was : "Well, , I never knew anybody to get into 

trouble from saying too little/' On another occasion, while suffer- 
ing severely from the then prevailing epidemic, "Tyler Grip" (as it 
was called), and comforted (?) by the declaration of his wife, that 
"the worst of the wretched epidemic was that it differed from most 
others, in returning upon you after you are cured," he quaintly 

replied: "Well, , there is one comfort; you can't have it 

but onee at a time." Thus he would find consolation where there 
was apparently none. Another marked characteristic was the 
inflexibility of his rules in domestic government, especially as 
related to "worldly amusements," and the strict observance of 
the Sabbath. In these, particularly in the last, he gave marked 
evidence of his ingrained Puritan education. 

In closing this sketch it is due to the memory of Dr. Leland, as 
also to the history of this School of tlie Prophets, to allude to his 
devotion and untiring activity in behalf of the material interests 
of the Seminary he loved so well. Many of his vacations, in his 
earlier connexion with the institution, were spent in gathering 
funds for its endowment. These he obtained more from indi- 
vidual contributions than from general collections. And it is not 
too much to say that the sound financial basis of the Seminary, 
prior to the war, was due, in a good degree, to his efforts in this 
way. Well and faithfully did he fill up the days of his allotted 
time on earth. Whether as a pastor or as a theological Pro- 
fessor, he was devoted to the duties of his calling, and sought to 
magnify his office by a life of holy consecration to the service of 
God. As a shock fully ripe, he has been gathered into the garner. 
His name is identified with the history of this noble Seminary of 
sacred learning, and his memory will remain embalmed in her 
archives for all time to come. 
14 



MEMORIAL OF WM. S. PLUMER, D. J)., LL. D. 

BY REV. mosp:s d. iiooe, d. d. 

"William Swan Plumer -was born in Greensburg (now Dar- 
lington), Pennsylvania, July 26111, 1802. In the nineteenth 
year of his age he Avas a pupil of the venerable Dr. McElhenny, 
of Lewisburg, West Virginia, with whom he pursued his studies 
until he was prepared to enter AVashington College, Lexington, 
A'ir;;inia, where he ffraduated. He received his theoloiiical train- 
ing at Princeton Seminary; was licensed to preach by the Pres- 
bytery of New Brunswick in 1826, and was ordained by the Pres- 
bytery of Orange in 1827. After several years of evangelical 
labor in North Carolina, he returned to Virginia, and after a 
short term of service in Briery church he was called to Peters- 
burg in 1831. He removed to Richmond in 1834 to become the 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church. In the thirteenth year of 
his labors in Richmond he accepted a call to the Franklin Street 
church, Baltimore, of which he had pastoral charge from 1847 
to 1854, when he was elected to the Chair of Didactic and Pas- 
toral Theology in the Western Theological Seminary at Alle- 
ghany, Pennsylvania. Owing to complications caused by the 
civil war his connexion with the Seminary having been severed, 
in 1862, he supplied the pulpit of the Arch Street church, Phila- 
delphia, until 18Go, when he accepted a call to the Second Pres- 
byterian church of Pottsville, Pennsylvania. In 1867 lie was 
elected to the Professorship of Didactic and Polemic Theology in 
Columbia Seminary, and after filling that chair for eight years, 
he was transferred, at his own re((uest, to the Chair of Historic, 
Casuistic, and Pastoral Theology, which position he continued to 
hold until 1880, when he was made Professor Emeritus by the 
Board of Directors. After his connexion with Columbia Semi- 
nary ceased, he continued to supply difierent churches in Balti- 
more and other cities and towns in Maryland, until his labors 
were terminateil by death on the 22d of October, 1880. 

Commemorative services were held in Baltimore before the 
removal of the remains to Richmond; and he was buried in 



MEMORIAL OF REV. DR. PLUMER. 211 

Hollywood Cemetery fi-om the First Presbyterian church on Sun- 
day afternoon, October 24th, 1880, 

This condensed enumeration of dates and fields of labor, 
•reminds us not only of the vicissitudes of Dr. Plumer's life, and 
the versatility which characterised him, but of the important 
positions and responsible trusts committed to him by the great 
Head of the Church. 

In the brief space allowed to me, I propose, for the sake of 
more distinct impression, to condense what I have to say under 
separate heads, asking your permission to repeat some statements 
already given to the public, and which I cannot now reproduce 
in any better terms. 

I. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

Dr. Plumer's majestic stature, his slow and measured step, his 
easy and graceful carriage, his dark eyes and heavy eyebrows of 
still darker shade, contrasting with his white hair fallinof back 
in heavy masses from his forehead, his snowy beard "waving on 
his breast like a flowing vestment," reminded the beholder of 
some majestic patriarch or ancient prophet — "a living sculpture 
of heroic mould." 

Especially during the latter years of his life such was the im- 
pression made by his stately presence and venerable aspect, that 
on entering a crowded assembly or even in walking the streets of a 
great capital, he commanded immediate attention, and men accus- 
tomed to every variety of form and costume would turn to look 
at him as he passed, with a sentiment of involuntary homage. 

To those not intimately acquainted with him, Dr. Plumer 
seemed to be indomitable, self-reliant, and regardless of the opin- 
ions of others. Just the contrary was true. He was cautious 
and singularly distrustful of his own judgment. This often led 
him to seek the counsel of those in whose prudence and discretion 
he had confidence. No man was more ready to defer to the 
opinions of those in whom he trusted, or to avail himself of their 
suggestions; but when he had found the light he conscientiously 
sought, and had deliberately matured his plans, no man was more 
decided or determined in their execution. Having once taken 
his position, no intimidation could induce him to swerve from it. 



212 MEMORIAL OF 

Planted upon ^vllat he believed to be truth and righteousness, he 
was firm as a rook. It was a fine discrimination which induced 
one of another denomination to say of him that " he united the 
simplicity of a child and the tenderness of a girl with the heroism 
of a martyr." lie would make no compromise with error, but 
he was gentle to the erring. He did not shrink from controversy 
when orthodoxy had to be defended, but one of his favorite quota- 
tions was, "I would not give an hour of brotherly love for a 
whole eternity of contention." If he was bold and uncompro- 
mising as Luther on the platform, he was tender and sympathis- 
ing as Melancthon in the social circle. 

His unchanging loyalty to his friends, his generosity in giving 
to the poor, his simple and abstemious mode of living, his forgiv- 
ing spirit and forgetfulness of injuries, his gratitude for kindness 
shown him, the unutterable tenderness of his manner towards the 
members of his own household, were conspicuous and characteristic 
traits which might be dwelt upon fondly, but to which now noth- 
ing but a passing allusion can be made. 

II. PREACHER AND PASTOR. 

Dr. Plumer's manner in the pulpit was peculiarly impressive. 
There was a dignity and even a majesty in his presence that com- 
manded attention. His prayers were the tender pleadings of a 
soul in communion with God. There was a pathetic tremolo in 
his tone as he read the hymns for the day. He occasionally pre- 
faced the announcement of his text with some striking remark, 
arrestinij the attention of his entire audience. His voice was one 
of great flexibility and power. Its cadences varied with the sen- 
timents which filled his mind and heart. When the thought was 
tender, the expression of it came in accents soft and low. The 
words fell like the dropping of tears. In the utterance of some 
sublime and stirring thought, his voice rang out like the sound of 
a trumpet. These transitions at times were abrupt and startling 
as a bugle call to battle. Nervous persons were occasionally 
agitated by them ; his audiences generally were aroused and 
impressed by them. In the fulness of his strength in middle life 
he could have filled a great cathedral with the melodious thunder 
of his marvellous voice. 



REV. DR. PLUMER. 213 

t 

But these personal gifts did not constitute the chief source of 
his power. It was found in liis intense realisation of the truth 
he uttered, in his deep conviction of the importance of the mes- 
sage which he proclaimed, and in his ardent love for the message 
itself. Such was his glory in the Cross, and such was his love 
for the gospel of salvation, that he could not help preaching it 
heartily in all its richness and tenderness and adaptation to the 
needs of men. 

"What he lacked in the logical development of his theme he 
compensated for by a peculiar force and clearness of statement, 
and by a wonderfully original power of illustration, drawn chiefly 
from the experiences and ordinary occurrences of life. He had a 
most happy faculty of turning passing events to spiritual account. 
As when at the White Sulphur Springs in the memorable summer 
of 1860, the band was continually called on to play the "Marseil- 
laise," in the very height of the season of the excitement, as a 
correspondent tells us, he was appointed to preach. There was 
too much emotion of every kind, except the religious, in the ball- 
room where the service was held, for any ordinary man to gain 
the devout attention of the throncr which crowded it; but at the 
appointed hour Dr. Plumer rose and towered above the extem- 
porised pulpit which had been prepared for him, and in a voice 
whose deep bass rolled through the hall, suppressing all other 
sounds, he said, "Let us begin the worship of God by singing 
the 3Ia7'8eiUaise-hjmn of the Christian Church, 'All hail the 
power of Jesus' name.' " The audience "held its breath," as 
Dr. Plumer recited that grand coronation hymn, and nothing 
more was needed to command its hushed and reverential attention 
during the remainder of the service. 

As a pastor he did what many pastors are afraid to do. He 
dealt personally and plainly with backsliders, rebuked and ad- 
monished the erring, without the slightest regard for the social 
position and influence of the offender. He bore the burdens of 
the poor, the lonely, and the afflicted of his flock on his heart. 
If he was a son of thunder on the platform and in the pulpit, he 
was a son of consolation in the sick room and amonji the bereaved 
of his people. 



214 MEMORIAL OF 

III, TIIEOLOCICAL PROFESSOR. 

I am giving my impressions of Dr. Plumer from my personal 
remt'inbranees of liini, but in one departniont of liis labor, and 
perhaps the greatest, I have no infonnation derived from any 
observation or knowledge of my own, having never seen him in 
a Seminary elass-room but once in my life, and then but a single 
hour. I must therefore be indebted to the experience of the 
honored pastor of the First Presbyterian church of Richmond, 
and others who were his pupils at Alleghany and Columbia, who 
have already borne their faithful and loving testimony to his 
efficiency as a teacher, his self-sacrificing devotion to the two 
institutions in which he held office, and his unremitting efforts to 
provide for the temporal and si)iritual welfare of the pupils 
intrusted to his care, and wlio were attracted to these schools by 
his great reputation as a Theological Professor. 

IV. DILKiKNCE AND IXDUSTIIY. 

While Dr. Plumer was endowed by his Creator with extraor- 
dinary intellectual powers, he never presumed upon them, but 
worked with as much zeal and perseverance as if he believed he 
was to be indebted for all his success in life to indefatigable labor 
unaiiled by natural gifts. It always pained me to see him write. 
It was the slow, weary scrjitching of a cramped infelicitous hand. 

And yet he wrote a Commentary on the Psalms of more than 
1,200 printed pages, a Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, 
another on the E[)istle to the Hebrews, many practical works 
calculated to establish the faith of believers or to awaken the im- 
penitent, which have been recognised as a part of the permanent 
literature of the Church, besides innumerable tracts for the Pres- 
byterian Board of Publication, for the Methodist Book Concern 
of Nashville and of New York, for the Board of Publication of 
the Reformed Dutch Church, for the Baptist Publication Society 
of I'hihidelphia, for the American Sunday School Union, and for 
the Presbyterian Publication Committee of Richmond. 

Some of these works were repul)lished in Europe, others were 
transhited into German, French, Chinese, and modern Greek. 
While Professor in the Western Theological Seminary he was 



REV. DR. PLU.MER. 215 

also the successful pastor of the Central Presbyterian church of 
Alleghany. While Professor in Columbia, the church to which 
he ministered steadily grew in numbers and was blessed with pre- 
cious revivals. While pastor in the city of Richmond he edited 
The Watchman of the. South. During the Avhole of his public 
life he received and accepted invitations to deliver lectures and 
addresses before Lyceums, Benevolent Institutions, Young Men's 
Christian Associations, Male and Female Schools, and the Liter- 
ary Societies of Colleges and Universities at their Commencements. 
For more than forty years he was contributor to the periodical 
press, writing for reviews, for magazines, for many of the religious 
newspapers North and South, besides conducting a private cor- 
respondence which to most men would have been burdensome in 
the extreme. Perhaps no man of his time, not in political life, 
knew more people, or wrote a larger number of letters on subjects 
so varied and important. 

V. HONORS. 

To such a man earthly distinctions are comparatively insignifi- 
cant things. He was once offered a very distinguished political 
position, but his reply to the invitation was, that he already held 
an office greater than that which any secular power could confer 
on him. 

He was twice made Moderator of the General Assembly — first 
of the General Assembly of 1838, and then of the Southern 
Assembly which sat in Huntsville, Ala., in 1871. 

The Presidency of several Colleges and the Secretaryship of 
several of the Boards of the Church were at diiferent times offered 
him, but he never saAv his way clear to accept any of these appoint- 
ments. In 1838, Washington College, Pennsylvania, Lafayette 
College, Pennsylvania, and Princeton College conferred upon 
him the title of Doctor of Divinity, and in 1857 the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi conferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Laws. In 1877, Dr. Plumer was a delegate to the Coun- 
cil of all the Presbyterian Churches of the world, which met in 
the city of Edinburgh. There he commanded the most marked 
attention, and left an impression upon the thousands who saw and 
heard him, which will not be forgotten in this generation. 



216 MEMORIAL OF REV. DR. PLUMER. 

VI. OLD ACE. 

Dr. Plumer retained iiuu'li nf'the freshness of early feeling to 
the last, because he never lost his interest in the present. His 
heart was ever Avarni by reason of his fondness for the society 
of the young. He entered with a quick and ready sympathy 
into all that interested them. Their vivacity, hopefulness, 
and niirthfulness were to him as a fountain from which he 
refreshed his own spirit. Unlike many men of advanced years, 
he did not indulge in laudation of times gone by. as if in the gen- 
erations of the past the skies were brighter than now, and the 
flowers of the garden and the heart sweeter than those which 
bloom in our own day. While he adliere(l with an ever-increas- 
ing loyalty to the principles and the systems whose value had 
been tested by time and experience, he was ever ready to wel- 
come new ideas, new enterprises, and methods of working. To 
the very last he was looking for fresh fields of labor, and laying 
plans for continued usefulness. The longer he lived, the more to 
him did life seem worth living. Thus did he illustrate the 
beautiful portraiture of the Psalmist, "Those that be planted in 
the house of the Lord shall flourish in the courts of our God. 
They shall still bring forth fruit in old age" — fruit fair to the 
sight and pleasant to the taste. 

We cannot say of such a man that he is gone. He lives in his 
descendants, whom he might have addressed, in the parting hour, 
in the words of the old patriarch: "Behold, I die, but God shall 
be with 3'ou." He lives in the truths he preached and in the 
examples of his long and laborious life. He lives in the writings 
which have fortified the faith and comforted the sorrows of count- 
less readers. He lives in the labors of more than five hundred 
young ministers who were his pupils in the Theological Semina- 
ries in which he taught, and who are now scattered all over the 
Avorld — some of them in these States, some among the Indian 
tribes of the West, in Brazil, Siam, Japan, India, and China. 
He lives in the souls of those converted by these varied instru- 
mentalities. "They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of 
the firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness as the 
stars for ever and ever." 



STTJIDEISrTS. 



REV. JAMES McEWEN HALL ADAMS 

Was born December 25, 1810, and at his death was in the 
fifty-second year of his age, and the twenty-ninth of his minis- 
try. He was the second son of Rev. J. S. Adams, of Bethel, 
South Carolina. From a child he enjoyed the advantages of 
pious instruction, consistent Christian example, and the effectual 
fervent })rayers of the righteous. The result was an early self- 
consecration to God. In youth he was a student, and he cher- 
ished the habit through life, not as a source of enjoyment merely, 
but as a means of usefulness. At the age of seventeen he passed 
from Bethel Academy to Franklin College, Georgia, and entered 
the junior class. While here he made a public profession of re- 
ligion. In 1829 he was graduated, having secured the esteem and 
affection of both teachers and pupils. After spending a year in 
teaching, he entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia. In 
1833, having completed the course of study there, he was licensed 
as a probationer by the Presbytery of Bethel. In the course of 
the next year he was by the same Presbytery ordained as an 
evangelist in the church of Bethel, Avhere his venerable father 
labored, and in the presence of many relatives and friends. 

About this time he accepted an invitation from Unity and 
Bethel churches, in the bounds of Concord Presbytery, North 
Carolina. From this field he was called to Third Creek church, 
in Rowan County, North Carolina. Here he labored with ac- 
ceptance for several years. From this place our brother removed 
to Asheville, North Carolina, for a short time, but returned to 
Third Creek, where he remained until 1851, when he received 
an invitation from the church in Yorkville, South Carolina. 
Over this church he was installed pastor, and here he remained 
until his Avork was finished. From this place, at the command 
of his Master, he went up to his reward. 



218 STUDENTS. 

While pastor of Unity church. Brother A(hiins was married to 
Miss Eliza A., (lau«^hter of Robert Burton, of Lincoln County, 
North Carolina. Having shared his joys and sorrows for so many 
years, she, ^vith eight children, survives to mourn their unspeak- 
able loss. 

For several years this beloved brother hehl a prominent place 
in the College at Yorkville as Professor. His ripe scholarship, 
polished manners, and pious demeanor made him a popidar and 
efficient teacher for young ladies. In consecjuence of such ardu- 
ous duties his health failed, but he refused to abandon his chosen 
fields. He loved to work. He loved the service of the Saviour, 
and refused to desert his [)Ost until removed by the Master him- 
self. The command came on the 31st of March, and he rested 
from his labors. 

During his last hours our brother conversed but little. But 
his evidence was clear. He knew whom he had believed. His 
last utterance was, "I come, Lord, I come." The work of life 
is finished. The Master calls. I am ready to depart, to be made 
perfect in holiness and immediately to pass into glory. "How 
blessed the righteous when he dies." 

As a husband and parent Brother Adams was all that could be 
desired; he was the light and joy of his household. By his 
brethren in the ministry this brother was universally respected 
and beloved. By his numerous relatives, as well as the people 
of his charge, he was almost idolised. He had no enemies. 

But it was his office as an ambassador for Christ that brought 
him most prominently before the community. And admirably 
did he discharge its high and holy duties. Many have excelled 
him in certain qualifications for the work of the ministry, but 
very few have possessed such a combination of excellencies. 
In the pulpit his manner was agreeable, his method clear, his 
style good, his langu;igc pure. There was nothing for mere show; 
all was plain, pointed, practical. He was a sound divine, and 
loved the doctrines and order of his own CJiureh. He literally 
taught the people, was always interesting and often elo(|uent. 
Under his ministrations God's people were edified and many souls 
saved. 



STUDENTS. 



219 



His influence was not confined to the Church. His consistent 
life was seen by all, and was as an epistle sent forth. Kind by 
nature and benevolent in his feelings, he was ever ready to sym- 
pathise Avith the afflicted. Even worldly minded men treated 
him with deference and respect, and looked upon him as the 
model of a Christian gentleman, who, though differing from them, 
yet had respect for their failings, and could properly appreciate 
their sentiments. To the end of life he "had a good report of 
theui which are without." S. L. Watson. 



REV. WILLIAM II. ADAMS. 

William Hooper Adams, the son of the Rev. Dr. Nehemiah 
Adams and Martha Hooper Adams, was born in Boston, Mass., 
January 8, 1838. He received the rudiments of his education in 
the Brimmer School, in Boston. In 1856 he entered Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. It was during this year that 
he made a public profession of his faith in Christ, and became a 
member of Union church, Essex Street, Boston, of which his 
honored father was pastor during nearly the whole of his minis- 
try. In 1860, he entered the Theological Seminary at Andover, 
Mass. He had been a member of this institution but a few 
months when he removed South, and accepted the position of 
private tutor in a family in Georgia. In January, 1861, he be- 
came a student of the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C. 
He was licensed to preach the gospel, September 27, 1862, in 
Greensboro, Ga., by the Presbytery of Hopewell. On Novem- 
ber 21, 1863, he was ordained as evangelist of the same Presby- 
tery, convened at Athens, Ga. Immediately after his ordination, 
he ministered to the churches of Danielsville, Sandy Creek, 
Paolia, and Bethhaven, Ga. Mr. Adams began his ministry in 
Eufaula, Ala., November 15, 1865. In the summer of 1866, he 
was called home by the illness of his aged father, and conse- 
quently resigned his pastorate. 



220 STUDENTS, 

The remainder of liis ministerial life, covering a period of 
twelve years, was chiefly spent in Charleston, S. C, as pastor of 
the -'Circular Church," of which he took charge February 20, 
1867. 

During the summer of 1867 he supplied the Congregational 
church of Middleboro, Mass., and during part of the same year. 
Vine Street church, Roxbury, Mass. He also supplied the 
Hancock church, Lexington, Mass., during the absence of its 
pastor, one year. In March, IH^^O, he was invited to supply the 
Union Central church, at Sullivan's Island, near Charleston, 
S. C. But before entering upon his work lie was attacked with 
jaundice, and on Saturday, May 15, he passed peacefully away. 
His last words were, ''Grace and glory in the great congrega- 
tion I" 

jNIr. Adams was twice married ; first to Miss Pauline Thomas, 
of Athens, Ga., and afterwards to Miss Margaret E. Holmes, of 
Charleston, S. C. 

Mr. Adams was an able, earnest, and successful preacher, of 
the Calvinistic school. His piety was of a deeply devotional 
and experimental type, which, combined with a genial, sympa- 
thetic, and buoyant nature, made hi in a beloved and successful 
pastor. He was a laborious student, and aimed at the highest 
literary excellence. He prepared several Avorks for the press, 
only two of which he lived to pubKsh, viz., "Seven Words from 
the Cross," and "Walks to Emmaus." G. R. Brackett. 



MR. WILLIAM ALCORN. 

By the side of the grave of William Epstein is that of William 
Alcorn, wlio was a graduate of the L'niversity of Pennsylvania, 
and had been a student of the Seminary at Princeton. He 
arrived in Cobnnbia in December, 185r), having studied at I'rince- 
ton. He had hardly been a fortnight in Columbia when he w:ia 
seized in the public street, near the Seminary, with a sudden and 



STUDENTS. 221 

copious hemorrhage from the lungs, which occasioned immediate 
death. His lifeless remains were laid reverently on a neighbor- 
ing foot-bridge by strangers. His fellow-students, as soon as 
apprised of the event, bore them away. He was decently interred, 
and his epitaph was the one from which Epstein's was modelled : 

"In Memory 

of 

WILLIAM ALCORN, 

a native of Ireland, 

who died 

January 1st, 1856, 

aged 31 years. 

He was a member of the 

Senior Class in the Theol. 

Seminary in this city. 

This memorial was erected 

by his fellow-students, 

as an expression of 

affectionate regard." 

<feo. Howe. 



REV. DONALD JOHN AULD, M. D. 

D. J. AuLD, son of Dr. Isaac Auld, of Edisto Island, S. C, 
was born April 26th, 1810. Enjoying the best advantages for 
education, he entered the Senior Class in Charleston College in 
his eighteenth year, and was graduated in 1829. He began at 
once the study of medicine under Dr. Porcher, of the Medical 
College of South Carolina, and was characterised here, as in his 
literary career, by independence of research and adhesion to 
truth — traits which he retained through life. Repairing to Phila- 
delphia in 1832, during the prevalence of cholera, he gave him- 
self bravely to the work of his calling, being made Visiting Phy- 
sician to the Arch Street Prison. Proposing to make his home 
in the then frontier town of Memphis, he was so afflicted with 
inflammatory rheumatism as to be compelled to return to Charles- 
ton. But a loving Saviour was dealing with him, and becoming 



222 STUDENTS. 

a subject of renewing grace, he united with the Second cliureh, 
of which Dr. Smyth was pastor. 

Looking ujMJii himself as a "brand plucked from the burning," 
he soon heard and heeded the Spirit's call to the gospel ministry. 
In the autumn of 183.5, repairing to the Columbia Seminary, he 
was, in 1837, licensed, and in 1839 ordained, by the Charleston 
Presbytery. His first charge was the Darlington and Wappetaw 
churches ; and in 1840 he became pastor of Harmony and Brew- 
inwton churches, where he continued to labor for eight years, 
often in great bodily affliction ; yet amid it all, acquiring the 
reputation of a faithful pastor, an eloquent preacher, and a punc- 
tual presbyter. In 1848 he was installed by Bethel Presbytery 
over the Purity church, at Chester, S. C, but impelled to labor 
in more destitute regions, he removed, in 1852, to Florida, united 
with the only Presbytery then in that State, and became pastor 
of the Madison church. Yielding to the earnest application of 
the Tallahassee church, and hoping to enter a wider sphere of 
usefulness, he l^came its pastor in 1857. But little more than a 
month was he permitted to preach to that attached people. The 
old disease seized on his vitals, and after weeks of suffering, en- 
dured with patience, he fell asleep in Jesus, October 29th, 1857, 
in the twentieth year of his ministry, and the forty-eighth of his 
age. 

In every relation of life — as husband, father, friend, pastor, 
presbyter. Christian — he was an example to believers. His 
preaching was evangelical and attractive. Unflinching resolution, 
warm feelings, lasting affection, were controlled by piety. His 
heart, ever alive to tlie interests of Christ's kingdom, was ready 
to labor, even under intense physical suffering. His devotion to 
his Lord was emphasised in the family, the social circle, the 
sanctuary. — Extract from Sketch by W. J. McCormick. 



STUDENTS. 223 

REV. AUGUSTUS 0. BACON. 

Augustus 0. Bacox, son of Thomas and Sarah H. Bacon, 
■ and grandson of the late Rev. Dr. Holcombe, a distinguished 
Baptist minister, was born in Liberty County, Ga., on January 
17th, 1816. 

His parents were consistent members of the Baptist Church, 
truly godly people. They studiously trained their son in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord, and were blessed in witness- 
ing a childhood of marked truthfulness, integrity, and obedience. 
And the seed of divine truth sown in his heart with prayer and 
faith, developed in his conversion at thirteen years of age. Soon 
after this he united with the North Newport Baptist church of 
Liberty County, of which he was a consistent member. He en- 
tered the L^niversity of Georgia in January, 1834, and completed 
the usual course of studies, standing in the foremost ranks, as a 
scholar and debatant. 

In October, 1836, he entered the Theological Seminary in 
Columbia, S. C, to prepare himself for his long chosen profes- 
sion. Here, as elsewhere, his suavity of manners, exemplary 
conduct, and ardent piety gained the confidence and love of his 
instructors and fellow-students. After two years of study he ap- 
plied for dismission from the Seminary, which was granted by 
the Professors in the following language: "He has diligently at- 
tended the prescribed course of study, maintained a consistent 
Christian character, conformed to all the regulations of the insti- 
tution, and is now dismissed at his own particular request. He 
carries with him the confidence, the esteem, and the sincere af- 
fection of each one of us." 

In July, 1838, he was licensed to preach the gospel, and soon 
after was invited by the North Newport and Sunbury Baptist 
churches to become an associate pastor with Rev. J. S. Law. 
The invitation was accepted, and he entered upon his work. He 
was ordained January 13th, 1839. Alas ! how short was his 
ministerial career. In the latter part of June following he was 
attacked with a violent fever which settled on the brain, and ter- 
minated fatally on the 3d of July, 1839, and on the 4th he was 



224 STUDENTS. 

buried in old Midway cemetery. During his painful illness he 
was calm and tran(juil, and the language of his soul seemed to 
be, "Thy will, not mine, be done." Being asked how Christ, 
whom he had commended to others, now appeared to him, he re- 
plied, "There is none like him ; none like him I" 

ITis early death, at the age of twenty-three 3'ears, made a pro- 
found impression upon the entire county. He was universally 
loved and lamented. He was a living epistle known and read of 
all men, a shining illustration of the love and gentleness of Christ. 

J. Jones. 



REV. HENRY HOWARD BANKS, 

The eldest son of the Rev. Alexander R. and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Pratt Banks, was born at Spring Hill, Hempstead Co., Ark., on 
the 16th of May, 1839, and died at Asheville, N. C, on the 6th 
of August, 1878, in the fortieth year of his age. 

His early education was given by his father and his accom- 
plished mother, who was a fine Latin, French, and mathematical 
scholar. It was the death of that fiiithful and beloved mother, 
in his fourteenth year, that occasioned Henry's first serious im- 
pressions. After this sad event he was placed at the academy in 
Mount Holly, Ark., taught by the Rev. John M. Hoge, where 
he stayed for about eight months. 

In his fifteenth year, while at the home of his uncle, the Rev. 
Wm. Banks, in Chester District, S. C, he became seriously im- 
pressed with the importance of personal religion, and united with 
Catholic church, of which his uncle was pastor. 

Soon after this he entered the Sophomore Class of Davidson 
College, and was graduated with honor in 1857. During a 
revival in College, he resolved, by God's grace, to give his life to 
the work of the ministry. Too close application to study while 
in College had so enfeebled him that he spent a year in recruiting 
his health. In September, 1858, however, he entered Columbia 
Seminary, where he remained two years, when failing health 



STUDENTS. 225 

compelled another halt. Returning to Arkansas, he was licensed 
by Ouachita Presbytery, at Mount Holly church, in A])ril, IStJl. 
During the summer he supplied Carolina and Pine Bluft" churches. 

Returning to Columbia in November, 1861, he completed his 
theological studies, and for a while supplied Fair Forest and Zion 
churches, in Bethel Presbytery. In 18(33 he entered the Con- 
federate army as chaplain of an artillery brigade which was sta- 
tioned at Asheville, N. C, when the war closed. He was called 
to the pastorate of the Asheville church soon after this, and in 
18(3(i he was ordained and installed. He remained here until 
November, 1871, when, to the great regret of this people, he 
removed to INIurfreesboro, Tenn., and became the pastor of the 
Presbyterian church there. After laboring in that church for 
two years his health failed, and he was compelled to cease 
preaching. 

He then became the Financial Agent of Davidson College. 
Considering his feeble health, he met with marked success in the 
service of his Alma Mater. But his labors ceased in August, 
1878, when he died of consumption, calmly and peacefully 
breathing out his life in the presence of his family and several of 
his brethren in Christ. So quiet was the departure of his spirit, 
and so sweet the smile left upon his fice, that we can almost sav of 
his death, as is said concerning that of Moses : "God kissed him 
and he slept." Thus passed away the first fruits in the ministry of 
our Church from Arkansas, for he was the first person ever born 
in that State who became a Presbyterian minister. 

Though small in stature and with a feeble body, Bro. Banks 
was great in mind and strong in soul. To hear him preach was 
to sit down to a feast of fat things. Yet the hearer could scarcely 
tell which impressed him most, the grandeur of the thought, or the 
clear presentation of each point, or the beauty of the style, or 
the unction with which the preacher delivered God's message. 
Though his articulation was distinct, his voice was Aveak ; but if 
the flame was not large, it was kept at a white heat. All felt 
that the speaker realised his sin, trusted his Saviour, adored his 
God, and was ready to deny himself for his Master. And truly 
did he deny himself; for he never failed to tithe his income, even 
15 



226 STUDENTS. 

■when scarcely able to obtain a subsistence ; and ^vllcn worn down 
by work and disease, he continued to toil on, anxious to die with 
the Master's harness on. 

In October, 18G5, he married, in Asheville, Miss Annette 
llawley, who, with three children, survive him. In the memory 
of such a husband and father, they have a rich heritage. 

J. B. Mack. 



REV. WILLIAM BANKS 

"Was born April 26th, 1814, and died March ITth, 1875, aged 
sixty years, ten months, and twenty-one days. 

In descent, Scotch-Irish ; by birth, a South Carolinian, and a 
"child of the covenant;" by nature, a guileless, tender-hearted, 
and true man; through grace, a devoted Christian and useful 
minister; in the grave, a body sleeping in hope; in glory, a 
spirit expecting the resurrection and the coronation day of "the 
Lamb for sinners slain." 

lie was I)orn in Fairfield District, S. C, and was the fifth son 
and ninth child of Samuel and Elizabeth Bobinson Banks. The 
father was a ruling elder, and both parents were noted for intelli- 
gence, prayerfulness, and piety. 

In 1829 he entered an Academy near Concord church ; in 
1830-1 went to Hopewell Academy under the Rev. Aaron Wil- 
liams; taught school in 1832 near Salem (B. R.) church; in 
1833 became the Principal of Mt. Zion Academy in Winnsboro; 
in August, 1834, entered the Sophomore class in Franklin College, 
Athens, Ga., and graduated in 1837 with the second honor of 
his class. 

In 1832 lie was converted by means of a sermon preached by 
the Rev. James B. Stafi'ord, and made a public profession of 
faith; in his Senior year he decided to study for the ministry ; 
in 1837 he entered Cohunbia Seminary and was graduated in 
1840. 



STUDENTS. 227 

He was licensed to preach by Bethel Presbytery at Cane Creek 
church on April 4th, 1840; supplied Salem and Unionville 
churches for a few months; accepted a call from Catholic church 
(Chester District, S. C.) in October, 1840; was ordained and in- 
stalled pastor February 25th, 1841. Soon after, the upper part 
of the congregation built a house of worship, where he preached 
part of his time, and in July, 1847, the Pleasant Grove church 
was organised with 135 members, who were dismissed from Cath- 
olic church. He was pastor of these two churches until 1870, 
during which period, however, he served two years as chaplain in 
the Confederate States army. 

In 1870 his health caused him to go to Williamsburg County, 
and supply the Indiantown, White Oak, and Williamsburg 
churches. That climate being unsuited to him, he went in 1871. 
to Lancaster County, and supplied Waxhaw, Unity, and Six Mile 
Creek churches. In 1872 he became pastor of Unity (Fort Mill) 
church and stated supply of Providence church, which relations 
he sustained until his death. 

He held many important positions in the Church, e. g., was 
Stated Clerk and Treasurer of Bethel Presbytery for twenty- 
eight years ; was Stated Clerk and Treasurer of the Synod of 
South Carolina for eight years, and its Moderator in 1857 ; for 
many years a Director of Columbia Seminary; and for about 
twenty-five years a Trustee of Davidson College, being President 
of the Board when he died. 

On December 29th, 1841, he married Miss Mary E. Harring- 
ton, daughter of the Rev. John Harrington, by whom he had two 
children, a daughter and a son, both of whom are now living. 

Physically, he was large and well formed, with fine health and 
a vigorous constitution until within a few years before his death. 

Mentally^ he was clear in thought, chaste in style, and pathetic 
in manner. A fine scholar, but especially devoted to mathe- 
matics. His gi'eat defect was a distrust of his own powers. 

Morally, he was dutiful when a boy, diligent as a student, strictly 
conscientious throughout life. Tender-hearted and ever shrink- 
ing from strife, he was noted as a peace-maker. 

Spiritually, he was a happy Christian, gifted in prayer, and 



228 STUDENTS. 

exceedingly partial to Rouse's Version of the Psulnis, ^vliic-h was 
used in his Catholic and Pleasant Grove churches. 

As a preishyter, he was almost a model, e. g.^ "During his 
ministry of thirty-five years he was absent from only one regular 
meeting of Presbytery, and was always present at Synod." 

Asa minister^ he was greatly blessed. " During the twenty- 
nine years in his first pastorate he received over 700 persons into 
the Church, baptized over 1,100 infants, was instrumental in 
bringing into the ministry eleven young men, and dismissed five 
colonies that settled in the West and formed churches." The last 
five years of his ministry were comparatively even more successful. 

He died suddenly of heart disease at Fort Mill, S. C, where 
is found this epitaph : 

"An Israelite indeed, in whom was no guile." 

J. B. Mack. 



REV. JOHN ANDREW BARR 

Was born in Rowan County, N. C, in 1832. His parents 
were of Scotch-Irisli descent, exemplary members of the Presby- 
terian Churcli, and l)y them he was trained up in the nurture and 
admonition of the Lord. In early life he became, as he believed, 
a subject of renewing grace, and connected himself Avith the 
Church of his fathers. 

He pursued his literary studies at Davidson College, in his 
native State, whence he was graduated with distinction in 1851. 
After teaching for some time in Georgia, he spent one year in 
the Union Seminary, Virginia, then entered the Columbia Theo- 
logical Seminary, where he spent two years, completing his theo- 
logical course in 1857. He was licensed to preach by Concord 
Presbytery in North Carolina, and labored for some time in that 
State; after which he eame as a missionary to Gain's Landing 
in Arkansas, and labored for a year or two, juvaching jirinci- 
pally, as far as known, to the colored poj)ulation and a few 
planters. 



STUDENTS. 229 

In 1860 he settled in White County, Ark., where he continued 
until his death, July 18, 18G3. He was received as a licentiate 
from Concord Presbytery, and ordained by Arkansas Presbytery, 
at Sylvania church, April 8, 1860. From this time until his 
death he preached to Searcy Valley church. He died in dark 
and troublous times ; but his last moments were cheered and 
brightened by the presence of his Saviour and an assured hope of 
a glorious immortality. 

As remembered by those who knew him, he was characterised 
chiefly by simplicity and the absence of pretension, combined with 
a certain strength of conviction, tenacity of purpose, and decision 
of character, characteristic of the Scotch-Irish stock from which 
he descended. As a preacher, he was plain and practical. He 
presented the truth with clearness and force, without any effort 
at display ; and his discourses in many instances were highly 
instructive and edifying. S. W. Davies. 



REV. JAMES SCOTT BARR 

Entered the Seminary at Columbia in 1849, and was licensed 
by Concord Presbytery, July, 1851, at Third Creek church, 
Rowan County, N. C. He was the eldest of three sons, born 
and reared in Back Creek church, Rowan County, N. C, 
of which his father, Samuel Barr, was an elder. He was grad- 
uated from Davidson Colleore with distinction in 1847. His 
mother's maiden name was Matilda Graham, a devoted Chris- 
tian woman, who lived to hear two of her sons, James S. and 
John A., preach the gospel. All three of the sons were graduated 
at Davidson College, the eldest and youngest became ministers, 
and the other, Dr. Rice Barr, became a physician. Bro. Barr 
also studied at Union and Princeton. 

In 1855 he was married to Miss Susan E, Rudasill, daughter 
of Dr. J. C. Rudasill, of Gaston County, N. C. He died in Lin- 
colnton, N. C, February 2d, 1872, (leaving a wife and fourchil- 



230 STUDENTS. 

(Iron — two ilaugliters and two sons — wlio still live in Lincolnton, 
N. C.) in the forty-sixth year of his age and the twenty-first year 
of his ministry. 

J>r<». IJarr was a delicate man and had often to change his field 
of labor on account of feeble health. He was ordained by the 
Presbytery of Ouachita, at Camden, Ark., August 24, 1856, and 
labored about four years in Camden, Mt. Horeb, Mt. Holly, and 
Scotland churches, Arkansjis, and then returned to North Caro- 
lina, and ministered in Concord, Shiloh, and Salem churches, 
Iredell County. In 1857 and 1858 he served Olney and Dalhis 
churches in Gaston County, and in 1870 he took charge of Cald- 
well church in Mecklenburg County, and served there until his 
strength entirely failed. 

As a man, Mr. Barr always acted as a gentleman whose 
influence was on the side of moderation, and the general remark 
of him was: '"'' Jle was a good man." 

As a presbyter, he was modest and slow to speak on the floor 
of Presbytery, yet few ministers were better informed on Church 
Government and more deeply in sympathy with the polity of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

As a preacher, he was evangelical and practical, speaking with 
great feeling. In sickness and afHiction he was a happy com- 
panion, and the remark was frecjuent: "Oh, how I do love to 
hear Mr. Barr pray." He Wi\s prostrated for many long weary 
months, ])ut his faith was strengthened, and he wa,s wont to say: 
"I feel like I am just now prepared to preach." 

K. Z. Johnston. 



THE REV. SAMUEL JAMES BINGHAM. 

TiiH Rev. Samuel J. Bincii.vm departed this life on the 28th 
of July, A. D. 1881, at Healing Springs, Washington County, 
Ala., aged fifty-one years, seven months, and twenty-two days. 
He was the third son of Samuel Bingham and Mary Muldrow — 
both of Scotch- Irish descent, and was born in Marion County, 



STUDENTS. 231 

S. C, December 6th, 1829. His Cither's house was the minis- 
ter's home, and a nursery of piety. He never knew the time of 
his conversion ; but at a very early age he was admitted to the 
Lord's table. When he Avas only eight years old, his parents 
removed to Sumter County, Ala. Here they participated in the 
organisation of Elizabeth churcli, which afterward became a part 
of the ministerial charge of our lamented brother. In the hearts 
of the members of this church the memory of his whole life, from 
boyhood to the end, is cherished with the deepest affection. They, 
as well as all others who knew him, will bear testimony to the 
great purity of his character, the perfect uprightness of his prin- 
ciples, and the generosity of his disposition. 

His father died in 1844. His eldest brother, Robert, while a 
soldier in the Mexican war, died of yellow fever in 1847. John 
Muldrow, the second brother, died at home in 1846. By these 
providences the subject of this memorial became the virtual head 
of the family, then consisting of his mother and nine children; 
and most faithfidly did he discharge the trust thus imposed upon 
him. He graduated at Oglethorpe University in 1852, having 
the ministry in view. 

His mother havincr died in 1853, devolvins; on him the care of 
the family, he was obliged to suspend his studies. He was mar- 
ried the same year to Miss Martha J. Hadden, a daughter of an 
honored minister of our Church. But, so firmly was his heart 
fixed on the ministry, that at great inconvenience, and with self- 
denying eff'ort, he spent two years (1854, 1855) in the Theological 
Seminary at Columbia, S. C. He was licensed in October, 1856, 
and was ordained April 5, 1858, by the Presbytery of Tuskaloosa, 
and devoted himself with great ardor to the work of preaching the 
gospel of Christ, even to the very last Sabbath of his life. He 
spent the first eleven yeai*s of his ministry in the County of his 
boyhood, serving the churches of Elizabeth, Oxford, and Had- 
den. Here his labors were abundant and faithful. He preached 
and labored and prayed, with the whole of his ardent soul, for 
the salvation of sinners and the building up of the churches ; 
and God blessed him with eminent success. Through his instru- 
mentality it is probable hundreds were brought to Christ. He 



232 STUDENTS. 

tlu'ii spent fivt' year.s of useful and successful labor in Jasper and 
Newton Counties. Miss., a scattered iield, in whirli hv had to 
endure much self-sacrifice, ■which, however, he always; bore ciieer- 
fully for the Master's sake. Thence he went to Enterprise, Miss., 
and during the five years of his ministry there, gathered more 
than one sheaf into the Lord's garner. 

His last field embraced the place of his residence. Moss Point, 
on the Gulf Coast, and the churches of Ilandsboro and Vernal. 
All these churches were built up and strengthened through his 
eiforts. A handsome church edifice was erected at !Moss Point, 
largely through his exertions. But many other churches en- 
joyed his occasional labors, and always with profit. He was 
deeply imbued with the missionary spirit, and was fond of visit- 
ing destitute regions and preaching to the poor. In this branch 
of labor he was greatly blessed in Alabama and Mississippi. 

He was very genial and sociable in his disposition. Wherever 
he went he made friends of all classes. His style of preaching 
Avas plain, evangelical, earnest, and practical. His whole soul 
was engaged in the work. He preached to win souls to Christ. 
He made sacrifices in order to preach. During his whole minis- 
try he received rather a small salai-y. His ministry was em- 
phatically a labor of love. Of sympathetic nature, he was always 
a friend indeed to the poor, the suft'ering, and the afilicted. 

\Vith such a record before us, how strange the providence 
which removed him when only in the prime of life I 

Thirteen years ago he was stricken with paralysis, from the 
effects of which he never fully recovered. His friends feared 
then that his days were nearly finished. God has literally added 
these thirteen years to his life. Nor were they to him years of 
idleness, or even of rest. He worked on to the last. Only a 
week before his death, he said to his brother ^Yilliam: "My work 
is nearly done; I want, however, to die in the harness." 

And so he did. He was willing only to avail himself of a 
'"Fifth Sabbath, " to try the waters of "Healing Sj»rings. " He 
went there the Thursday before, and died suddenly that night. 
That "Fifth Sabbath" was his first Sabl)ath in heaven I 

He left a sorely-bereaved widow and four children, fur whom 



STUDENTS. 233 

.we feel a most tender sympathy. We commend them to God, 
who will care for them and comfort them. They have cause for 
grief, for few ever had a fonder husband or father. But they have 
also very many causes for thankfulness ; for they have had a noble 
life in their circle of love ; a godly example ; the heritage of 
holy influences ; a memory with nothing to mar it; althougli he 
has gone, he has bequeathed to them treasures which no wealth 
could buy. 

We thank God for his life, for every one of his useful years, 
for his consecrated spirit, for his eminent success. 

We bow with submission to God's wise and holy Avill. 

A. J. WiTHERSPOOX. 



ROBERT MANTON BREARLEY, 

Eldest son of Rev. Wm. Brearley, was born in Winnsboro, 
S. C, October 18th, 1832, and died 22d April, 1856, in the 
twenty-fourth year of his age. 

The subject of this brief notice Avas a young man of more than 
ordinary promise. Graduating from the South Carolina College 
at the early age of eighteen, he was hopefully converted while 
engaged successfully in teaching school in Darlington District. 
Early convictions had been intensified by providential circum- 
stances — the death of his mother, exposure to a stroke of light- 
ning, and a painful fall from a horse. And in the foil of 1852, 
under the preaching of Dr. Baker, he professed faith, united 
with the Church, and began at once his preparation for the min- 
istry. Now, to use the language of another, "his mother's 
prayers were answered, an'd his father's heart made glad." As 
soon as the way was clear he entered the Theological Seminary 
at Columbia, S. C, where he pursued his studies nearly two ses- 
sions with great ardor and delight. Whilst thus engaged his 
progress in knowledge was rapid and the development of his 
Christian character marked. Soon after the close of his second 



234 



STUDENTS. 



year in the Seminary he fell into a state of deep religious melan- 
choly which continued ibout eight months, when again he rejoiced* 
in the light of his heavenly Father's countenance. In a short 
time after this it pleased the Master to take him to his heavenly 
home. One who knew him well has thus briefly sketched his 
character: " As a friend he was generous, trusty, reserved, and 
candid. His sanguine temperament gave such warmth to his 
feelings that when he found a heart congenial to his own, he de- 
lighted to bestow his sympathies and exhibit his love. He was 
trustworthy, because his refined sense of honor and inflexible 
conscientiousness compelled him to be. His intimate friends 
were few and well chosen. He had no fondness for promiscuous 
association ; loved solitude, and yet few ever exhibited such an 
uninterrupted flow of genial feelings, or so much real pleasant- 
ness; seldom mingled in society, yet was never morose. His can- 
dor was shown both in his extreme abhorrence of even the ap- 
pearance of deception or ostentation and in the boldness with 
which he rebuked the errors of a friend. 

"As a student, and especially a Chvistian student, he was a 
model for all. With a mind brilliant, vigorous, and logical, far 
above ordinary, he aimed at making himself a scholar and theo- 
logian: and in order to this he Avas eminently a student of the 
Bible. Few, at his age, ever exhibited such an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the volume of inspiration. He studied it criti- 
cally and devotionally, consulting it daily in the origiiud lan- 
guages, for in these he was quite an adept." 

He seemed to be wholly consecrated to the Master's service. 
The ))rinciple of spiritual life was vigorous when first implanted 
and rapidly developed itself Hence he loved to commune with 
God in prayer, and often retired from comjiany to enjoy this sa- 
cred privilege. The writer (juotcd above says: "All who knew 
him rcirardeil him as an example of the (.'hristian worthy of imi- 
tation. His clear conceptions of divine truth; his constantly 
devotional spirit; his prayers; his public exhortations; every 
word, every action, declared him to be a man far advanced in 
holiness of heart. That his prayers were fervent, scriptural, and 
fresh is not wonderful, when it is known that it was his custom 



STUDENTS. 235 

during the spring and summer of 1855 to spend three hours each 
day in reading the Bible, meditation, and prayer. . . . But this 
friend, student, and Christian is gone; to the living is left the 
heritage of his influence and example. Although we cannot com- 
prehend why one in whom were lodged so many hopes, and who 
gave such promise of great usefulness, was cut down so soon ; still 
we must know that all is right, for 'God's ways are not as man's.' " 

II. M. B. 



WILLIAM HOWARD BROOKS 

Was born at Waynesboro, Va., :March the 17th, 1829. He 
grew up in the place of his nativity and under the nurture of the 
Presbyterian church, with which, while under the pastoral charge 
of the Rev. B. M. Smith, D. D., he connected himself by a pro- 
fession of his faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, Avhen sixteen years 
of age. After pursuing an academic course at home, he entered 
Washington College, at Lexington, Va., and graduated in that 
institution. He subsequently taught a classical school in High- 
land County, Va., and, determining to study law, he went thence 
to the University of Virginia, where he graduated in the Law 
School in June, 1858. 

But God had not called him to this profession, and ere long the 
claims of the gospel ministry pressed themselves upon his heart 
and conscience. Resolving to yield the profession of the law for 
that of an ambassador of Jesus Christ, in the autumn of 1859, 
he repaired to the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C. His 
career there was marked by a diligent application to study and a 
consistent walk as a disciple of Christ. In connexion with his 
work in the Seminary, he engaged in private teaching in the city 
of Columbia, in order to secure the pecuniary means requisite to 
the pursuit of his theological course. In this extra labor he 
developed success, and won much favor and affection from those 
with whom he was thus associated. 



236 



STUDENTS. 



AVliilo in the midst of liis course of preparation for the minis- 
try and his life of activity and usefulness within the consecrated 
walls of the Theological Seminary, he was suddenly, almost with- 
out warning, snatched away from the Christian labors and fra- 
ternal fellowship of earth, to enter, as \fe humbly trust, the 
more blessed fellowship and service of heaven. Seized with a 
severe cold, which rapidly developed into violent pneumonia, he 
expired on the 27th of February, 18G1, after an illness of only 
one or two days. His sudden and unexpected death within the 
walls of the Seminary, ])roduced a profound impression ujinn the 
Faculty and students, which was also largely shared in the com- 
munity, where he was favorably known. Appropriate funeral 
services were held in the First Presbyterian church, Columbia, 
after which the remains were sent by the students, in charge of 
two of their number, to his family in Waynesboro, Ya., where 
they were committed to the dust amid the scenes of his youth 
and the tears of his kindred and friends. T. H. Law. 



REV. SAMUEL ROBINS BROWN, D. D., 

Was born in East Windsor, Ct., on the 16th of June, 1810. 
When he had attained the age of eight years his parents removed 
to Munson, Mass., where he fitted for college. He entered Yale, 
and graduated from it in 1832. After graduation he taught for 
three years, and then studied theology in Columbia, S. C, for a 
time. 

Li 1838 he was graduated from the New York Theological 
Seminary and was one of the first graduates from that institution. 
In < )ctober of this year he was engaged to visit CJhina as a teacher 
of Chinese boys. On the 10th of this month he was marrie<l to 
Elizabeth G., daughter of Rev. Shubael Bartlett, of East Wind- 
sor, and on the 13th was ordained. On the ITth, accomi>anied 
by his wife, he sailed for China, where they remained till Jan- 
uarv, 1847. 



STUDENTS. 237 

• Arrivinof in China, he took chavse of the "Morrison Education- 
al School," founded by American and English merchants. Num- 
bers of his pupils now occupy high positions of honor and trust 
in their native country. After spending ten years in his native 
land in successful pastoral labors, in the year 1859 Dr. Brown 
left this country again to labor for Christ in a foreign land, going 
to Yokohama, Japan, where he continued successfully working 
for Christ for eight years. 

In 1867 he returned to this country and for tAvo years he again 
labored with this people in the work of the Lord. Dr. Brown 
went the second time to Japan in 1869, and remained there about 
ten years, in which time, beside doing a vast amount of mission- 
ary work, he signalised himself as a translator of the New Testa- 
ment into the Japanese language. 

There and then he did a work in which, though dead, he will 
speak to millions until his deceased body shall take part in the 
first resurrection. He lived to see the work completed, a work 
which will greatly honor Christ, and by the grace of God save 
many an immortal soul. 

In the autumn of 1879 he returned to his native land, never 
again to leave it. The last winter he spent at Orange, N. J., 
and the spring at Albany. In June he started for Yale College, 
his Alma Mater, to be present at the reunion of his class, grad- 
uated forty-eight years before, visiting friends of other days, as 
he passed along. On Friday, the 18th of June, he reached Mun- 
son,- the home of his early days. On Saturday he visited the 
cemetery where lie the remains of his father and mother, and 
rode about the town conversing with friends and acquaintances. 
On the eve of that day, having retired for the night, he peace- 
fully "fell asleep in Jesus." — Extract from Funeral Discourse 
by Rev. Mr. Anderson. 



238 STUDENTS. 



KEY. EDWARD 11. BUIST 

Was born in Charleston, S. C, October 4, 1838, and died in 
Clieraw, S. C, Sept. 11th, 1882. He was a chihl of the cove- 
nant, Ills father and his grandfather being Presbyterian ministers. 
His father died when Edward was (juite young, and he was reared 
in tlie family of his uncle, the Rev. E. T. Buist, D. D. 

He entered the South Carolina College, and was graduated in 
1858, bearing off the first honor of his class. Having been con- 
verted during the revival of 1858, and feeling it to be his duty to 
preach the gospel, he at once went to the Columbia Theological 
Seminary. There he was regarded as a very gifted student, in 
1861 receiving special mention in the Report of the Faculty : 
"Mr. E. H. Buist had read Stewart's Arab Grammar, a part of 
Obere Chrest. Arab., and the first and second chapters of the 
Koran in the original Arabic. In the study of this department, 
Mr. Buist has manifested a praiseworthy diligence." 

He was licensed to preach in 1860, by the Presbytery of South 
Carolina. In May, 1861, he completed the course of study in 
the Seminary, and immediately began to supply Aveleigh church 
in Newberry, S. C. Having accepted a call from this congrega- 
tion in 1862, he was ordained and installed their pastor. After 
laboring here until 1865, he went to Society Hill, S. C, where 
he taught school ; preaching, however, regulai'ly at Centre Point 
church. In 1868 he became pastor of the Ciieraw church, Avhere 
he labored with great acceptance for thirteen years, one hundred 
and four names having been added to the roll of the church during 
that period. 

Bro. Buist had been in feeble health for some time, and having 
spent several weeks in the mountains, had returne<l home much 
improved. On Friday, Sept. 8, 1882, he began the preparation 
of a sermon on 1 Kings xix. 13. He was not well enough, how- 
ever, to preach on the Sabbath, and retired early that evening to 
rest. During that night he became unconscious, and at 10 a. m. 
on Monday, September 11, 1882, he entered into the "rest that 
remaineth for the people of God." 



STUDENTS. 239 

. In 1863 he was united inmarriao;e to Miss Sebring; of Charles- 
ton, S. C, who, by her many lovely traits, brightened his heart 
and blessed his home, and who, with seven children, remain on 
earth to mourn his departure. 

"Bro. Buist was richly endowed by the great Creator with a 
brilliant intellect, a wonderfully retentive memory, and a warm, 
sympathising heart. Socially, he was very attractive. In manner 
free and engaging, he was the life of every circle in which he 
moved. As a man, he was respected ; as a friend, he was loved ; 
as a scholar, he was thorough ; as a thinker, he was profound ; as 
an orator, he was eloquent and logical ; as a theologian, he was 
indoctrinated by the living principles enunciated by the great 
Thornwell, at whose feet he sat, an enthusiastic pupil of an en- 
thusiastic teacher ; as a pastor, he was faithful ; as a preacher, 
he was Avise to win souls ; as a presbyter, he was prompt, cour- 
teous, and attentive." M. 



REV. JOHN B. CASSELS 

Was born in Liberty County, Ga. He came from a pious 
family. One brother, the Rev. Samuel J. Cassels, was a minister 
of our Church, and another brother was a rulino; elder. 

He entered Columbia Seminary in 1832 and was graduated in 
1835. He appears to have been licensed by Harmony Presby- 
tery, as the records of Hopewell Presbytery contain the following 
minute on March 23d, 1837: "The church of Salem presented 
a call for the ministerial services of Mr. John Cassels, a licentiate 
of Harmony Presbytery, together with a request for leave to pro- 
secute the call in the manner specified in the Book of Discipline." 
On April 21st, 1837, at an adjourned meeting in Salem church 
he was examined for ordination, and the next day he and Mr. 
Richard Hooker were ordained. The Rev. J. W. Reid presided 
and propounded the constitutional questions, the Rev. F. R. 
Goulding preached the sermon, and the Rev. J. W. Baker deliv- 
ered the charges. 



240 



STUDENTS. 



He lived only about seventeen months after his ordination, dy- 
inir in Septenibor, 1<S38. Durinfj; this short period he iireatly 
endeared himself to his people. "He lies l)iiried near the pulpit- 
end of Salem ehureh, where his people reared a marble monu- 
ment to his memory. The church was afterwards moved to 
Woodstock, and the house was sold to the Baptists and now bears 
the name of Philip's Baptist church." M. 



REV. EDWIN CATER. 



Rev. Edwin Cater was born in Beaufort County, South 
Carolina, on the 1st of November, 1813. Having lost both 
parents at an early age he was taken care of by his uncle, Rev. 
Richard Cater, who was pastor of the Presbyterian church at 
Barnwell, South Carolina. At the early age of fifteen he made 
a profession of religion and joined the Barnwell church. At sev- 
enteen he entered Franklin College, Athens, Ga., and was grad- 
uated the second or third in a class of Avhich Hon. Howell Cobb, 
Gen. Benning, Gov. Jas. Johnson, Rev. Dr. John Jones, and 
others were members. After finishing his course there he taught 
a while, and then entered the Theological Semin.ary at Columbia, 
South Carolina, from which he was graduated in 1837. His first 
charge was at Anderson Court House, where his labors were 
greatly blessed. In March, 1838, he was united in marriage to 
Miss Sarah M. Leland, daughter of Rev. A. W. Leland, IK D. 
His second charge was the Rock church, near Greenwood, South 
Carolina, of which he was pastor until 1846, when he was called 
to take charge of the Lebanon and Salem churches in Fairfield 
District, South Carolina, where his labors were also greatly 
blessed. He left this field of labor in 18r)0 to take charge of the 
Biadinid Springs Female College in Sumter District, and while 
engaged there he j)reached with great acceptance, and was the 
instrument of doiiiii much jiood in the Master's cause. He re- 
mained but a short time at this place, removing thence to Mount 



STUDENTS. 241 



Pleasant, near Charleston, South Carolina, where he had charge 
of the Wappetaw Congregational church. 

In 1857 he and his family were afflicted with the yellow fever, 
of which his most excellent wife died. 

Compelled by feeble health to leave the coast region of South 
Carolina, he spent the time intervening between 1857 and 1860 
in the interior of the State, stopping at Spartanburg eight months. 
In February, 1859, he was again united in marriage to Miss M. 
R. Barr, daughter of Rev. W. H. Barr, D. D. In 1860 he went 
to Somerville, Tenn., where he remained for seven years. During 
the war, however, he was compelled, on account of his strong 
Southern sentiments, to leave this charge for a while, during 
which period he supplied the churches at Demopolis and Living- 
ston in Alabama. After the war he returned to Somerville, where 
he resided till 1867, at which time he was invited to take charge 
of the churches of Scooba and Macon in Mississippi. In 1869 
he took charge of the church at College Hill, Mississippi, where 
he labored with great acceptance until 1876, when he went to 
Louisiana to take charge of the churches of Opelousas and Ver- 
millionville. He remained in this field two years, going thence 
to Yazoo City, Mississippi, where he remained until March, 1881. 
He then went to Gainesville, Florida, to sojourn for a time with 
his son, Professor E. P, Cater, in the hope that he might, by 
restinc]!; from his labors, regain his streno;th and health. He con- 
nected himself with the Presbytery of St. Johns, at Orlando, in 
October, 1881, and made several attempts to enter upon his work 
again, but his feeble health would not allow him to do much. 
Leaving Gainesville in the early part of the summer of 1882, he 
went to visit his daughter, Mrs. E. W. Smith, residing at Somer- 
ville, Tenn. The fatigue of travel so racked his enfeebled body, 
reduced by long work and disease, that he was not able to rally, 
and after a few days of rest, on the 13th of June, 1882, he fell 
asleep in Jesus. Having finished his course, having kept the 
faith, he was prepared to enter upon the fruition of his glorious 
reward. 

Mr. Cater was a man of decided character. His convictions 
16 



242 



STUDENTS. 



of truth were clear, intollifient, and positive, and in maintaining 
those convictions lie allowed no motives of policy to influence his 
actions or to fashion his utterances. Zeal for the Master and for 
his earthly kintjdom was the strongest sentiment of his nature, 
and he never hesitated to perform what he regarded to be his 
duty, without stopping to consider wliat might be the conse- 
quences to himself. 

Yet he was ever ready to forgive and to forget injuries received 
from others, and to offer all possible reparation for wounds he 
had inflicted unintentionally upon others. ^Vhen he died a true, 
pure, gentle, and brave soldier of the cross passed from the con- 
flicts of earth to the rest of heaven. 



SAMUEL EDWARD CHANDLER 



"Was the second son of James Rembert and Mary Ann Chan- 
dler. He was born in Sumter District, S. C, ^Nlay 8d, 1835. 
His pious parents early dedicated him to God in the ordinance of 
baptism. While very young, he Svas bereaved of his mother, 
when the sole responsibility of his training devolved upon his 
surviving parent. He made an early profession of faitli in 
Christ, connecting himself with the Concord Presbyterian church, 
in Sumter District, S. C. Shortly after this profession, he 
evinced an earnest desire to preach the gospel, and forthwith 
entered upon a course of literary preparation. Before com- 
]»leting the usual course, he was, on examination, admitted to the 
Columbia Theological Seminary, Sej»teml)er 11>, 1S(!2. In the 
following April he was formally received under the care of Har- 
mony Presbytery as a candidate for the gospel ministry ; and by 
the same Presbytery he was licensed to preach, October, 18()4. 
From childhood, Mr. Chandler's health had never been robust. 
Soon after his licensure, its decline wiis so marked and rapid as 
to waken the most serious concern of his friends. Still he per- 
severed in preaching occasionally, till his delicate constitution was 
forced to succumb entirely. 



STUDENTS. 243 

• It must be left to eternity to manifest clearly tlie wisdom of that 
mysterious providence Avliich thwarted his long cherished purpose, 
his earnest desire, and his laborious preparation for preaching to 
dying men the unsearchable riches of a gospel which even to the 
end grew more and more precious to himself. 

He was called to his rest and reward, December 8th, 18<38, and 
in the cemetery of old Concord church his sleeping dust awaits 
the resurrection of the just. W. J. McKay. 



GEORGE HENRY COIT. 



George Henry Coit was born in Bristol, R. I., May 5th, 
1825. A child of the covenant, he was hopefully converted at 
the age of fifteen. Simultaneously with his conversion, he was 
seized by an ardent desire to preach the gospel. To a boy of less 
force of character this w^ould have seemed impossible, for his 
father, with narrow means and a large family, was unable to bear 
the cost of higher education. But this brave boy set himself 
resolutely to his task. Mainly by his own exertions he passed 
through the preparatory school at Williston, and was graduated 
from Amherst College in 1852. Tempting offers of business 
failed to turn him aside from the holy ministry. Taking charge 
of the Amherst High School, that he might earn the means to 
carry him through his theological course, his zeal for the salva- 
tion of souls (so characteristic of his after-life) was rewarded in 
the conversion of nearly all of his pupils. But his health being 
seriously impaired, he was, at the end of his first year, advised 
by physicians to seek a milder climate, and coming to the South, 
he taught school in Washington, Ga., until 1855, when, with 
health fully restored, he entered the Theological Seminar}'^ at 
Columbia. Here, as he was wont to say, he found a congenial 
atmosphere. Here the virtues of the accomplished gentleman, 
the genial friend, the diligent student, and devout Christian, 
shined out lustrously. Loving and beloved, his days at Columbia 



244 STUDENTS. 

were perpetual sunshine. Uniformly cheerful and liappy him- 
self, he carried joy into every circle entered by him. His long 
vacations were spent in missionary labors among the neglected 
population of the sandhills adjacent to Columbia. Being gradu- 
ated from the Seminary in IH'iS, he was licensed by Charleston 
I^-esbytery, and in a few weeks was united in marriage to Miss 
Eliza Steel, of Columbia. Having accepted a call to Americus, 
Ga., he was urged to supply the Columbia church during the ab- 
sence in Europe of their distinguished pastor, Dr. Tliornwell, and 
with the consent of the Americus conjjre'iation he a<;reed to do it. 
Installed pastor in Americus, he labored for eight years in his 
first charge, where his name is to this day "as ointment poured 
forth." In 18G5 he accepted an urgent call to Wilmington, 111., 
where he labored five years, and then removed to Warren : but 
finding the climate too severe, he accepted, in 1874, a call to Col- 
linsville, in the same State, where he died November 18, 1877. 

As a man, he was amiable, guileless, and affectionate, mirthful 
an<l witty, honorable and generous in all his impulses. His scholar- 
ship was varied and accurate. As a Christian, he was devout, a 
man of God, a man of prayer. As a pastor, he was diligent, 
tender, and self-denying. He counted no labor, no exposure, too 
costly, that enabled him to bear messages of salvation and conso- 
lation to the ignorant or sorrowful. Believing with his whole 
heart in the gospel as the only and all-sufficient remedy for the 
evils of the world, he naturally preached it with unction and 
fervor. And such labors were not in vain in the Lord. 

Extract from a 3Iemoir by Rev. S. E. Arson, Rome, Ga. 



JAMES COOPER COZBY. 

TifK Rev. James Cooper Cozby, the youngest son of Robert 
and Temperance Cozby, was born in Alibeville District, So. Ca., 
Jainiary loth, 1810, and died in Liberty County, Ga., Novem- 
ber 27th, 1837. His father, Robert Cozb}', was an esteemed 
ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church, and his mother, whose 



STUDENTS. 245 

maiden name was Temperance Langdon CraAvford, was a woman 
of deep piety and excellent judgment. On these parents the high 
encomium was passed by one who was well qualified to judge : 
"They were Presbyterians of the old stamp, who so diligently 
trained their children in the statutes of the Lord, that a visiting 
minister declared, 'He had never before met a family of young 
children so well acquainted with the scriptural doctrines of our 
holy religion.' " Reared in this atmosphere of piety, James, at 
a very earlv age, manifested a serious thoughtfulness, which was 
coupled with an insatiable desire for knowledge. Chiefly by his 
own exertions he had learned to read when he was but four years 
of age. His parents being unable to give him the advantages of 
a school, he studied at odd moments with the assistance of a 
friend, and showing such great earnestness in his purpose to se- 
cure an education, he was at the age of fifteen entered as a pupil 
in the Providence Academy. In this school he made such rapid 
progress toward a knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages 
and other departments of learning, that upon the retirement of 
his teacher he was elected the Rector of the Academy, which only 
two years before he had entered as a pupil. This position he 
hel'l for about three years, using his earnings to purchase a ser- 
vant to take his place on his father's farm. His heart being set 
on entering the ministry, by the aid of the Georgia Presbyterian 
Education Society, he entered Franklin College in Georgia, Jan. 
1st, 1830, and graduated August 7th, 1833. In the autumn of 
this same year he entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia 
and graduated in 1836. He was licensed to preach the gospel 
by the Presbytery of Hopewell August 27th, 1836, and ordained 
and installed pastor of the church at St. Mary's, Ga., by the 
Georgia Presbytery during the same year. He was married to 
Hannah M. Randolph April 12th, 1836. 

A contemporary minister who knew him well says: "All ad- 
mired his fidelity as a student ; his consistency as a professor of 
religion ; his unction as a man of prayer ; his remarkable con- 
scientiousness ; the ease with which he governed his tongue ; and 
the deep and constant interest he seemed to take in everything 
pertaining to the Redeemer's kingdom." 



246 STUDENTS. 

Ilis career as a preacher was short. God cut short his life at 
tlie close of his first year of pastoral service. But he lived long 
enough to attach deeply to himself the people of his charge, who 
erected to liis memory a costly and beautiful monument of Italian 
marble. He died in Liberty County as he was returning from 
the meeting of tiie Synod of Georgia held at Augusta, and is 
buried in the cemetery of ^Midway church. J. S. C. 



JAMES ARCHIBALD COUSAR. 

James Archibald, youngest son of the Rev. John Cousar, 
was born in Sumter District, S. C, March 23, 1820, and died at 
Mayesville, May 7th, 1882, in the fifty-third year of his age. 
The father labored about forty years in the bounds of Harmony, 
leaving behind him a fragrant memory. In early life James was 
deeply impressed with religious truth, and uniting with the Bish- 
opville church, began at once his preparation for the ministry. 
He Avas graduated from Oglethorpe University in 1853, and from 
the Columbia Seminary in 1855. After spending six months as 
a Domestic Missionary of his Presbytery, he was, in 1856, in- 
stalled pastor of Carolina and Reedy Creek churches. With 
Reedy Creek he labored continuously until 1873, during which 
time he also served Little Pee Dee and Red Bluff, besides spend- 
ing one year as Chaplain in the army. In October, 1881, he 
was installed pastor at Mayesville, where it might almost be said 
that his mission was to teach men how a good man can die. "It 
was my privilege," says one, "to be with him on Thursday pre- 
vious to his death. It was a solemn yet delightful interview. 
Among many precious sayings which fell from his lips Avere the 
following : 'During my active ministerial life, I was troubled very 
much at times with doubts; but they have all vanished since God 
has laid me on this bed of sickness. I am willing to go ; I am will- 
ing to stay. This has been the happiest period of all my life.' 
It was all sunshine. What a blessed outlook bevond the grave. 



STUDENTS. 247 

It does one good to witness such a triumph of fiiith. All his 
conversation was about Zion and her interests. 

"As a preacher, he was a good rather than a great man. Other 
preachers have been more gifted with golden speech, but few have 
been more beloved for their goodness and earnest piety. He 
exalted Christ, not himself. He did not shun to declare the whole 
truth, but it was done in tenderness and love. His sermons came 
from a heart full of rich Christian experience. As a presbyter, 
he was punctual in attendance, active in business, and wise in 
counsel. His motives were transparent. The glory of the Mas- 
ter was ever uppermost with him. 

"The colored people within the bounds of the Presbytery have 
lost in him a true friend. His heart yearned to give them a 
preached gospel." 

"Soldier of Christ, well done •, 
Praise he thy new employ ; 
And while eternal a<!;es run, 
Rest in thy Saviour's joy." 

[From Sketches by Rev. H. M. Brearley and others. 



REV. WILLIAM BANKS CRAWFORD 



Son of Rev. A. L. Crawford, grandson of Rev. John Harring- 
ton, deceased, and bearing the full name of his sainted uncle. Rev. 
William Banks, was born, in Sumter County, S. C, on the 19th 
September, 1851. He was piously inclined from his youth; pro- 
fessed religion in his sixteenth year, and connected with the 
Arkadelphia church in Arkansas, under the ministry of his father. 
He entered Davidson College in the year 1869, and graduated 
with high distinction in 1872. During his college course he was 
received under the care of Ouachita Presbytery as a candidate 
for the gospel ministry. And after graduation he immediately 
entered the Theological Seminary in Columbia, where he com- 
pleted his theological studies in May, 1875. He began at once 



248 ' STUDENTS. 

to ■■^ni)plY INIiilway and Bethel eliurelies in Ilarniony Presbytery. 
In October of that year he was transferred from Ouachita to Har- 
mony Presbytery, and then licensed and ordained at the same 
meeting of the body. Not long did he remain pastor of these 
churches, for, greatly to their regret, in April, ISTO. he returned to 
Arkaiisiis, the home of his youth, and about tlic 1st of May was 
married to Miss Frank II. Stewart, a daughter of David Stewart, 
a former elder of the Arkadelphia church. Whilst thei'e he received 
a call to the Washington church in Hempstead County, Arkansas, 
which he accepted and where he labored until his ])remature 
death on the loth November, l'S79. 

He was by nature endowed with a splendid physique. His 
frank, open countenance and eyes beaming with humor at once 
won the confidence of every one. He was singularly prudent in 
deportment and correct in life. His father writes: "In review- 
ing his life, I have no recollection of his ever giving his parents 
a moment's pain or uneasiness by waywardness or disobedience." 
Diligent as a student, careful in the preparation of his sermons, 
bold and earnest in his delivery of God's truth, tender and pains- 
taking as a pastor, this talented young man had the promise of a 
life of great usefulness, but he died ere his "sun had reached high 
noon." 



REV. THOMAS H. CUNNINGHAM. 

Thomas H. Cunningham was Imrn of Presl)yterian ancestry, 
in Anderson County, S. C, March 9th, 1847, and was reared 
within the bounds of Roberts church. While but a boy, he en- 
listed as a soldier in defence of his country, and served for three 
years. In 1H>)() he made a profession of his faith, and was 
received into full comnnmion with Roberts church. He pursued 
his academic studies at the University of Georgia, graduating in 
tiie summer of 1871. The following September he entered the 
Theological Seminary at Columbia, from which he graduated in 
1874. In April, 1873, he was licensed by the I'resbytery of 



STUDENTS. ' '249 

.Augusta. Immediately after his graduation from the Seminary, 
he took charge of a missionary field in Charleston, S. C, under 
the care of Glebe Street church. To this congregation he gave 
his life. It was formally organised in 1876, as Ebenezer church, 
and on December 10th, of the same year, Mr. Cunningham was 
ordained and installed its pastor. On March 12, 1879, he was 
married to Miss Janet Stenhouse, of Charleston. His faitlifiil 
labors in a trying field were arrested in 1879, by a bronchial 
affection, which soon deepened into consumption, and prevented 
his preaching. On the evening of March 9th, 1880, while fond- 
ling his infant son, he was seized with a severe hemorrhage, and 
sinking down, expired without a word or a struggle. He^lied on 
his thirty-third birth-day, and was buried on the first anniversary 
of his marriage. He was laid to rest in Magnolia cemetery, near 
the sleeping-place of the Confederate dead, amid the tears of his 
brethren in the ministry and the lamentations of the people of 
his charge. 

Mr. Cunningham was genial, affectionate, unselfish, modest, 
manly, and true. He won all hearts as a boy and as a student at 
College and the Seminary, but never by the sacrifice of his convic- 
tions. His scholarship was thorough ; and though he received the 
commendation of his instructors in all his studies, his tastes at- 
tracted him most strongly towards Hebrew and the classics. His 
piety was deep and ardent ; his preaching faithful, instructive, and 
fervent ; his pastoral labors untiring, especially among the poor, 
the distressed, and the erring. He was conspicuous for his zeal 
and sympathy with every effort to evangelise the people and to 
have the gospel preached to the poor. 

Though he died at an age when most men are bracing them- 
selves for life's work, he had made an impression on all with 
whom he had been associated which will keep his memory fresh 
and preserve his influence. Mr. Cunningham's Seminary friends 
will heartily respond to the testimony of the Session of the church 
he served, that "he was an example in word, in conversation, in 
charity, ^n spirit, in faith, in purity." C. R. Hemphill. 



250 STUDENTS. 



THE REV. WILLIAM CURTIS, LL. I)., 

Was born in Cambcrwcll, England, April 23d, 181G. His 
father, Rev. Thomas Curtis, and his elder brother, Rev. Thomas 
Fenner Curtis, were remarkable for literary attainments and in- 
tellectual activity. The father Avas associated on intimate terms 
with Coleridge and other eminent characters in Gi'eat Jiritain, 
and took part in the editorial work connected with the Loudon 
Encyclo]);edia and otlier important })ublishing enterprises. The 
family removed to thi.s countr}' in 1S31, narrowly escaping siiip- 
wreck a§ they approached the land. 

The tastes and habits of the father naturally gave stimulus to 
the intellectual proclivities of the sons. While Thomas F. was 
active and zealous as pastor, Professor of Theology, and Secre- 
tary of Missions, and as the author of several valuable books, 
William early devoted himself to that which proved his principal 
life work, the instruction of young ladies. 

During his course of study in the Theological Seminary at Co- 
lumbia, S. C, he acted as pastor of the Baptist church there, but 
soon after his graduation from the Seminary he, jointly with his 
father, purchased the beautiful property at Limestone Springs, 
in Spartanburg District, and they established there and main- 
tained a Female Seminary of high grade and of extensive useful- 
ness. At his father's death in 1859, it was continued under the 
son's charge until the close of the war. Into hoAV many young 
hearts, and through them into how many growing and cultivated 
families, his influence extended through all these years, it is im- 
possible to estimate. Ambitious to do good rather than to accu- 
mulate a fortune or to earn a reputation for scholarship, he put 
his energy and his means unreservedly into the school. He tra- 
velled, he preached, he lectured, he kept up extensive correspon- 
dence, he diligently studied the best methods of teaching and of 
school management ; and it is only fair to say, his labors were 
crowned with remarkable success. 

Meanwhile, at his own cost and charges, often under very try- 
ing discouragements and with great personal inconvenience, he 



STUDENTS. 251 

.was preaching the gospel in all the regions round about him; and 
there was no religious or benevolent enterprise of upper South 
Carolina which did not feel the effect of his active hand, his lib- 
eral aid, and his judicious counsels. 

After the war failing health compelled his withdrawal from most 
of the active labors in which he had delighted to engage, and he 
quietly retired into the charmed circle of his own family, Avhere 
he had always found his solace in trial, and his brightest cheer 
in the days of prosperity. None Avho were favored with his inti- 
mate friendship could fail to be struck with the cheerful, loving, 
elevating, refining influence which radiated from him, especially 
in those gleeful, happy hours when he unbent the bow and "let 
himself loose," to enjoy and to create enjoyment, in the bosom of 
his own family, or with a few chosen friends. 

The College of South Carolina conferred upon him the degree 
of LL. D. about the year 1856. 

He died in the assured and blissful hope of a glorious resurrec- 
tion, surrounded by his dearest earthly friends, in Walthourville, 
Liberty County, Georgia, October 30th, 1873, leaving a devoted 
wife and eleven surviving children, to whom his memory will ever 
be precious. 



REV. W. C. DANA, D. D. 

William Coombs Dana, son of the Rev. Daniel Dana and 
Elizabeth Coombs Dana, was born at Newburyport, Mass., Febru- 
ary 13, 1810. He was of Huguenot ancestry, and was descended 
from Richard Dana, who fled from persecution in France and set- 
tled in England, from which country he emigrated to Cambridge, 
Mass., about 1640. 

Mr. Dana received his preparatory education at Pickerton 
Academy, Derry, N. H., under Abel P. Hildreth, and was gradu- 
ated from Dartmouth College, N. H., in 1828. He made a public 
profession of his faith by uniting with the Second (Harris Street) 
Presbyterian church of Newburyport, at the age of seven- 
teen. After leaving College, he taught as Principal of Thetford 



0--v9 



STUDENTS. 



Academy, \t., one year, 182U. Hetauglit at Chesterfield, N. H,, 
a part of 1831, •when he entered Andover Seminary, and studied 
there one year, and afterwards at Columbia Seminary, S. C, 
from December, 1833, to 1835. He entered Princeton Seminary 
in May, 1835, and remained one session. He was licensed by 
Harmony Presbytery, S. C, April 10th, 1S35. In December, 
1835, he began to j^reach for the Central church, of (Jharleston, 
S. C. Soon after, he accepted a call to become its pastor, and was 
installed on the day of liis ordination, February 14, 1836, by 
Charleston Union Presbytery. Here he found his life-work, and 
continued the pastor of this church until he died, a period of 
about forty-five years of an almost unbroken ministry. 

He died of suffusion of the brain, after an illness of five days, 
November 30, 1880, in the seventy-first year of his age. 

Dr. Dana was a man of singularly pure and blameless life, of 
great gentleness and sweetness of disposition, of a warm and 
sympathetic nature, and of chivalric nobleness of spirit. He was 
eminent as a preacher, and tenderly loved as a pastor. An ele- 
gant classical scholar and polished writer, he published, in 1831, 
a translation of FenC^lon on the "Education of Daughters;" in 
1845, a volume entitled "A Trnnsatlantic Tour;'" in 18()6, he 
published "The Life of the Rev. Dr. Daniel Dana," his fiither. 
He jiaid especial attention to hymnology, and compiled a volume 
of hymns for the use of his church. 

Dr. Dana was married July 30, 1839, to Miss Flora M. Mathe- 
son, of Charleston, S. C. They had no children. 

G. R. Brack ETT. 



REV. E. C. DAVIDSON. 



Er)\VARD CiiAFFiN Davidson was born in Maury County, 
Tenn., February 17th, 1832, antl died at Oxford, Miss., April 
■25th, 1883. 

When he was only five or six years old his father moved to La 
Fayette County, in Mississippi, and settled a few miles from Ox- 



:::?aJb^ 



STUDENTS. 253 

ford. There he grew up, becoming a communicant df the College 
Hill church at an early age. 

He was graduated at the University of Mississippi in 1854, en- 
tered Columbia Seminary in 1857, completing his course of study 
there in May, 18G0. He was licensed and ordained by the Presby- 
tery of North Mississippi. He was first the pastor of the Sands 
Springs church. Then he was pastor of the Water Valley church 
for sixteen years. For several years before his death he resided 
near Oxford, where he taught in the preparatory department of 
the University of Mississippi, and was the superintendent of the 
public schools of the county. During this time he supplied the 
neighboring churches ; in 1882 supplying College Hill and Hope- 
well churches. 

" He Avas one of the best of men and a most excellent preacher. 
He was much loved in a Avide circle. He twice represented his 
Presbytery in the General Assembly, and Avas Moderator of the 
Synod of Memphis in 1880. He had been ill for over two months 
and has fallen asleep in Jesus. His end was peace." 

"He leaves a Avidow, one daughter recently married, and four 
young children (tAvo sons and tAvo daughters)" to mourn his de- 
parture. • M. 



REV. THOMAS J. DAVIDSON 

Was born in South Carolina, June, 1826. He removed to 
Alabama in 1832, Avith his parents, and united Avith the Presby- 
terian Church in 1841. His mother Avas a Baptist, his father a 
non-professor until after his son entered the ministry, Avhen he 
Avas far advanced in life, being baptized in the Elyton church, of 
which his son was at that time the stated supply. 

Brother Davidson Avas received under the care of the Presby- 
tery of Tuskaloosa in 1851 ; Avas graduated at Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity, and pursued his theological studies at Columbia, S. C, 
from 1853 to 1856 ; Avas licensed October 6, 1856, and ordained 



254 STUDENTS. 

October 3, 1857, by the Presbytery of Tuskaloosa ; died at Ely- 
ton, October 25, 18G1. lie gave all his ministerial life to pioneer 
evangelistic labors in Jefferson County, Ala., a difficult field, but 
one in which he did much good, and under great disadvantages, 
and against much opposition, gained a high character for purity 
of life, firmness, courage, self-denial, and consecration to his work. 
He oro-anised what is now the flourishing Birmingham church. 
He was really a noble, heroic, martyr-like man. R. Nall. 



REV. JAMES ADAMS DAVIES 

Was born in York County, S. C, in May, 1829, and died in 
the same County on March 18th, 1807. 

He was of pious ancestry, being the son of the Rev. William 
B. Davies, and the grandson of the Rev. John B. Davies, His 
mother was the daughter of the Rev. James Adams, of Bethel 
church. • 

He was graduated at Davidson College, and entered Columbia 
Seminary in 1852, completing the course of study there in 1855. 
He was a candidate under the care of Bethel Presbytery an<l was 
licensed and ordained by the same body. 

His trial sermon was preached at Fishing Creek chuicli during 
the same meeting of Presbytery when the memorial sermon of his 
deceased father was preached. He was called to Fishing Creek 
church which had been his grandfather's charge, and also to 
Beersheba church, which had been his father's charge. He ac- 
cepted the latter for half of his time. He wa.s also the pastor of 
the Jjullock's Creek church, serving them the other half of his 
time. 

Mr. Davies wa,«i a nol)le man. He was modest and retiring, 
but had earnest convictions. He read his sermons, which were 
carefully prepared, and which were jdain, clear, practical, and 
pointed. 



STUDENTS. 255 

He was married to a daughter of the Hon. James A. Black, 
who Avith three little children Avere left to mourn their sad be- 
reavement. M. 



REV. THOMAS LOCKWOOD DeVEAUX 

Was born in Charleston, S. C, of pious parentage, of the 
Huguenot race, August 6th, 1835. 

He was educated in that city, and Avas graduated at the Charles- 
ton College. Nourished in the lap of the "Church, he made an 
early profession of his faith in Christ, and dedicated himself to 
the Avork of the gospel ministry. HaA^ng finished his literary 
course in 1857, without delay he entered the Theological Seminary 
at Columbia, S. C, Avhere he was graduated in May, 1860. On 
March 31st, 1860, he Avas licensed by the Presbytery of Hai-- 
mony, at HopeAvell church. His first charge AAas LoAvndesboro 
and Good Hope, in the State of Alabama. With these churches 
he labored faithfully until 1866. He then resigned his charge, on 
account of failing health, and Avent to Sumter, S. C, to rest Avith 
his friends for a season, where he remained until 1867. He then 
receiA'ed a call to Madison church, Florida. There he labored 
Avith success until 1869. He then took charge of the church at 
JacksonA'ille, Fla. That church, at that time, needed just such 
a man. It Avas in trouble, surrounded by those Avho Avere en- 
deaA'oring to overthroAA- its organisation and build upon its ruins a 
church of another name and another creed. 

It was soon seen that he Avas the right man in the right place. 
With him as their pastor, this afflicted flock Avas once more per- 
mitted to Avorship God under their oAvn vine and fig tree, Avhere 
there were none to molest or make them afraid. 

Soon after this the seeds of disease Avere rapidly developed into 
a permanent ill-health. His voice began to fail, so that he Avas 
unable to speak above a Avhisper. It Avas not, hoAvever, until after 
a long struggle that this faithful pastor Avas forced, amid the tears 



256 STUDENTS. 

of a devoted people, to resign a charge lie had so ably occupied 
during four years. After leaving Jacksonville, he was unani- 
mously elected editor of the North Carolina Presbyterian. In this 
capacity he continued to serve the Church faithfully, despite the 
painful ravages of that insidious disease, which had been preying 
upon his vitals for years. 

In his editorial duties he did not swerve even for a moment. 
Ilis will seemed to be made of iron, and his sense of duty was 
unswerving. 

The writer of these lines visited him a few weeks before 'his 
death, and was amazed to see him propped up in his bed, panting 
for breath while reading some article or communication, or cor- 
recting some proof. Still he went on, bravely meeting every 
obstacle, until his work was accomplished. Thus he went on day 
by day until his work was done ; then the Master called him to 
come up higher. On Tuesday, the 23d of May, 1876, at 7 
o'clock p. m., the summons came, and he Avas ready, saying : 
"Amen. Come, Lord Jesus; come quickly." Thus he took his 
departure with his Saviour to the mansion which he had pre- 
pared for him. 

Mr. DeVeaux was twice married, and leaves now a devoted 
wife, an interesting son by the first marriage, a mother and sister, 
and many friends to mourn his death. 

He possessed the tastes, instincts, and manners of a perfect 
Christian gentleman. He was a fine musician, and while in 
the Seminary was the leader of the students in their songs of 
praise. Being passionately fond of music, nothing gave him more 
pleasure than when his friends came to his chamber to sing in his 
presence, at his request, the songs of Zion. In these visits of 
the choir, his spirit seemed to be in rapture and borne away from 
earth to heaven. 

As an editor, he was successful ; his editorials were sprightly, 
engaging, and timely, his selections judicious. There was always 
a spice of wit and humor in his nature, which would naturally 
crop out, not only in his editorials, in his debates in Presbytery, 
but in conversation. 

Even in his paroxysms of pain, he was always alive to all that 



STUDENTS. 257 

was passing, and even then his humor and wit would flash forth, 
to the amusement of all present. 

As a minister of the gospel, he was a devoted, sympathising 
pastor ; a bold speaker of the truth, unflinching in duty, tender 
and affectionate in his warnings. He loved to preach Christ and 
hold him up as the Saviour of sinners. 



HENRY ROBERTSON DICKSON. 

Henry Robertson, son of Rev. John Dickson, M. D., and 
Mary Augusta, daughter of Rev. Andrew Flynn, D. D., Avas 
born in Charleston, S. C, April 22d, 1836, and was educated at 
Charleston College, graduating in 1852 with distinction at the 
age of sixteen years, and receiving with other honors the highest 
prize in elocution in his class. After several years spent in teach- 
ing, he entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, in 
1856, and was graduated with the class of 1859, after three years 
of laborious and successful prosecution of the studies of the course. 
He was licensed by the Presbytery of Charleston in Central 
church, Charleston, April 9th, 1859. He was ordained and in- 
stalled as pastor of Wilton church in Colleton District, on Sab- 
bath, Nov. 27th, 1859. The climate proving unfavorable, he 
resigned in 1860 and took charge of Ebenezer and Rock Hill 
churches in York District. Soon afterwards he entered the Con- 
federate army as chaplain, doing efficient service both in hospital 
and in camp. At the close of the Avar he returned to his charge 
and remained until June, 1867, when he Avas transferred to the pas- 
torate of the Yorkville church, one of the largest and most im- 
portant in the State. Here he served eight years, greatly en- 
deared to his people, and refusing many calls to prominent pul- 
pits in Southern cities. In October, 1875, a call to the Reformed 
church of South Brooklyn, N. Y., opened so wide and influential 
a field that he could not decline to enter. Thither he Avent, ac- 
companied by his beloved Avife, to A\"hom he had recently been 
17 



258 STUDENTS. 

married, Mary Frances, daughter of Hon. I. D. Witherspoon, of 
York, who, with his surviving children, still remains amongst the 
people to whom his last years of service were devoted. Here, a 
stranger among strangers, an ex-Confe<lerate in the metropolis of 
the North, he so endeared himself to all classes by his fidelity, ur- 
banity, and gentleness, that when, on the 8th of March, 1877, it 
pleased God to call him away by death, it might be said that the 
whole city mourned his loss. No more beautiful or appropriate 
tribute to his memory could be given than the following from the 
memorial resolutions adopted by the South Classis of Long Isl- 
and in reference to his death : 

'* The foundations of our brother's character were laid in sim- 
ple-hearted faith and earnest holiness. His calm and manly 
dignity was blended with exceeding gentleness. A rare scholar, 
a tireless worker, a faithful, wise, fervent preacher of Christ ; a 
diligent, sympathetic, tender-hearted pastor; a Christian gentle- 
man of fine aesthetic culture and ripe experience in his holy call- 
ing, he was singularly unobtrusive, affectionate, and lovable, . . 
and in the courage of holy dying, as well as in the fidelity of 
holy living, exemplified fully the truth and grace of which he 
had been the minister." 

Thus, loved and loving, in but the forty-first year of his age, 
in the prime of his ministry, and when broad fields were just 
opening before him, our brother passed away. Had his life been 
spared, he would have walked upon the high places of Zion. He 
has rjone where higher honors and nobler service await him ever- 
more. T. D. Withekspoon. 



REV. SAMUEL DONNELLY. 

Samuel Donnelly was born in Chester County, S. C, Febru- 
ary 14th, 1808. He was the son of Rev. Thomas Donnelly, a 
minister of the Covenanter Chincli. The son was brought up in 
the faith and after the rigid usage of that venerable body of 
Scotch Presbyterians. He was thrown mainly on his own 



STUDENTS. 259 

resources to obtain an education ; hut by energy and perseverence 
he was graduated from the South Carolina College in 1832, and 
then from the Theological Seminary in Columbia, in 1838. 
Licensed to preach the gospel by Harmony Presbytery in April 
of the same year, he was ordained and installed pastor of Beaver 
Creek church, on the 3d of November folloAving. He married, 
July 10th, 1838, Mrs. Mary Ewart, a lady of eminent piety and 
excellent character. He labored as pastor of Beaver Creek church 
for nearly fifteen years. In 1852 he was elected Principal of the 
Male High School, in Greenwood, S. C. He came with higb 
recommendations from Dr. Thornwell, who was well acquainted 
with his qualifications for such an important position. For several 
years he had the care of this institution, and he is still remem- 
bered with great respect by many of his pupils, Avho now live in 
diiferent parts of our Avide country. 

In 1853 he became a member of the Presbytery of South 
Carolina, and for several years supplied Liberty Spring and 
Bethesda churches and, at different times, Ninety-Six, Smyrna, 
Midway, Honea Path, and Cokesbury. 

In 1873 he removed to Gainesville, Florida, and supplied 
Bethlehem and Cedar Keys, where a church was organised. He 
also labored at Archer, Orange Creek, Hamilton, and Suwannee. 
He was esteemed and useful in all these places. His increasing 
infirmities called upon him to moderate his abundant labors ; but 
his devotion to Christ would not allow him to be idle. In the 
absence of the pastor of the Gainesville and Micanopy churches, 
he would supply his place. He would also conduct prayer-meet- 
ings and visit the sick. His labors of love will long be remem- 
bered by that people. 

In March, 1878, he removed to Arredondo, to reside with his 
daughter, Mrs. Rice. Shortly before his death he Avas thrown 
from his horse, and the injury resulted in a paralysis of the 
Avhole body. On Saturday before he died, his tongue became 
poAverless. "He could not speak, to leave us any dying testi- 
mony of his faith in Jesus," said one Avho loved him ; "but Ave 
needed none ; his life Avas a life of faith — a living epistle, knoAvn 



260 STUDENTS. 

and read of all men." On Monday, August 12th, 1878, he 
entered the rest that remaineth to the people of God. 

Jxo. McLees. 



REV. JOHN DOUGLAS. 

The late Rev. John Douulas, of Mecklenburg County, N. C, 
■was the son of John Douglas, Esq., and his wife, who was of a 
family named Ross, and was bom the 10th of October, 1809. The 
place of his nativity was in the Purity congregation in Chester 
County, S. C. His death occurred October 8th, 1879, thus lack- 
ing two days of completing his threescore and ten years. 

He was brought up in the community where he was born, and 
there prepared for the South Carolina College, from which he 
was graduated in the fall of 1830. In one year after he became 
a communicant of Purity church, and entered the Theological 
Seminary in Columbia, S. C, on the first day of the year 1833, 
where he spent three years. He was licensed to preach the gos- 
pel by Bethel Presbytery in April, 1835; was ordained by the 
same body April 30th, 183(5, and installed pastor of the united 
congregations of Purity and Concord. He continued to serve 
these churches until October, 1846, when, at his own request, 
the pastoral relation was dissolved and he was dismissed to the 
Presbytery of Charleston. He was settled as pastor of the 
church on James Island, where he continued to reside, dividing 
his services equally between the whites and the blacks, till the 
community was broken up by the military operations of the late 
war in 1861. Mr. Douglas, however, continued to preach on the 
Island to a remnant of his flock and the military forces stationed 
there. For the last year and a half of the war his attention was 
given to the soldiers between Charleston and Savannah, under 
direction of a commission from the General Assembly of our 
Church. In 1865 he found himself without a home or a flock. 
His property on the Island had been destroyed, and the people 



STUDENTS. 261 

broken up and impoverished. But he was soon installed pastor 
of the united congregations of Steele Creek and Pleasant Hill, 
under the care of the Mecklenburg Presbytery, N. C. This rela- 
tion continued till dissolved by his death, October 8th, 1879. 

Mr. Douglas was united in marriage May, 1837, with Miss 
Frances C. Marchant, daughter of Mr. P. T. Marchant, of 
Charleston, S. C. She still lives, but no children were ever 
their portion, except by adoption. 

Mr. Douglas was a man of fine personal appearance, of pleasant 
manners and sociable disposition, characterised from childhood 
by great sobriety and steadiness of purpose. As a preacher he 
was rather solid than brilliant. His object manifestly was to 
preach the gospel in its purity, simplicity, and power. In this, 
I think, he succeeded. He brought "beaten oil into the sanc- 
tuary," so that the light diffused was steady and clear. His min- 
istrations everywhere were received with great favor by God's 
people. He held in all three pastoral charges, including five 
congregations. In each of these the work of the Lord prospered 
under his ministry. He served both Bethel and Charleston 
Presbyteries in the office of Stated Clerk a part of the time of 
his connexion with these bodies, and performed these duties 
well. For many years he was a Director of the Theological 
Seminary at Columbia, S. C. The duties of this position Ife dis- 
charged steadily and zealously. It was probably on a trip to 
meet the Board of Directors of this institution that his fatal dis- 
ease, gastric fever, was contracted. He also served many years 
as a Trustee of Davidson College on the part of his Presbytery. 
He published little of what he may have written. Two pamphlets, 
containing histories of the Purity and Steele Creek congregations, 
were published by him ; valuable contributions to ecclesiastical his- 
tory in their place. In all the duties of the ministry, in all the 
relations of life, in all the offices imposed by his brethren, he came 
up to a high standard. So that we have abundant cause to de- 
plore his loss, but at the same time great cause of gratitude for 
the gift of such a man and minister. J. H. Saye. 



2(32 STUDENTS. 



REV. ROBERT L. DOUGLAS. 

TifKlate Rev. Kohekt L. Douglas, of Union County, S. C, 
was born in Fairfield County, S. C, May 31, 1835, ami died 
October 14, 1866. He was the son of John Douglas, for many 
years a ruling elder in Catholic church, Chester county, S. C. 
He was licensed to preach the gospel by Bethel Presbytery, in 
April, 1862. 

His preparatory studies were prosecuted in a school taught by 
the Rev. William Banks, in the Catholic congregation, in David- 
son Colleiie, and in the Theological Seminarv at Columbia, S. C. 

He spent some time in teaching in Sumter County, while en- 
gaged in preparatory studies. 

A short time after licensure, he was called to the pastoral office 
in the church at Unionville, S. C, which call he accepted, and 
in January, 1864, was ordained to the full Avork of the gospel 
ministry, and installed pastor of that church. He was at that 
time a minister of great promise ; his constitution and health 
apparently firm ; his attainments very solid ; his social qualities 
excellent; his pulpit exercises engaging or attractive ; his ser- 
mons well prejiared, and delivered with proper unction. The 
affections of his concrrejiation fastened on him, in view of his 
earnest zeal and amiable (jualities. He bid fair for a long life of 
usefulness in his Master's vineyard, but he was seized by disease 
while in attendance at the sessions of Presbytery at Lancaster- 
villc, and stopped on his return at the house of Rev. Jas. H. Save, 
where, after a few days of lingering sickness, he died. His loss 
was greatly deplored by all his brethren, but especially by the 
people of his own congregation. 

He was a younger brother of the present Rev. James Douglas, 
of Blackstocks, S. C, and has several surviving brothers, now 
rulinLT elders of different churches. J. H. S.WE. 



STUDENTS. 263 



JOHN ELBERT DuBOSE 

Was born at Miller's Bluff, Camden County, Ga., June 8th, 
1836. After studying at Mt. Zion Academy, of which Dr. Be- 
man was Principal, he entered the University of Virginia in 1854, 
at the age of eighteen, as a medical student. Becoming dissatis- 
fied, however, with medicine, at the expiration of a year he re- 
turned to St. Mary's, Ga., and taught school. Here he became 
seriously impressed and made a profession of religion. He im- 
mediately felt it his duty to study for the ministry, and applied 
himself with great diligence to a course of study preparatory to a 
collegiate education. He entered Oglethorpe University, Ga., at 
an advanced standing, in July, 1856. In October, 1858, he be- 
gan his theological studies in the Seminary at Columbia, S. C. 

During a visit to relatives in Darlington in the winter vaca- 
tion (1860) he contracted the fatal illness of Avhich he died in the 
following summer. 

He longed to live to preach the gospel, but bore his disappoint- 
ment and sufferings with perfect resignation. An intimate friend 
says: "I never knew an instance of more entire consecration to 
Christ." From the moment of his conversion the kingdom of 
Christ was uppermost in his mind and heart. During his College 
and Seminary course and his vacations he engaged with untiring 
energy and zeal in Christian work, "doing good as he had oppor- 
tunity," organising Sunday-schools, and conducting them some- 
times alone; distributing religious books and tracts. "I fear," 
he said, "I may not live to preach, and necessity is laid upon me 
to work while I live." When remonstrated with by his class- 
mates for imprudent exposure of his health to inclement weather 
and exhausting journeys, he replied: "The night soon cometli 
when no man can work." During his first Seminary vacation 
he conducted religious services in a small vacant church in St. 
Mary's, Ga. His fervent ministrations will never be forgotten. 
He resembled that "flaming seraph," McCheyne, of whom he so 
often spoke in tei'ms of enthusiastic admiration. Fearing he 
might not live to preach, he endeavored to persuade every youth 



264 STUDENTS. 

he met that it was his duty to preach the gospel, unless he could 
assign a good reason for not entering the ministry. While he 
lived he was a "burning and a shining light." His flaming zeal 
consumed him. His Christian life was brief, but it was a per- 
petual sermon. ''And he, being dead, yet speaketh." 

E. H. BuiST. 



REV. JULIUS J. DuBOSE 

Was born in Darlington, S. C, on the 25th February, 1809. 
He enjoyed the opportunities of a liberal education, pursued his 
academical studies in the Mt. Zion School at Winnsboro, and 
Avas graduated from the South Carolina College. In 1881 he 
became a subject of grace, and immediately abandoning the study 
of law, he devoted himself to that of divinity in the Theological 
Seminary at Columbia. In the Spring of 1834 he was licensed 
by the Presbytery of Harmony, and subsequently ordained as an 
evangelist by the same body. In the latter part of 1836 he was 
installed pastor of Hopewell church, in Marion District, which 
delightful relation was cancelled by complete failure of health. 
Brought to the verge of the grave, he was permitted to recov6r, 
yet with a total loss of voice. For several years he could only 
communicate with his friends by the assistance of slate and pen- 
cil. In the year 1849 his voice was so far recovered and his 
health so far restored as to justify his return to the pastoral office. 
A new and interesting field of labor had just opened before him, 
to which he was in the act of removal, when lie was suddenly 
arrested by a stroke of paralysis, and wliile on a visit to his native 
village the last summons was received. He died on the 16th 
of April, 1852, saying, as he sunk to his last repose: 

"Jesus ci\n make a dyiiii^ btul 
Feel soft iiH downy pillows are." 

He possessed a natural character peculiarly engaging; ardent, 
afl'ectionate, enthusiastic, and generous. No drop of gall ever 
curdled the affections of a heart which could always forgive. He 



STUDENTS. 265 

■was a preacher of power. The solemnity of his tones sehlom 
failed to arrest attention, while the unaffected tenderness and 
pathos of his appeals frequently bathed his audience in tears. He 
had passed through the fires of trial, and kncAV how to comfort 
others. Five children sleep beside him in the graveyard, four of 
whom preceded him in going down into the dark valley. But 
the blessing of a covenant-keeping God has abounded to two who 
survive him, and upon whom the mantle of the father has fallen, 
viz., the Rev. H. C. DuBose, of Soochow, China, and the Rev. 
R. M. DuBose, of Louisville, Ky. W. M. Reid. 



J. DeWITT DUNCAN. 



J. DeWitt Duncan was born in Elizabethtown, Ky., July 
11th, 1842. He read laAV while a prisoner at Camp Douglass 
during the Confederate war, and entered upon the practice in 
Louisville just after the surrender. In September, 1865, he 
married Miss Eliza English. In April, 1872, he entered the 
Columbia Theological Seminary. While a student he labored 
among the negroes. After a short pastorate in Arkadelphia, 
Ark., he removed to Oxford, Miss., because of failing health. 
But after supplying a church in that neighborhood for a short 
time, a further prostration caused his removal to Louisville, and 
when compelled to cease preaching took charge of the Anchorage 
Institute. Failing health driving him from all work, he retired 
to Elizabethtown, where, after many days of patient suifering, he 
died, February 15th, 1878, of consumption contracted in Camp 
Douglass. 

It remains a wonder that he could preach at all, yet he never 
shirked a duty. Neither cold nor heat could deter him when 
there was a prospect of doing good. . . . His people loved him ; 
his Presbytery respected his Avise counsels. If there were need 
of eulogy, the minute adopted by the Synod of Kentucky would 
satisfy every demand: 



266 STUDENTS. 

" As a preaclier he was simple, clear, and forcible; dealing con- 
stantly with the great central truths of" the gospel, and ardently 
pressing home the gospel offers upon the unconverted, and the ob- 
ligations of the gospel ui)on God's people. And his Christian 
life, as it came under the notice of the conununity at large, was a 
living demonstration of the power and reality- of the religion which 
he preached. In the case of few whose ministry was so short and 
who fell so early, could we anticipate more certainly the plaudit, 
'Well done, good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy 
ofthv Lord.'" J. II. Tiioknwell. 



ALBERT M. EGERTON 



Was born April 2d, 1806. His parents were Asa and Emily 
Egerton. At the age of nine years, he was left, by the death of 
his father, to exert himself for his own support. He found a 
honie ill the house of Professor Nutting, and an invaluable friend, 
with whom he remained for several years, assisting him on the 
farm, and part of the year attending the academy of Randolph. 
His taste for music here received its direction, under the skilful 
hand of his adopted fatlier, and liis mind that bias for study 
which followed him to the grave. Here, too, his mind was 
awakened to an earnest desire for a collegiate education, and by 
assisting the family of his patron, he paid his way through his 
preparatory course of study. 

In March, 1826, he entered Dartmouth College, and from the 
first took a high stand for scholarship, but was often interrupted 
in his studies by the gradual development of that disease to which 
he at last fell a victim. His vacations he spent in teaching school 
and in nursing his mother, who was wasting away under con- 
sumption. He graduated in l<S2i>. Disease comj»elled him to 
seek a milder climate, and he spent the years 1880-81 in Charles- 
ton, S. C, engaged in teaching. 

Mr. Egerton made a public profession of his faith in Christ, 



STUDENTS. 267 

September 1, 1822, in his native town, with many others, the 
fruits of a revival in that place that year. The public dedication 
of himself to God was followed by weeks of great spiritual dark- 
ness which well-nigh overwhelmed him, and from which he did 
not fully emerge till the following year. At his conversion he 
turned his thoughts at once to the ministry. It had been the 
gi*eat desire of his mother's heart that he should be a Christian 
minister, and her influence and her prayers were instrumental in 
drawing his attention in this direction. Compelled to leave New 
England on account of his health, he abandoned the thouijhts of 
entering the ministry, determining to devote his life to teaching, 
and made arrangements to that effect in Charleston, S. C, 1830. 
Finding his health much improved by the change of climate, he 
again turned his thoughts to the ministry, and in the fall of 1831 
entered Andover Seminary, where he remained two years. His 
health yielding again to the severity of that climate, he transferred 
his connexion from Andover to Columbia, S. C, the latter part 
of 1833, and graduated with the class, December, 1834. He 
was licensed to preach by the Harmony Presbytery, in session at 
Darlington church, April 5th, 1835, and was ordained at Mil- 
ledgeville, Ga., 1836. In 1834 he became chaplain in the Bar- 
hamville Female Institute, which place he filled for three years. 

In the year 1837 he removed to Augusta, Ga., and became 
Principal of a school in that city, but was never able afterwards 
to preach, or to bear, for any length of time, the confinement of 
the school-room. In the summer of 1839 he removed to Mid- 
Avay, a suburb of Milledgeville, Ga., where he opened a school 
for young ladies ; but on August 7th of that year he was sum- 
moned by death to his rest and reward. 

Mr. Egerton was never settled as pastor over a church ; but as 
chaplain of the Institute his labors were blessed to the conversion 
of a number of the pupils. 

On September 13th, 1833, he was married to Miss A, A. 
Adams, who still survives him, as Mrs. R. M. Orrae, of Milledge- 
ville, Ga. He left no issue, and Avas the last member of his own 
family. He is said to have been a man of comely appearance, 
winning manners, and of varied accomplishments. 

Wm. Flinn. 



268 STUDENTS. 



WILLIAM CURDY EMERSON 

Was born of pious parents in Abbeville District, S. C, April, 
1818. He was early left an orphan and was reared by his brother 
Henry until seventeen years old; removed with him to Alabama, 
near Selma; had few educational advantages ; professed religion at 
a camp meeting in Perry County, largely through the instrumen- 
tality of Dr. R. Nail and Rev. Thomas Alexander. He soon de- 
termined to seek the gospel ministry. He studied first under 
Prof H. Tutwiler, and then graduated at the Presbyterian Man- 
ual Labor School near Marion, laboring part of his time to se- 
cure means. He spent two years at Princeton Seminary ; was 
licensed Dec. 10th, 1840, by the Presbytery of South Alabama, 
and preached in Marengo County a short time ; then Avent to 
Columbia Seminary and graduated in the class of 1841 ; returned 
to Marengo and preached six or eight years. He was ordained 
January 24th, 1843, by the Presbytery of South Alabama. He 
preached from 1848 to 1855 at Starkville, Miss., and subsequent- 
ly to churches in Clark, Wayne, and Newton Counties, Miss. 
He organised the church at Meridian, Miss. In February, 1868, 
he went to Brazil, preached in Sao Paulo District to the Ameri- 
cans and Portuguese, laboring with his own hands to support his 
family; organised the first Presbyterian church in that district, 
now called Santa Barbara, and sowed seed from which our mis- 
sionaries are now reaping. 

He died July 24th, 1875, a triumphant de.ath, leaving a widow 
and several children. He was an earnest Christian, a zealous 
and instructive preacher, a warm-hefirted amiable man, and a 
successful laborer in the Lord's vineyard. He did much good in 
his day and under great difficulties, arising from feeble health 
and meagre support. He has left an enviable record, and the 
good he did lives after him. Rev. H. R. Raymond, D. D., as- 
cribes his own entrance into the ministry to his instrumentality, 
and many souls now in Christ attest his usefulness. 

C. A. Stillman. 



STUDENTS. 269 



ADOLPHUS H. EPSTEIN. 

Adolpiius H. Epstein was a native of Hungary, of Jewish 
descent, educated at the Gymnasium of Pesth and the Polytech- 
nic Institute of Vienna. He had, at his entrance into the Semi- 
nary, been in this country four years, and on profession of his 
conversion to the Christian faith had been admitted as a member 
of Dr. J. L. Janeway's church in Philadelphia, and as a student 
of Lafayette College, Eastern Pennsylvania. He was admitted 
to the Seminary, January 13, 1854. The tephilim, or phylac- 
teries, which his mother gave him when he became a son of the 
law at thirteen years of age, were preserved in the Missionary 
Museum of the Seminary, and should be there now. He was a 
man of considerable vigor of mind and true piety, but died of 
pulmonary consumption in his Senior year. He was buried in 
the church-yard of the Presbyterian church, Columbia, after ap- 
propriate services were held in the Seminary chapel, and a head- 
stone was placed at his grave, bearing the following inscription : 

"In Memory 

of 

A. H. EPSTEIN, 

born in Hungary, 

of Hebrew parents. 

He died March 30, 1856, 

aged 28 years. 
He was a member of the 
Senior Class in the Theol. 

Seminary in this city. 

This memorial was erected 

by his fellow-students, 

as an expression of 

aflfectionate regard."' 

Geo. Howe. 



270 STUDENTS. 



REV DAVID FINLEY 



David, son of James and Isabella Fiiiley, was born in Wilkes 
County, Geo., May 2, LSI 3. His father dying when the boy 
•was only seven, he was left to the care of his pious and widowed 
mother, who proved adequate to the responsibility. He was 
graduated from the University of Georgia, with distinction, in 
1835, being especially marked by power of speech. About one 
month before graduation, he made profession of his faith. Read- 
ing law at Washington, Ga., he was in due time admitted to the 
bar, and gave evidence of a successful career. His mind being 
turned to the West, he visited Mississippi ; 1)ut while on the 
journey, became fully persuaded that it was his duty to preach 
the gospel. Having once yielded, not without a severe struggle, 
to this conviction, he passed through the usual course in the Semi- 
nary at Columbia. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the 
Hopewell Presbytery, at Lincolnton, Ga., where, a few years 
before, he had been licensed to practise law. 

His inclinations pointed to the foreign field, but the feebleness 
of his health overruled them, and, shortly after his licensure, he 
visited Alabama, where his sermons made a deep impression. He 
became pastor of the Montgomery church, being ordained in 
1840 by the South Alabama Presbytery. This was his first and 
only charge. An invalid, to a greater or less degree, during the 
whole of his ministry, he was nevertheless abundant in labors. 
A devoted and faithful pastor, he also spared no pains in his pul- 
pit labors. His sermons were, for the most part, written fully. 
Fearless and independent, he regarded only his accountability to 
God. Catholic in spirit, he yet proclaimed and vindicated the doc- 
trines of his own Church. Always instructive, his sermons were 
often very powerful. Many of them will be remembered through 
time and eternity. Precious revivals were enjoyed from time to 
time by his church. His visits to neighboring churches were often 
attended with signal blessings. Even his suuiiner excursions, taken 
to recruit his health, were often to him harvest seasons. A total 
failure of health in 1856 compelled a dissolution of his pastorate. 



STUDENTS. 271 

(lalmly and prayerfully, in the bosom of his family, he awaited 
the fulfilment of God's will. The noble mind began to totter, 
and he was removed to the asylum at Nashville for treatment. 
But neither kindness nor skill could restore him, and after one 
bright interval of renewed communion with friends, he passed 
away, January 2, 1858. 

His remains were interred at Montgomery, amid the tears of a 
devoted people, for whom he had labored and prayed so faithfully. 
\_Extract from Memoir hy Rev. Dr. Gr. If. W. Petrie. 



REV. MALCOLM D. FRASER 

Was born in Kershaw County, S. C, of Scottish descent; he 
could speak Gaelic, and on one or more occasions administered 
the communion in Pinetree church using that language. He be- 
came pious in early youth. James K. Douglas, of Camden, 
S. C, observing his aptness to acquire knowledge and promise of 
usefulness, patronised and sustained him in his academical educa- 
tion at Morristown, N. J. 

He was a member of the second class in the Columbia Semi- 
nary, and was graduated in 1834; licensed to preach the gospel 
by the Presbytery of Harmony in April, 1834. During the lat- 
ter part of his course in the Seminary he supplied the pulpit of 
New Hope church, which Avas afterwards dissolved and united 
with the Bishopville church. After his licensure his ministry 
was exercised in several of the neighboring churches. 

He Avas installed pastor of Lebanon church in Fairfield Coun- 
ty, which he served faithfully and successfully for several years. 
He then removed to Alabama and supplied the church of VVe- 
tumpka. His next charge Avas Scion church, Winnsboro, Avhich 
he served as pastor for six years. Here he was stricken with 
paralysis, which compelled him to resign the active duties of the 
ministry. On his partial restoration to health he acted for two 
years as the domestic missionary of Harmony Presbytery. From 



272 STUDENTS. 

this period his health failed him, and he gradually declined until 
death closed the scene, which occurred in February, 1862. 

He was a good and faithful preacher. His sermons, which cost 
him much labor, were commonly well prepared and preached from 
memory with fluency. His manner in the pulpit was solemn and 
prepossessing. The grand doctrines of the Cross, " Ruin by the 
fall, redemption by Christ, regeneration by tlie Spirit," Avere the 
staple of his preaching. It is believed that he never preached a 
sermon in which there was not saving truth enough to lead an 
anxious inquirer to Christ. During part of his ministry he 
labored under manifold bodily infirmities, accompanied with ner- 
vous depression, which cast its shadow over his mind. Thus he 
sometimes doubted his call to the ministry and fitness for its du- 
ties. As soon, however, as health was regained, these clouds of 
despondency were dissipated, and he entered with new zeal and 
alacrity in his Master's service, often going beyond his strength 
in proclaiming the good tidings to the perishing. 

W. Brearley. 



REV. S. R. FRIERSON. 

Rev. S. R. Frierson was born in Maury County, Tenn., Oc- 
tober 8th, 1818, and died in Starkville, Oktibbeha County, Miss., 
October 4th, 1880. 

His parents were James and Sarah Frierson, who were impor- 
tant factors of a colony which removed at an early period of the 
present century from South Carolina to middle Tennessee, and 
located in what is now known as "the Frierson settlement" in 
Maury County, near Columbia, afterwards removing into Ala- 
bama. He was quite a youth when his parents removed from 
Tennessee to Green County, Alabama, and settled near Greens- 
boro. Availing himself of the advantages furnished by the com- 
mon schools of this country, he here entered upon the study of 
the elementary branches and without delay applied his mind 



STUDENTS. 273 

vigorously to gaining a classical education. At the age of twelve 
he was deprived of his father by death, and the entire responsi- 
bility of his future training devolved on his pious mother. 

Making a public profession of faith in Christ when he was nine- 
teen years old, he united with the Concord Presbyterian church. 
Being thoroughly persuaded about this time that it was his duty 
to preach the gospel, he entered upon his preparatory studies with 
that zeal and energy which in after life was characteristic of all 
that he did. With a view of more fully carrying out his purpose, 
he entered Princeton College, N. J., and his name is there en- 
rolled as one of its honored graduates. Having completed his 
literary course he returned to Alabama and entered upon his 
theological course under the care of the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon, 
then pastor of Greensboro Presbyterian church. During this 
time he was licensed as a probationer by the Presbytery of South 
Alabama, and supplied for a time the church at Marion. 

He afterwards repaired to the Seminary at Columbia, where 
he completed the usual course of study. On his return from the 
Seminary he accepted a call from the church in Columbus, Miss., 
and was ordained and installed pastor by the Presbytery of Tom- 
beckbee, April 17th, 1848. His ministrations here in this field 
"were greatly blessed. 

He married Miss Mary E. Barry, daughter of Richard Barry, 
one of the elders of the Columbus church. 

In 1853, in consequence of failing health, and at his own re- 
quest, the church united with him in asking a dissolution of the 
pastoral relation, which was granted October 13th of that year. 
On his restoration to health he, in 1854, became the stated sup- 
ply of Starkville and Mayhew churches, and in April, 1855, was 
installed pastor. For a period of ten years he labored in this 
field with great acceptance, his ministrations being greatly blessed, 
and many souls brought to Christ. After the dissolution of his 
pastorate there he returned to Columbus, and opened a male 
school, continuing to preach the gospel as he had opportunity. 

In 1869 he returned to Starkville as stated supply, continuing 
also to teach. In this twofold capacity he continued to labor 
until declining health warned him that his work was well-nigh 
18 



274 STUDENTS. 

finished. The greatest cross of his hitter vears was liis being 
couipelled to give up the active duties of the luiuistry. Fully 
apprised of his approacliing end, lie set his house in order, and on 
the 4th of October, 188U, sweetly fell asleep in Jesus. 

A. H. Barklev. 



S. S. GAILLARD. 



Savage Smith Gaillard was born in Anderson County, 
S. C, July ll'th, 1818. He was a child of the covenant, and at 
an early age made a profession of his faith in Christ. He was 
received under the care of the Presbytery of South Carolina in 
October, 1841. His literary course was taken in the Lowndes- 
ville Academy, under Rev, W. H. Harris and James Giles, Esq. 
He entered the Columbia Seminary in October, 1842, and was 
graduated in 1845. He was licensed in the same 3^ear, and em- 
ployed by the Presbytery as a domestic missionary to supply the 
destitute portions of Newberry County. He married Miss Sarah 
Crosson in April, 1846. He visited and preached at Greenville 
C. H., in 1847. The Presbytery, in October of the same year, 
appointed a committee to visit Greenville, and if the way was 
clear, to organise a church there, which was accordingly done. 
Mr. Gaillard at once removed to Greenville C. H., and became 
the stated supply of the newly organised church, but virtually 
discharging the duties of pastor. ]}y his untiring efforts a neat 
house of worship was erected and reported to the Presbytery, the 
name being "Washington Street church. He was called and in- 
stalled pastor i)i September, ISfjl, and sustained this relation for 
seven years. It was dissolved in October, 1858. He still served 
as a stated supply till November, 18(;0. The war was upon us; 
he was an officer in one of the companies in the famous Hampton 
Legion. He next served as chaplain, till induced by feeble health 
to resign his position and return home. 

In November, 18(J(J, he removed to Florida, hoping that a 



STUDENTS. 275 

milder climate would restore his impaired health. He was soon 
called to serve as evangelist in Macon Presbytery, Ga. In 1867 
he removed to Cuthbert, and the next year to Griffin, still labor- 
ing as evangelist. He became a member of the Atlanta Presby- 
tery, and acted as a supply to some of the vacant churches as his 
strength would admit. The poor and the ignorant were edified by 
his plain and earnest instructions, and all classes were won by his 
courtesy, and impressed by his Christian life. His feeble health 
prevented much active work, but he di<l what he could. A wast- 
ing consumption eventually wore out his frail body, and at last 
nature gave way. He died January 2d, 1879. He was calm 
and resigned, and when the last struggle came he yielded up his 
spirit with the words which had been the inspiration of his life 
and labors: "0 my Saviour !" Jno. McLees. 



REV. JAMES FINLEY GIBERT 

Was born in Abbeville County, South Carolina, June 30th, 
1808. He died at his residence in the same County, Sabbath 
morning, June 24th, 1883. He graduated at the University of 
Georgia in 1834, and in the fall of the same year entered the 
Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, graduating in 1837. 

At Bethany church in Laurens County, on March 25th, 1837, 
he was licensed by the Pi-esbytery of South Carolina. On that 
occasion he preached from Philippians ii. 21. By the same Pres- 
bytery, November 24th, 1838, he was ordained and installed 
pastor of Lebanon church, in Abbeville County, for one-half his 
time. This pastoral relation continued until severed by death, a 
period of forty-four years and seven months. 

In 1882 he wrote: "I am still preaching at Lebanon, the 
church over which I was first ordained and installed pastor, No- 
vember 24th, 1838, a little more than forty years ago. The 
membership of the church is about the same in number that it 
was when I was ordained. The number has at times been near 



276 STUDENTS. 

one hundred, and come down by deaths and removals. I am not 
certain that we have more than one member now that we had 
when I was ordained. Ahiiost all the congregation are young 
persons; almost all the youth are communicants." 

At least two ministers of the gospel have gone forth from Leba- 
non church during his pastorate, viz. : Rev. Messrs. T. C. and 
R. C. Ligon. 

Besides his regular work at Lebanon, Mr. Gibert preached at 
Liberty in the Bordeaux settlement, from 1837 to 1842, one-fourth 
his time. He suj)plied Hopewell churcii one-half his time, from 
1847 to 1851, and Bethia church one-fourth his time, from 1851 
to 1875. He also supplied Lodimont church for one year and 
four months, and Willington church for one year. 

He moreover performed missionary Avork at the Poor House, 
giving one afternoon in each month from January, 1852, to De- 
cember, 1879, and for many years he preached in the afternoons 
at Warrenton. 

Mr. Gibert belonged to the old Huguenot stock. Driven from 
France by religious persecution, his ancestors, along with a colo- 
ny of their persecuted co-religionists, found eventually a home in 
Abbeville County, on the Savannah side ; where many of their 
descendants remain to this day, amongst the best families in the 
County. Dr. George Howe's "History of the Presbyterian 
Church in South Carolina," gives (on pages 344, etc., and 444, 
etc.. Vol. I.) a very interesting account of the Gibert family, and 
their connexion with the Huguenot colony which emigrated from 
France, and finally settled at New Bordeaux, in Abbeville Coun- 
ty in 1764. W. C. Moragne, Esq., who delivered an address at 
New Bordeaux, November 11, 1854, commemorative of the nine- 
tieth anniversary of the arrival of the French Protestants at that 
place, testifies concerning them and their descendants: "They 
have been distinguished by the simplicity and purity of their 
manners; by their sacred regard for the Sabl)ath; and by their 
almost invariable absence from tiie courts of justice. They were 
never known to figure in the court of Sessions. There is, I be- 
lieve, no instance on record of one of them ever having been ar- 



STUDENTS. 277 

raigned for crime." The writer of this memorial is informed that 
this people are still entitled to this high encomium. 

The Rev. Jean Luis Gibert, one of the "Pastors of the Desert," 
(Howe's History, pp. 846-357) justly celebrated for his learning, 
piety, eloquence, and intrepid bravery, was the great-grand-uncle 
of Rev. James F. Gibert. His grandfather was Pierre Gil)ert 
(Howe's History, pp. 444—446). His fother was Stephen Gibert. 
His mother was Miss Sarali Petigru, who was first cousin of Capt. 
Thomas Petigru of the United States Navy, and of Hon. James 
L. Petigru, of Charleston. These last two were the sons of Wil- 
liam Petigru; their mother was Louise, youngest daughter of 
Rev. Jean Luis Gibert. (Howe's History, 445.) 

In 1839 — October 1st — Mr. Gibert was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth A Baskin. Mr. Gibert left a widow, one son, five daugh- 
ters, and numerous grandchildren, to mourn his loss. 

On Thursday, March 22d, he took his bed, prostrated by what 
was to prove his last illness. He had preached his last sermon 
on Sunday, March 18, from the words, "0 taste and see that the 
Lord is good: blessed is the man that trusteth in him." Psalms 
xxxiv. 8, a fitting text with which to close a pastorate which had 
lasted for near half a century. 

As a Christian, Mr. Gibert was impressive by the quiet repose 
of his faith, the earnestness of his life, the sincerity of his pur- 
poses, the purity of his motives, and the steady tenacity of his 
efforts to do good. By his kind and genial manner, his frank 
and open disposition, at the same time modest and retiring, his 
timely attention to the poor and the stranger, his hospitality and 
his courtesy, he secured to himself the veneration and affection 
of the community in which he lived, and the church to which he 
ministered. 

His preaching was doctrinal, with a due admixture of practical 
application. His sermons were plain and simple, yet logical and 
argumentative. He has left behind him a congregation well in- 
structed in the doctrines of the Presbyterian Church, and remark- 
able for its general morality and law-abiding spirit. 

During his last illness his faith was simple. Just three days 



278 STUDENTS. 

before his death, to one Avho bade him " Good b^^e," expressing 
the hope that "the smiles of the Saviour's countenance would be 
with him to the last," he responded, with feeble voice: "It is a 
glorious light." His very last utterance — scarcely audible, made 
with great effort, in which he seemed to gather up his failing 
strength to give his dying testimony — was: "Christ! what a 
cflorious theme! I never realised before how much is in that 
single word." James L. Martin. 



REV. JOSEPH GIBERT. 



Rev. Joseph GiBEiiTdied on the 10th of August, 1883, at the 
residence of his son. Dr. Gibert, at Gallman, Miss. About a 
month jiroviously he was stricken Avith paralysis, while in the 
pulpit at the Madison Station church, and gradually sunk under 
the influence of the disease till his life gently ceased. 

Mr. Gibert was a native of South Carolina, and was graduated 
at Franklin College. He entered Columbia Seminary in 1841, 
and completed his theological course in 1844. He labored in 
Crawford County, Ga., at an early period of his ministry, for 
five years. For seven years he served the churches of Rock Hun 
and Providence, in Abbeville District, S. C. He removed to 
Mississippi in 18r)l), and took charge of the group of four churches 
in Covington County, within tlie liounds of Mississippi Presby- 
tery. Here he laboriMl stemliiy till a year ago, at which time he 
gave up his charge and removed to Gallman. At the time of his 
death he was laboring as supply of the church where his last luin- 
isterial work was done. 

Brother Gibert was possessed of a lovely character — meek, 
quiet, unobtrusive; a faithful preacher of the word; always, and 
often amid discouragement, prosecuting the work in the field which 
he felt that the Lord of the harvest had assigned him. 

His wife, to whi)m he was married in 1840, survives him. He 
leaves eight sons and (»ne <laughter, all of whom were present at 



STUDENTS. 279 

the burial service from the Presbyterian church in Brookhaven. 
In April, 1882, the cyclone which destroyed Monticello, swept 
away his house, and rendered his little farm worthless. And 
thus were his last days spent with his chiklren, whose tender 
affection and unceasing care blessed his closing hours. 

Brother Gibert was a worthy descendant of the Huguenot set- 
tlers of South Carolina. 



REV. JAMES RUET GILLAND. 

The subject of this sketch was of Scotch-Irish descent. Ilis 
father, being one of the leaders in County Donegal during the 
rebellion of 1798, fled to America and settling near Greencastle, 
Pa., was united in marriage to Jane McDowell. James Ruet, 
the eldest of seven children, was born April 30, 1810. 

His boyhood was passed on the farm, laboring in the summer 
and attending school in the winter. But his ardent mind sought 
after higher attainments, and by teaching school as he found op- 
portunity he obtained the means to prepare for Jefferson College, 
from whence he was graduated in 1836. For one year he served 
as tutor, but his health failing, he removed to South Carolina, 
teaching the high school at Statesburg until he entered the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Columbia, thence graduating in 1840. 

His first ministerial labors were performed at Lancasterville 
and Waxhaw, where he was ordained and installed by Bethel 
Presbytery. Soon after he married Miss Rebecca B. Hutchin- 
son, who died in 1843, leaving two children to his care. His 
next charge was at Fishing Creek and Cedar Shoals, whence he 
removed to Concord and Mt. Olivet, where he remained till 1853, 
when he accepted the chair of Languages in Davidson College. He 
had in the meantime married Miss M. Caroline Gibbes, of Ches- 
ter, S. C. His next field Avas in the neighborhood of Camden, 
whence he removed in 1858 to Indiantown. Here he labored till 
1867 when, feeling that his church had been so broken up by the 



280 STUDENTS. 

war as to be unable to support liini, he removed to the far West, 
laboring for ten years at various points in Arkansas, Missouri, 
and Mississippi, ulien, in compliance with the urgent request of 
his children, he returned in the fall of 1877 to Indiantown to 
spend the evening of his old age in the home of his daugliter, 
Mrs. McCutchen. But the Master designed for him the rest of 
heaven. And so, on the morning of December 16th, 1877, after 
conducting morning worship, he was called away, without sick- 
ness or pain, from the family circle on earth to the greater com- 
pany on high. His Sal)bath began here and suddenly expanded 
into the eternal Sabbath of the skies. H. G. Gilland. 



REV. FRANCIS R. GOULDING. 

Francis R. Goulding was born in Liberty County, Ga., 
September 28th, 1810. His ftither, the Rev. Dr. Thomas Goul- 
ding, was the first Professor of the Columbia Theological Semi- 
nary. While a youth, Francis became the subject of divine 
grace, and made profession of his faith at Lexington, Ga., in 
November, 1828. 

He was graduated from Franklin College, and, entering the 
first class in tlie Seminary at Columbia in 1831, was licensed by 
the Charleston Union Presbytery, at Walterboro, in 1883. His 
first charge was the Concord and Harmony churches, Sumter Dis- 
trict, S. C. For nine or ten years he labored at (Jrcensboro, 
Washington, Waynesboro, and Bath churches, in Georgia; 
during a part of which time he Avas Agent of the American Bible 
Society. He promoted religious work among the seamen in 
Charleston, S. C, as Agent of the Seamen's Friend Society, and 
then establishing a successful school for boys at Kingston, Ga., 
where he also gathered a church of twenty-six members, he be- 
came pastor at Darien, where he labored for six years with great 
acceptance and blessing until the community was scattered by 
the Federal forces, who burned every dwelling in the j)lace, and 



STUDENTS. 281 

all the churches except the Methodist, which was saved by acci- 
dent. Driven thus from Darien, he was made post chaplain to 
the Confederate forces at Macon, and labored faithfully among 
the soldiers, especially those in the hospitals. Here he remained 
till the war closed. His health was broken down, and his voice 
so disabled as to be unfit for preaching or teaching. But his 
gifted pen was not idle. Besides many articles contributed to 
newspapers, he was the author of four volumes — one of which, 
"The Young Marooners," translated into several European lan- 
guages, and Avidely read in this and in other lands, will perpetu- 
ate the name of Francis R. Gouldino; for generations to come. 

His last earthly home was at Roswell, in the beautiful hill 
country of upper Georgia. Here he suffered with wonderful pa- 
tience from repeated and severe attacks of asthma, which at times 
made his respiration to be a series of painful gasps, until his mer- 
ciful Lord relieved him for ever on Monday night, August 22d, 
1881. His love for Christ, for his gospel, for souls, was apparent 
to all who knew him. And his end was "peace — the peace of 
God which passeth all understanding." 

"It was my privilege," writes his friend, Rev. Dr. John Jones, 
"during the last twenty-six months of his life, to have many in- 
terviews with Brother Goulding. He was eminently a man of 
prayer, and communing with death and heaven. ... In his 
death we have lost a man of genius, of rare attainments, of varied 
information, of world-wide reputation. His active mind ranged 
over a vast field with intelligence and marked originality. As a 
writer for the young, he stood in the fore-front of the best 
authors of the age. But his labors are ended, and his bodily 
sufferings, endured so patiently, have been exchanged for that 
rest which remains for the people of God." 

\_Extraet from Memoir hy Rev. Dr. Buttoljjh, 



282 STUDENTS. 



REV. WILLIAM ALLEN GRAY 

Was born in Abbeville District, S. C, June 8th, 1807, and 
died at Ripley, Miss., in October, 1881. He had a pious parent- 
age, who early taught him the Catechism and his obligations to 
God's service. They were members of Dr. Barrs congregation, 
and William in early manhood united with the Church of his 
fathers, and soon had his mind turned to the sul)ject of the min- 
istry. His pious praying mother encouraged him in this, and 
very soon he was received under the care of South Carolina Pres- 
bytery as a candidate. He entered at once upon preparation 
work. That Presbytery having several young men under their 
care at that time, and Bethel Presbytery none, or but few, at the 
suggestion of Rev. D. L. Gray and Rev. J. H. Gray, D. D., his 
cousins, he was transferred to Bethel, and he was placed at Hope- 
well Academy, under the charge of that successful educator. Rev. 
A. Williams, York District, S. C. He was boarding with 
an elder of Salem church, Union District, Robert Lusk, Es(|., 
who bequeathed so much of his fine estate to benevolent purposes. 

After completing a thorough academical course with Mr. Wil- 
liams, he entered the Seminary in Columbia in the beginning of 
1833, and took the full course of three years, finishing in the 
summer of 1835. Ha ving; our attention directed to the destitu- 
tions of the West, Bro. Gray and the writer, in the following 
year, 1836, came to the West. After surveying the field thor- 
oughly, laboring as a domestic missionary in Arkansas and Mis- 
sissippi, Mr. Gray located finally at Ripley, Mississippi, where 
he remained the rest of his life — al)out forty years. 

Brother Gray was but a medium sj)eaker; never elo(|uent, but 
persuasive. He was commanding in j)erson, large and active in 
movement, but remarkably diffident. This trait perha])s dimin- 
ished his usefulness. His congregation paid him but a meagre 
salary; but he had by iidieritance a handsome estate, and so was 
in great part supported by his farm. He wjvs greatly endeared 
to his peoj)le, and so the relation continued as long as his life 
lasted. 



STUDENTS. 283 

• Brother Gray was married first to Mrs. McNeill, the widow of 
Henry D. McNeill, of South Carolina, with whom he lived in 
happiest companionship for many years. She died in 1867, and in 
1868 he was a^ain married to Miss Catharine C. Rosran, the daucrh- 
ter of one of the elders of Ripley church, by whom he had a 
daucrhter. His second wife died in 1877, and in 1880 he married 
the third time, a Miss Mary S. Johnston, who survives, by 
whom he had no children. 

Wm. A. Gray was mostly an ex tempore preacher. He was 
scrupulously exact in all relative, social, and pastoral duties. 
For nearly forty years he was the faithful Stated Clerk of his 
Presbytery (Chickasaw). During the war he Avent out to Vir- 
ginia with a Mississippi regiment as chaplain, and contracted 
sciatica from exposure, which made him lame for life. 

A. R. Bank.s. 



MR. MATTHEW GREENE 

Was born in Ireland, and was graduated at Queen's College, 
in Belfast. He entered the Seminary in 1851, and completed 
his course of theological studies in 1854. He returned to his 
native land, and died there. 



GEORGE COOPER GREGG, 

Sox of William and Isabella (McDowell), grandson of John, 
and great-grandson of John Gregg, was born in Marion District, 
S. C, 19th February, 1814. 

In early life he confessed Christ; prepared for College at the 
Donaldson Academy, Fayetteville, N. C. ; graduated from the 
South Carolina College in 1838, and at the Theological Seminary 



284 STUDENTS. 

in Columbia, in 1841, and was licensed in the spring, and on the 
6th of November, 1841, was ordained and installed pastor of 
Salem (B. R.) church, succeeding the Rev. Robert Wilson James, 
who died the l-3th of April, preceding. 

Married Jane Harris ; had two children — Cornelia and Louise; 
died at his home in Salem, the 28th of May, 1861. 

His most intimate College friend, chum, and relative,* whom he 
always mentioned with pride and pleasure, gives testimony to 
his "solid excellence and intrinsic worth ; he was, in the highest 
sense, an honest, true, and devoted Christian man. He main- 
tained his Christian 'integrity in an eminent degree during this 
ordinarily trying period. His mind was well balanced ; he wrote 
well, graduated with distinction deservedly high, and was uni- 
versally respected Jn College, even by those not religious. In 
manner he was dignified, yet quite affable. His domestic life 
must have been happy, for he was affectionate and intensely do- 
mestic. I felt, when he died, that one of the best and dearest 
friends of my youth was gone." 

A class-matef says : "Brother Gregg was the most universally, 
the most deservedly, popular man in the Seminary, while a stu- 
dent — due to the confidence reposed in the solidity of his charac- 
ter, the soundness of his judgment, the evenness of his disposi- 
tion, and a kind and gentle humor which was always bubbling up 
and pervaded his conversation. His mind was of a high order and 
well cultivated. In all departments of theology and philosoj)hy 
his o])inions were more completely formed than Avith most men. 
I am well assured that, beyond any of his class-mates, Gregg was 
abreast of the ascertained learning of the age in these given 
branches. His moral sense was acute and unerring ; his piety 
was of that calm and reflective kind so perfectly in harmony with 
the man, it was complete and thorough." 

Of him as a preaclier and a presbyter, an eminently qualified 
judge| says : "His preaching was solid and instructive, sound in 
doctrine, clear in statement, strong in argument, and close and 
unand)iguous in application. As a presbyter among presbyters, 
his knowledge of the principles of our Church polity, his ac- 

* Up. Greg^. t l-''"' i'aluicr. X I'r. Howe' 



STUDENTS. 285 

q.uaintance with the forms of business, and his instructive percep- 
tion of what each case required, gave him a deserved preemi- 
nence." 

His College friend and relative was not mistaken as to his 
home life. One most competent to witness, says : "As a hus- 
band and father, he was matchless. God had endowed him with a 
cheerful, contented disposition. There was no sacrifice consistent 
with reason which he would not make for our comfort and hap- 
piness ; he was thoughtful of his family to the very last, and 
often fixed on me a look of undying affection, when he could no 
longer articulate a word; his last hours were calm and peaceful." 
Twenty years have passed aAvay, and the minister who now fills 
his pulpit gives the impressions received from his appreciative 
people : "He seemed to have held the entire confidence and cor- 
dial esteem of his charge throughout his long pastorate (nineteen 
years). Those who sat under his ministry characterise his 
preaching as highly didactic and edifying, and his pastoral work 
as earnest and efficient."* N. McKay. 



REV. ROBERT W. HADDEN 

Was a native of South Carolina, and a son of Rev. Isaac Had- 
den, so long an honored member of the Synod of Alabama. 
Robert entered Columbia Seminary in 1845 and completed his 
theological course in 1848; was licensed by the Presbytery of 
Tuskaloosa October 10, 1848, and ordained November 16, 1850. 
He died January 5, 1852, in the twenty-eighth year of his age. 

His work was soon done. His labors were characterised with 
great ardor, and were successful to an unusual degree. His short 
trial in the ministerial and pastoral office gave promise of much 
usefulness. In his last illness and hours he gave precious testi- 
mony to the value of the gospel. He died in great peace of mind 
and in the full hope of everlasting joys above. He left a spotless 
reputation. 

*Rev. W. J. McK^i^^ 



286 STUDENTS. 

A vivid reminisceyice. — It was the writer's privilege to be pres- 
ent at the time of young IIa(hlen's conversion. His father was 
pastor of Livingston and Betiiel flmrches. He had rei^uested me 
to assist liim in a protracted meeting in Bethel churcli. The 
meeting had been in progress a (hiy or two before my arrival. 
In our conversation his father remarked: "I iiave never known 
Robert so thoughtless ; nothing seems to move him. I am dis- 
tressed." I deeply sympathised with him. When I entered the 
church the first time, there were unmistakable evidences of the 
presence of the Holy Spirit. A week-day's service at 11 o'clock. 
Large attendance. Silence reigned. Before I reached the pulpit 
I was weeping. The tears would come — called by no human voice. 
The Master was present. The sermon was preached and the con- 
gregation deeply impressed. The claims of the Saviour pressed 
on the consciences of sinners. In offering the closing prayer, 
special reference was made to the pastor's son. The prayer was 
ended — answered. To my sur{)rise, Robert is kneeling at liis 
father's feet in the pulpit, having taken that position unnoticed 
by me, during the prayer. Next, his mother is bowing with him. 
Such a scene of parental and filial tenderness is seldom seen. 
And what a baptism of the Holy Spirit rested on the congrega- 
tion. Then and there, I have reason to know, the son returned 
to his father on earth and was blessed by his Father in heaven. 
Precious scene. I never can forget it. Tiie recital warms my 
heart to-day. A few yet live to call it to mind. "A well of 
water springing up into everlasting life." R. Nall. 



REV. HENRY IIARDIE 



Was a graduate of the University of North Carolina, and was 
a candidate under the care of Orange Presbytery. He entered 
Columbia Seminary as a Senior, in 1852, and completed his 
course of study in 1853. He was licensed by Orange Presby- 
tery, July 2d, 1858, and by them transferred as a licentiate to 
Winchester Presbytery, in October, 1857. 



STUDENTS. 287 



REY. JOHN STITT HARRIS 

Was born August 1st, 1832, in Providence congregation, 
Mecklenburg County, N. C. His mother died when he was but 
a chiUl. His father, Mr. Hugh Harris, married again, having 
several children by the second wife. John was accordingly 
reared bv his maternal uncle, Col. John Stitt, a o-entleman of hiofh 
moral character and social position. His academic studies were 
prosecuted at the school of Mr. E. C. Kuykendal, of Six-Mile 
Creek, S. C. He entei-ed the Sophomore Class at Davidson Col- 
lege in 1849, and graduated in 1852 with the highest honors of 
his Class. The year following he entered the Theological Semi- 
nary at Columbia, S. C, where he continued four years, to sit as 
long as possible at the feet of our great Gamaliel, James Henley 
Thornwell. In the third year of his course he was licensed to 
preach by Concord Presbytery. In 1856 he accepted an invita- 
tion to supply the churches of Bethesda and Zion, Bethel Pres- 
bytery. So acceptable were his services that a call was made out 
for his pastoral labors. On the 16th of April, 1857, he was 
ordained and installed pastor of the same. About a Aveek later 
he was married to Miss Agnes Bratton, daughter of Dr. John S. 
Bratton. 

The pastoral relation continued with almost unparalleled suc- 
cess, acceptability, and efficiency until the 16th of November, 
1864, when it was dissolved by death. 

Few men have gone down to their graves more honored, be- 
loved, and blessed in the affections of their people ; and few have 
left behind them better evidences of a successful life and work. 
Certain it is, that no minister who has labored in the pastorate or 
pulpit of Bethesda has stamped himself and his own great quali- 
ties of soul so vividly and ineffaceably upon her people. He was 
a man of far more than ordinary parts. Weak and delicate 
physically, and predisposed to consumption (of which, eventually, 
he died), he was mentally of great vigor. His mind shone but 
the brighter by reason of this striking contrast. His resources 
astonished those who knew him best ; for no contingency arose 



288 STUDEiTTS. 

in liis ministerial life to whicli he was not equal. His energy 
was unbounded. Difficulties that would have staggered many, 
disappeared before him as by the touch of a magician's wand. He 
knew no such thing as failure. Everything he did was done 
methodically. His entire pastorate was but one thoroughly ma- 
tured system from beginning to end. He distributed the families 
of the congregation into "wards" or "divisions," assigning a 
ward to each ruling elder, and the elder was required to visit each 
family in his division at least once a year. To aid in this visita- 
tion, a directory of (juestions, etc., was prepared and placed in the 
elder's hand-book, as it were, answers to which were to be recorded 
there, and reported to the Session. In this manner he kept 
posted as to the exact spiritual condition of his people. Mondays 
were devoted to pastoral visitation ; and his visits were strictly 
pastoral. Mounting his spirited horse, he would gallop off to 
meet his appointments made the day previous. As a presbyter, 
he had no superior in the Presbytery. He was always at its 
meetings while able to be going. An advocate of law and 
order, a strict constructionist of the Constitution, he was a thor- 
ough-going disciplinarian. Ho believed in obedience to consti- 
tuted authority, and therefore both taught and enforced it. He 
would grapple with any evil that threatened the peace or purity 
of the Church. In consequence, his name was a tower of strength 
in all this section of country. As a preacher, he was argumen- 
tative and earnest, combining the doctrinal and practical in all his 
sermons. His system entered into his preaching ; he preached 
the whole truth, regardless of frowns or favors. To him, more 
than to any other human instrumentality, is Bethesda church in- 
debted for its acknowledged Calvinism. He it was who stamped 
both Calvinism and Presbyterianisin upon it. 

As a Christian, he was exemplary to a degree. The writer 
was told by an eminent lawyer that he was more impressed by 
the holiness of Mr. Harris than by any of his sterling (pialities. 
lie was a believer in Jesus. In all the relations of life this char- 
acteristic appeared. He was faithful to Christ and to Christ's 
kingdom. When no longer able to preach, he was carried to the 
church, to join with his people in the public worship of God, 



STUDENTS. 289 

giving the force of his great example to the value of this exercise. 
His death was a shock to the whole communit*', Avho felt that his 
loss was simply irreparable. His body sleeps in the cemetery of 
Bethesda, in hope of a joyful resurrection. Bethesda was his 
only charge, and he is the only one of Bethesda's pastors whose 
dust is mingled with her own. J. L. Wilson. 



REV. HOMER HENDEE 



Was born in Aldin, Western New York, March 7th, 1817, 
a son of godly parents, and many prayers. At the age of four- 
teen he went to Charleston, S. C, to an uncle who was in business 
in that city. Was converted at the age of sixteen, and from the 
first his heart was set upon preaching the gospel. After many 
hindrances from delicate health and other causes, this desire was 
accomplished. He graduated at Oglethorpe University in 1843, 
took his theological course at Columbia Theological Seminary, 
S. C, and in 1845 began his pastoral life in Louisville, Ga. 
From thence he went to Madison, Ga. 

In 1847 he married the only daughter of Col. T. P. King, of 
Greensboro, Ga., at which place he served a number of years both 
as pastor and Superintendent of the Synodical Female College. 
Perhaps one of the most delightful and profitable fields in which 
he was permitted to labor was at Quincy, Florida, where his name 
and work are still kept in sacred and affectionate remembrance; 
as also at Cuthbert, Ga., and in several other churches where his 
faithful labors bore precious fruit. Like Daniel of old, he was 
one who was in all places "greatly beloved," both for the unusual 
graces of person and manner, and loveliness of spirit. In 1871 
he removed to Louisville, Ky., where he successfully labored un- 
til his removal in 1874 to St. Louis, where, and in neighboring 
churches, were spent the last few months of his beloved work for 
Christ. Stricken down suddenly by invincible disease, he bore 
the exceeding bitter cross of suffering and helplessness for nearly 
19 



290 STUDENTS. 

isix long years ere his blessed release came; illustrating through 
it all such sweetness and loveliness of spirit, such graces of faith 
and patience, as the Lord vouchsafes to his ''tried" ones, that 
thev may glorify him thereby. 

He gently passed to receive his "crown" on February 7th, 
1881, at St. Louis. He was laid to rest at Louisville, Ky., by 
the side of a beloved son, on February 10th, 18S1. 

R. G. BllANK. 



MR. THOMAS HOBBY 



Entered the Seminary in 1834, and completed his theological 
studies in 1836. 



WILLIAM INGE HOGAN 

Was born in the city of Tuskaloosa, Alabama, March 17th, 
1835, and was baptized in the Presbyterian church in that place. 
He was reared by a pious mother, and became a communicant in 
January, 1857. 

In September, 1858, he was received under the care of the 
Presbytery of Tuskaloosa as a candidate for the ministry. He 
graduated at the University of Alabama the following year; and 
in the fall of 1859 entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia, 
S. C. He attempted to shorten his period of preparation, ])y 
pursuing in two years the studies allotted to three. He ap{)lied 
himself intensely and overtaxed his strength. That, with a great 
sorrow and disappointment which came upon him in the latter 
part of the winter of 1861, resulted in the overthrow of his rea- 
son. He became an inmate of the Lunatic Asylum at Nashville, 
Term., and remained there in total mental darkness for three 



STUDENTS. 291 

years. He died January 27th, 18G4, entering into the light and 
glory of heaven. 

He was a young man of remarkable intellect, with a t;iste for 
the most profound questions of philosopiiy and theology, and Avith 
unusual ability to grapple with them. He was eminently modest, 
gentle, and amiable; a lovely character. He was inclined by 
temperament to melancholy ; was extremely, even morbidly, sen- 
sitive, and his friends sometimes thought he was morbidly con- 
scientious. He had many qualities of mind and heart that justi- 
fied the hope that he would be a consecrated, laborious, patient, 
and useful minister of Christ. His now unclouded intellect and 
perfectly sanctified heart are joyfully employed in higher services 
than he ever could have performed here. C. A. Stillman. 



REV. RICHARD HOOKER. 

Richard Hooker was born at Springfield, Massachusetts, 
April 10th, 1808, of lineage honorable in Church and State. He 
was seventh in direct descent from that Thomas Hooker who, 
compelled to flee from England to Holland in 1630, for non-con- 
formity, came over to New England in 1633, and in 1636 became 
one of the founders of "Connecticut Colony" and "the town of 
Hartford." Of this latter he became the first pastor, and "being 
dead, yet speak eth" by his writings and memory. The father of 
Richard was the Hon. John Hooker, Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas in the Western District of Massachusetts, who, in 
1810, became one of the founders of the American Board of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions, and to the close of his life con- 
tinued one of its ablest and most efficient members. 

At the age of fifteen, Richard entered Yale College, Avas con- 
verted and joined the College church in 1826, proposing to become 
a missionary to the heathen, and was graduated with high honors 
in 1827. Impaired health now forced a residence of several years 
at the South before commencing his studies in theology, after 



292 STUDENTS. 

which he entered the Seminary at Princeton. From this he soon 
went to that at Columbia, joining the class of 1835, and com- 
pleting his course in 1838. 

Debarred by an enfeebled constitution from a foreign and the 
Northern field, he remained at the South, and entered on the 
Master's work in Georgia. Preaching for three years to Mt. 
Zion church, Hancock County, and for two to that of Monticello, 
he began to supply the church of Macon in January, 1843 ; was 
called to the pastorate in July, and installed in November of the 
same year. Here he labored with great acceptance and success for 
over nine years, the accessions to the church being one hundred 
and eighteen whites and sixty-eight blacks ; of the former of 
whom about twenty still remain. 

In 1846 he married Miss Aurelia Dwight, a granddaughter of 
President Dwight, of Yale College, who survived him several 
years. Their only child, Thomas, was about eight years old at 
the time of his fjither's death, and is still livinfj. 

Constrained by failing health, Mr. Hooker resigned his pastor- 
ate in May, 1852, and fixed his residence at New Haven, Conn., 
laboring, as strength permitted, in the churches of neighboring 
towns until his death, which took place December lUth, 1857. 

Mr. Hooper was a man of superior mental powers ; and by 
diligent use of more than ordinary advantages, these became dis- 
ciplined and furnished to a high degree. Genuine modesty and 
humility repressed any ostentation of ability and learning ; but 
he was richly furnished with both ; and doubtless, but for ill 
health, would have attained far higher j)r(>niinence than fell to his 
lot as a preacher. His piety was spiritual and fervent, and his 
personal holiness rendered the more effective those laboi-s in which 
he abounded to the extent of his bodily strength. His memory 
is most affectionately cherished in Macon, and "good and faith- 
ful,"' the highest encomium when just, is that passed upon him 
there, and doubtless also by that Lord whose grace made him in 
life a servant "called and chosen and faithful. " 

A. W. Clisby. 



STUDENTS. 293 



REV. FRANKLIN MERRIAM HOWELL. 

''Frank" was the son of B. P. and N. K. Howell, born in 
Memphis, Tenn., June 24th, 1849. Consecrated to God in bap- 
tism, he was carefully trained; and God was pleased to own the 
covenant by hopefully converting the boy in early life. In his 
fifteenth year he was received into the church at Oxford, Miss., 
where the family then resided. He was graduated with honor 
from the State University on his twentieth birth-day. Having 
placed himself under the care of Chickasaw Presbytery, he en- 
tered the Columbia Seminary in 1869; was licensed in 1871; 
was graduated from the Seminary in 1872. His first charge was 
Princeton, Pleasant Grove, and Tulip churches in the Ouachita 
Presbytery, over Avhich he was installed pastor in due time. In 
1876 he was transferred to Arkadelphia. His arduous labors 
were sweetened by love to his adored Lord. 

In January, 1878, he removed to Somerville, Tenn., where a 
wide and effectual door seemed to be opened before him. But, alas 
for us, we are short-sighted; he was called to illustrate Christian 
consecration by an heroic death. The Presbytery of Memphis 
thus testified of him: "Entering with his usual zeal upon his 
work in that field of peculiar difficulties, he was rapidly gaining 
the affections of his people. Under his ministry the church seemed 
united. The congregations were good. The prayer-meetings 
were increasing in numbers and interest. The minister was 
hopeful, and the Presbytery viewed Avith great satisfaction the 
good work going on in this part of her field." But these hopes 
were soon to end sadly to all saving the chief actor. In Septem- 
ber the dreaded fever was introduced into the village by refugees 
from Memphis. His family being absent, he gave up his home 
to the refugees, and, with a band of noble young men, devoted 
himself day and night to caring for the sick. Realising fully the 
peril of his position, he wrote letters inscribed, "Last words to 
wife;" "Last words to mother;" which were to be delivered in 
the event of his death. To his mother he said: "I bless my God 
that, standing as it were face to face with the grim monster, I 



294 STUDENTS. 

can triunij)liaiitly exclaim, '(.) death, where is thy sting? 
grave, where is thy victory ?' I thank God for giving me »iich 
a mother. I have no fear of death. Jesus has robbed it of all 
its terrors. Indeed, it seems to me that it will be »ioeet to die. 
But I wish to live that I may serve God and comfort you all." 
Ten davs more of toil, engafjcd, as he said, in sinoothin'j dying 
pillows and comforting aching hearts, and then he, too, was pros- 
trated by the pestilence ; three days more and the crown was won. 
Among his last words were : "I shall drink of the fountain of 
the water of life freely;" "For me to die is gain." Thus ended 
a noble life Jiere, to be for ever rekindled above. He passed away 
from us in his twenty-ninth year. His usefulness was only be- 
gun. He was a close student, a careful and accurate writer. As 
a preacher, earnest and effective; always holding his audience, 
he often stirred their deepest feelings and moved them to tears. 
As a pastor, warm-hearted and generous, he was beloved as he 
loved. — From Sketch by Rec. R. B. Morroiv. 



REV. WILLIAM L. HUGHES 

Was born in Charleston, S. C. ; entered the Seminary in 
1844 ; and died in his native city in October, 1853. He entered 
upon the work of the ministry later in life than is usual, and after 
he had become the head and father of a household. He enjoyed but 
partially tiie advantages of a college education, and the best years 
of his early manhood were spent in the entire employments of 
the mercantile pi'ofession. But so a.ssiduously did he prosecute 
his studies in the Theological School at Columbia, and so labori- 
ous were his preparations for the pulpit, that those early disad- 
vantages were largely repaired. 

He was a sincere and patient student, while a natural and 
lively fancy enabled him to speak and write with a facility always 
attractive to his hearers. 

He was a man of uncommon resolution, and more independent 



STUDENTS. 295 

and conscientious in proving his opinions, he was uncompromising 
in sustaining them. Elastic in spirit, and free from all morbid 
tendencies of mind, the eminent consistency of both his character 
and life made him every way reliable. His piety sincere and 
correct, clear in his own religious experience, and assured of his 
call to the gospel ministry, he pressed through great difficulties in 
entering upon it, and pursued his covenanted work through sea- 
sons of embarrassment and trial Avhich would have staggered a 
man of feebler purpose or less devoted zeal. 

In the year 1845 he assumed the pastoral care of the church 
in Beech Island, where his labors were successfully prosecuted for 
several years. In the autumn of 1850 he was induced to resign 
his charge and take the oversight of a missionary church in the 
city of Augusta, Ga. Here the wants of a large and increasing 
family compelled him to open a female school, the labors of 
which, added to his ministerial duties, which were still unremit- 
tingly fulfilled, did much to enfeeble a constitution naturally 
hardy, and made him a more easy prey to the malignant disease 
which speedily assailed him. He was seized with the most acute 
type of rheumatism, which, pervading his whole frame, stretched 
him upon the rack of unceasing torture ; and after exhausting all 
the skill and attention of medical advisers, terminated in dropsy, 
which ended his days. He died in joy, triumphing over his last 
enemy, even when falling beneath his shaft. With the foretaste 
of heaven in his soul, on a peachful Sabbath morning, he entered 
the Sabbath of perfect rest in the temple on high. 

B. M. Palmer. 



REV. JOHN C. HUMPHRY 

John C. Humphry was born in Darien, Genesee County, 
N. Y., July 3d, 1829, and died of consumption in Mavilla, N. Y., 
September 14th, 1859, in his thirty-first year. He lies interred 
in his native place. 

He was the youngest of nine children of William and Susan 



206 STUDENTS. 

("Woodward) Humphry. Both his parents and all his brothers 
and sisters, except one brother and one sister — Mrs. J. N. Dan- 
forth, missionary to China — preceded liim to the spirit land. 
Consuniption was hereditary in the family. 

Tlie parents of John C. Humphry being members of the Old 
School Presbyterian Church, were diligent during life in bring- 
ing up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. 
The father, however, died when John was only eight years old, 
and the mother when he was a child of only thirteen years. The 
seeils of their pious training, however, remained with him, and in 
early manhood he became a devoted follower of Christ. His pre- 
paration for entering College wjis made at Genesee and Wyoming 
Seminary at Alexander, eight miles from his birth-place. Before 
entering College he visited Georgia in search of health, teach- 
ing a private school, and at the same time prosecuted his own 
studies during two winters. In the summer of 1850 he entered 
the Senior class of Genesee College at Lima, N. Y., but before 
the close of the term was compelled to leave and seek a milder 
climate. He returned to Bellevue, Ga., and for the next two 
years again had charge of a private school. In the meantime he 
became a communicant in the church of Ephesus, near Bellevue, 
of which church Rev. Francis McMurry was then pastor. Dur- 
ing the two subsefjuent years he taught a school in Griffin, Ga. 

In the autumn of 1854 he entered upon his theological studies in 
the Seminary at Columbia, S. C. September 10th, 185(3, he was 
licensed to preach the gospel by Flint River Presbytery, Having 
completed the entire curriculum of study, he was recommendeil 
by the Faculty of the Seminary to the First Presbyterian church 
in Augusta, Ga., and supplied it during the winter very accept- 
ably. He made many warm friends there, who mourned his early 
death. Having been transferred to the care of Hopewell Pres- 
bytery, lie was by that body called to the evangelistic work and 
ordained at Augusta, Ga., May 2d, 1858. 

September 30th, 1857, he married Miss Louisa S. Jackman, of 
Elma, Erie County, N. Y. 

After his ordination, during the summer and early autumn of 
1858, he travelled, accomj)anie(l by his young wife, and preached 



STUDENTS. 297 

in nearly all the churches of Hopewell Presbytery, which then em- 
braced the territory now included in the two Presbyteries of Athens 
and Augusta. He was in very feeble health at that time, and when 
not on the road, usually went from his bed into the pulpit, and 
then back from the pulpit to his bed. Early in September, 1858, 
he spent a week with the writer laboring in Hebron church. 
When he arose in the pulpit, pale, emaciated, and almost haggard 
in appearance, with the hectic spots upon his thin cheeks, he 
seemed scarcely able to stand ; but as he became warmed up with 
his absorbing theme, his feeble frame appeared to dilate, his hag- 
gard face glowed, and the whole man became intensely animated 
with life and power. All his sermons Avere forcible exhibitions 
of gospel truth, and fxithful and pungent appeals to the judg- 
ments and consciences of his hearers, and many of them con- 
tained passages of the sublimest eloquence. 

Toward the close of the year 1858 he became too feeble to 
preach, and his labors on earth ceased for ever. He spent the 
following winter in Augusta, Ga., in a state of great bodily ex- 
haustion. In March, 1859, he returned to New York, and, with 
his wife, spent the following summer with his wife's relatives in 
Mavilla, Erie County, in that State. After lingering in much 
pain and weakness, he peacefully passed into his everlasting rest, 
September 14th, 1859. 

Rev. John C. Humphry was about the medium height, very 
slender, with blue eyes, light brown hair, fair complexion, and 
pleasing address. He was a man of great amiability and excel- 
lent social qualities. But his earnest active piety and his de- 
voted zeal in his ministry were the crowning glories of his char- 
acter. His race was short, his work was soon done, but it was 
well done, and now he rests. Groves H. CARXLEcaE. 



298 STUDENTS. 



WILLIAM MERIWETHER INGRAM 

Was born of pious parents, at Denmark, Madison County, 
Tenn., November 23il, 1842. When thirteen years of age, he 
made a public jirofession of faith in Christ. He died September 
29, 1.S75, in the tliirty-third year of his age and the fifth of his 
ministry. 

He entered LaGrange College, but his education was arrested 
in the Senior year by the call to arms. Passing unscathed through 
the dangers and temptations of army life, he entered upon secu- 
lar employments. On October 24, 1867, he was married to Miss 
Alice M. Stainback, of Fayette County, Tenn., who, Avith two 
sons and a daughter, survives to mourn his early death. 

In the summer of 18G8, he yielded to what he l)elieved to be 
the Master's call to preach the gospel, and was taken under the 
care of the Presbytery of Western District, at an adjourned 
meeting, held at Oxford, Miss., October 2o, 1868. He attended 
the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, during two ses- 
sions, viz., 1868-9, and 1869-70. He was licensed as a proba- 
tioner of the gospel ministry, at Brownsvillu, Tenn., June 15, 
1870. By the Presbytery of Memphis, at Stanton, Tenn., he 
was ordained and installed ])astor of that churcii, January 22, 
1871. 

One who knew him from his cradle to his grave testifies : "lie 
hadall the amiability, softness, and sweetness of a woman in his 
manners, and yet all the elements of a man in his courage, firm- 
ness, and decision, when duty and principle were involved. He 
was a faithful pastor, a laborious student, and one of the most 
growing young ministers in West Tennessee." 

The Session of Stanton church, in a brief tribute to his mem- 
ory, express their appreciation of their beloved pastor, in lan- 
guage such as the following: "Asa man, he was preeminently 
lovely. As a minister, he was able and growing ; his style was 
captivating, his theme the great cardinal and practical truth of 
the gospel, 'Christ and him crucified.' As a pastor, few men 
e-xerted a jfreater influence over his flock." 



STUDENTS. 299 

.Brother Ingram possessed the scriptural qualifications of a 
bishop, for he "was "blameless as the steward of God ; not self- 
willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given 
to filthy lucre, but a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, 
sober, just, holy, temperate, holding fast the faithful word." 

Jas. L. Martin. 



THOMAS CHALMERS JOHNSON. 

Thomas Chalmers Johnson, son of the Rev. Angus and 
Mary A. S. Johnson, was born near Charleston, Miss., June 21, 
1849, and died, after a brief ministry, in the twenty-ninth year 
of his age, at Concord, N. C, September 1st, 1877. 

The name given him testifies to the hopes indulged by his 
parents as to what was to be the work of his life. These hopes, 
however, were not strengthened by his early life. It was a time- 
ly rebuke from a private Christian that brought him to the Sa- 
viour and opened the way into the gospel ministry. 

He was graduated from the University of Mississippi in 1869, 
entered the Columbia Seminary, and after two years of study 
there was licensed to preach. Upon the completion of his Semi- 
nary course he undertook work in New Orleans, but soon after 
his marriage (December, 1872) to Miss Means, of Concord, N. C, 
he accepted work in the bounds of Wilmington Presbytery, and 
was ordained in 1873. In 1875 he was called again to North 
Mississippi, finding there a missionary field which engaged the 
affections of his whole heart, and repaid him with a like devotion. 

While in the Seminary our brother underwent a season of 
great' spiritual darkness and temptation, but when the Lord gave 
him deliverance, he became firmly settled on the great founda- 
tion and was consecrated afresh, as it Avere, to his work. His 
growth in grace, in humility, and in the knowledge of God's 
word, deeply impressed an experienced brother who was intimate- 
ly associated with him at the last. The fact was so apparent that 



300 STUDENTS. 

the conclusion was that the Master was preparing his servant for 
a greater mission in this world. He was one of the most promis- 
ing and devoted among the younger ministers. The sequel, how- 
ever, taught these affectionate observers what the Lord's purpose 
really was. A severe cold resulted in pneumonia, followed by 
repeated hemorrhages from the lungs. Hoping to be benefited 
by a change he went with his family to Concord, N. C, but the 
disease Avas too deeply seated to admit of remedy, and he speedily 
entered into his rest, mourne<l not only by his widowed wife and 
aged parents, but by his devoted people. — Extract from a Memo- 
rial by Rev. Dr. Craig. 



ROBERT CRAWFORD JOHNSTON. 

Robert Craavford, son of Samuel and Elizabeth Johnston, 
was born January 6th, 1832. His parents were both natives of 
Ireland, his father emigrating to this country in early youth, soon 
after the Revolutionary War, and Andrew Crawford, the maternal 
grandfather, having about the same time removed to the United 
States, because of political troubles growing out of the Irish Re- 
bellion. 

This Scotch-Irish lineage secured to Robert faithful instruction 
in the Presbyterian faith. Prepared at the Mt. Zion Academy, 
"VVinnsboro, he entered the South Carolina College in 1847, and 
afterwards studied for two years in the University of Virginia, 
whence he was recalled, before graduation, by the death of his 
father and his own failing health. He had chosen laAV as his 
profession; but being brought by the mercy of God to a saving 
knowledge of his Redeemer, he felt it to be his duty to dedicate 
his life to the holy ministry. He entered the Seminary at Co- 
lumbia in 18.'>8, but his health was giving away. Returning to 
the Seminary after spending his vacatiim in Europe, he was 
soon forced to abandon his studies, and died of consumption, De- 
cember 2!»tli, 1859. 



STUDENTS. 301 

.Ml'- Johnston was a man of fine natural abilities, Avliich had 
been improved by study, reading, and travel. Modest and 
reserved, there were few that knew his real worth. Refined and 
gentle as a woman, none was braver or firmer in his convictions. 
He was preeminently just and truthful. His humble and unaftccted 
piety adorned his natural graces. "Blessed are the pure in heart, 
for they shall see God." M. C. A. 



REV. R. C. KETCHUM. 



The Rev. R. C. Ketchum was born in Augusta, Ga., in 1813, 
and died in the sixty-third year of his age. Having graduated 
in the University of Georgia in 1833, he entered the Theological 
Seminary in Columbia, S. C, in the same year, and finished his 
course there in 1836. His ministerial life was spent in Newberry 
and Hamburg, S. C, and at Clarksville and Rock Springs, near 
Atlanta, Ga. His naturally good mind had received careful and 
continued culture till he had attained an accuracy of scholarship 
that but few reach. Added to his fondness for and proficiency in 
the natural sciences, he had so mastered the Greek language as to 
read it with almost the familiarity of his native tongue. 

But excellent as were his intellectual attainments, they were 
excelled by the goodness of his heart. Indeed, his chief great- 
ness was his goodness. Perhaps the most marked and admirable 
trait of his character was his unaffected humility, that gave a 
childlike simplicity to his whole bearing among his fellow-men ; 
and with this humility was a strong, unwavering faith in God, 
assured that he would fulfil to his children all the precious pro- 
mises of his word. 

Even in the trying hour of his departure, when the shadows of 
death were visibly gathering around him, and he realised that he 
must shortly leave a loving Avife and daughters to buffet the cares 
of life alone, his faith could, even in this apparently dark hour, 
see the hand of God ; and he could say : "I would not change 



302 STUDENTS. 

the situation in a single particular if I couM ; for I know that it 
is the ordination of God, and as such it is the ordination of bound- 
less wisdom and love." He was prompt and punctual in the 
discharge of all his ministerial duties, however onerous tliey may 
have been. As a preacher he was sound in doctrine, judicious in 
the interpretation of the word, clear and instructive in his pre- 
sentation of the truth. 

He lived a life of calm abiding trust in God ; and his death 
was in perfect harmony with his life. When his last hour had 
come, with his mind clear and bright as in his prime, and his 
voice strong and distinct, he left as his dying legacy to his friends 
these precious words : "Say that I was sustained by my faith in 
the gospel. I believe the record that God has given us concern- 
ing his Son. I believe that he is the resurrection and the life, 
and he that believeth in him shall never die. Death has no terrors 
for me. My whole experience may be summed up in the words, 
'A sinner, a great sinner, saved by grace.' " Thus leaning trust- 
fully upon the bosom of his blessed Saviour, he passed gently 
down into the dark valley, and was lost to our mortal sight. 

J. L. Rogers. 



REV. ELMORE KINDER 

Was born in Williamsburg, S. C, May 31st, 1830. He was 
early sent to school, and evinced such fondness for his books that 
it was often difficult to prevail on him to leave them for boyish 
sports. He received a collegiate education, graduating after a 
course of diligent study. 

Altliough the sul>ject of early religious impressions, he did not 
make a public profession of faith in Christ until he was twenty- 
two years of age. But his was no mere formal profession ; he 
made an entire consecration of heart and life to tlie service of his 
Saviour, who had bought hira with his precious blood. His ear- 
nest inquiry and prayer was, " Lord, what wilt thou have me to 



STUDENTS. 303 

do?" And believing that lie was called to preach the gospel, he 
entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia in October, ISoS. 
He applied himself closely, taking delight in his studies, and re- 
joicing in the hope of preaching the riches of God's grace to his 
dying fellow-men. 

But "My thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your 
ways my ways, saith the Lord." In his mysterious providence 
it was determined otherwise for this his servant. When he had 
nearly completed the third and last year of his theological course, 
and was almost ready to enter upon his chosen work, he had a 
severe hemorrhage of the lungs, and his health completely failed. 
He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Har- 
mony, at Mt. Zion church, in April, 1856, but his health con- 
tinued to decline rapidly until the 26th of June in the same year, 
•when the Lord "took him" to himself. 

A prominent trait in his Christian character was his simple 
trust in the mercy of God in Christ. As the outward man per- 
ished, the inward man was renewed day by day ; and as his physi- 
cal strength grew weaker, his faith became stronger and brighter. 
He was calm and submissive to God's will at the approach of 
death, and his dying utterance was, " Come, Lord Jesus, come 
quickly." His end was peace. James McDoavell. 



REV. A. L. KLINE, D. B., 

» 

Was born in New Brunswick, N. J., December 25th, 1815, 
and died in Enterprise, Miss., February 17th, 1881. 

His parents were John L. Kline and Maria (Baker) Kline. 
When only fourteen years of age he removed with his widowed 
mother to Columbia, S. C, and, engaging himself as a clerk in a 
mercantile house, undertook the support of himself and mother. 
By reason of his necessary attention to business at this early age, 
his education was of a liberal academic character only ; but he 
availed himself, as opportunity offered, of general reading and 
study. 



304 STUDENTS. 

When tliirty-seven years old (1852) he for the first time pro- 
fessed his faith in the Redeemer by uniting with the Presbyterian 
church in Columbia, and soon thereafter was elected and ordained 
a ruling elder therein. A few months subsequent to this he felt 
deeply impressed with the conviction that he ought to preach the 
gospel. But the difficulties in his way seemed almost insurmount- 
able. Himself advanced in years to middle life, with a wife and 
five children, mother and sister-in-hiw depentlent upon him, and 
no means beyond his salary — how could he hope to overcome the 
obstacles that seemed to block up his way so effectually ? But 
encouraged by his pastor and aided by generous friends, he brave- 
ly met and surmounted all difficulties, and after several years of 
preparatory study he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of 
Charleston, April 23d, 1856. In a few months after he was or- 
dained and installed pastor of the church in Tuscumbia, Alabama. 
His subsequent charges were: Columbia, Tenn., from 1862 to 
1866; Meridian, Miss., from 1866 to 1869; Enterprise, for a few 
montlis; Brandon, Edwards Depot, and Forest, from 1870 to 
1877; Yazoo City from 1878 to 1879. Here his health entirely 
failed, and for a time he was forced to cease from all work. But 
recuperating his strength, he resumed his labors in the spring of 
1880, and was installed pastor on the 19th of May of the Stark- 
ville church. He had scarcely entered upon the duties of his 
new pastorate, when he was almost crushed by the tidings of the 
sudden death of his wife, who had not yet joined him in his new 
home. The stroke was too much for his feeble condition. He 
gradually declined until it became apparent that he was nearing 
his end. His son. Dr. A. L. Kline, of Enterprise, removed him 
to his own home, and there on the 17th of February, 1881, he 
suddenly, though not unexpecte<lly, fell on sleep. 

Dr. Kline was a man of strong convictions, and outspoken in 
liis views; he was kind-hearted and genial, and jtossessed many 
most excellent traits of character. His mind was vigorous and 
active, and he always expressed his thoughts in clear and forcible 
language. He excelled as a preacher; his sermons were usually 
Avell di^fcsted, and alwavs delivered with force, sometimes with 



STUDENTS. 305 

great power. He was fearless in preaching tlie truth,'and shunned 
not to declare the whole counsel of God. 

Wiien twenty-seven years old he was married to Miss Cornelia 
A. Antonio, of Columbia, S. C, by whom he had thirteen chil- 
dren, six of whom survive him. His wife preceded him only a 
few months in her entrance upon the heavenly rest. 

Jos. Bardwell. 



REV. B. S. KRIDER. 

Barnabus Scott Krider, the youngest son of Jacob and 
Sarah Krider, was born in Rowan County, N. C, April 17th, 
1829. He entered Davidson College in 1847, and Avas graduated 
in the class of 1850. In 1849 he made a profession of his faith 
in Christ. In 1852 he entered the Seminary at Columbia, S. C, 
and remained till 1854, when he went to Princeton and studied 
five months there. He was licensed by Concord Presbytery in 
1855, and ordained April 26th, 1856. His first charge was 
Bethany and Tabor churches. His second, Unity, Franklin, and 
Joppa. His third. Unity and Thyatira. His last, Thyatira 
alone. He died October 19, 1863, and was buried in Third Creek 
graveyard. Among his last words were these : *'I suppose my 
work on earth is done, and I must go to higher work above." 
During his ministry of ten years, several revivals occurred in his 
churches, and two hundred and fifty were added to the member- 
ship — an average of twenty-five a year. 

Mr. Krider was married to Miss Maria P. Cowan, June 20th, 
1854, who, with six children, survives him. 

As a preacher, he was earnest, plain, and scriptural, his style 
pleasant and attractive. In social life he was affable and courteous. 
As a friend, he was warm-hearted and true. Among his breth- 
ren he was candid and genial — loved by the younger, cares^^ed by 
the elder. As a husband, he was tender and devoted ; as a father, 
he ruled his own children in the fear of the Lord. True to his 
20 



306 STUDENTS. 

divine Master, true to the Church of his fathers, true to his 
afflicted country, and true to all the noble impulses of the Chris- 
tian character — we did well to esteem him while he lived, and we 
do well to remember him now that he is dead. 

J. Rumple. 



REV. GEORGE WHITFIELD LADSON. 

The Rev. George Whitfield Ladson was born in Liberty- 
County, Ga., June 10th, 1830, a few months after the death of 
his father. He united with the First Presbyterian church of 
Savannah, Ga., then under the pastoral care of the Rev. J, B. 
Ross, June 21st, 1851 ; was graduated at Oglethorpe University 
in the summer of 1859 ; entered the Theological Seminary at 
Columbia in September, 1859, and was graduated from the same 
in May, 1862 ; was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presby- 
tery of Georgia on the 14th of April, 1861, and ordained to the 
full work of the ministry by the same body on the 13th of April, 
1862. He died in Columbia on the 4th of July, 1864, greatly 
lamented by all wlio knew him. 

On the death of his mother, which occurred when he was of 
tender age, he was adopted into the family of his noble-spirited 
kinsman, Mr. John Dunwody, where he found a father and 
mother indeed, and sisters and brothers, for whom he ever cher- 
ished the warmest affection. Soon after his public profession of 
faith in Christ, he was led to believe, after an earnest conflict in 
his own soul, that God had called him to preach the gospel of his 
dear Son, and he at once abandoned all his worldly plans, and 
addressed himself with great earnestness to the work of prepara- 
tion for the ministry. While pursuing his studies at the Roswell 
Academy, under the instruction of the Rev. N. A. Pratt, D. D., 
he commenced his labors among the colored peoj>lc in tlie vicinity, 
and was instrumental in leading many of tliem to Christ. Under 
his efforts here a church was built for their special use. During 



STUDENTS. 307 

his entire College course ho abounded in labors for the salvation 
of others, -while his sincerity and the manliness of his piety always 
secured him the high esteem of his associates. As soon as he 
entered the Seminary he commenced to labor among the colored 
people, which he regarded as his life-work. H-is labors among 
this people were incessant, and crowned with signal success — 
there having been added to the church during his brief ministry 
about one hundred and fifty persons, Avho gave good evidence of 
their conversion. At his funeral the colored people "crowded the 
place of chief mourners," and begged to be allowed to bear all 
the expenses of sepulture, to purchase a lot in Elmwood Ceme- 
tery as the place of burial, and to erect a suitable monument over 
the remains of their beloved friend and pastor. Our brother 
died in great peace, commending to the care of God his beloved 
wife, Juliet, whose maiden name was Ewart, and his two chil- 
dren, one of whom was as yet unborn. 

The Ladson Chapel in Columbia, which is occupied by an 
intelligent, orderly, and prosperous church of colored people, is 
a befitting monument to the memory of him whose life was so 
full of labors and good works among this people. 

J. S. COZBY. 



REV. ROBERT HARVEY LAFFERTY 

Was born in Vienna, Trumbull County, Ohio, March 10th, 
1812, and died of typhoid fever July 18th, 1864. 

He was the son of John and Ann Lafferty, the second of eight 
children. His father was a farmer, and one of the first settlers 
in Ohio, and the son remembered having seen the Indians at his 
father's house in his boyhood. His parents were Scotch-Irish 
and Old School. His mother was a native of Ireland, and came 
to America when only eight years old. He worked on the farm 
until he was eighteen, receiving only a common school education. 
At eiorhteen he began to teach school and to educate himself. He 



308 STUDENTS. 

began his classical studies under Kev. J. T. Smith, then residing 
in the adjacent county of Butler, Pa., now Dr. Smith, of Baltimore. 

He then taught in an academy in Kentucky. In the fall of 
1887 he entered the Sophomore chiss in Washington College, Pa., 
and was graduated in September, 1840. The President thus 
wrote of him: "He has a very respectable standing in his class, 
and always has been eminently diligent, punctual, and orderly as 
a student. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and has 
always maintained a conversation becoming the gospel of Christ." 
Immediately after graduation he went to South Carolina and took 
charge of an academy in Indiantown, S. C, and taugiit two years. 
In the fall of 1842 he entered the Theological Seminary at Colum- 
bia, and stayed three years. He was licensed by Harmony Pres- 
bytery April 7th, 1845. His text of trial sermon, Romans v. 11. 
Soon after he preached at Hopewell church. Paw Creek, and then 
Sugar Creek. September 27th, 1845, invited to supply it till 
January, on November 23d, 1845, he was unanimously elected 
pastof. The call was put into his hands by Concord Presbytery 
in the spring of 1846. He was ordained and installed April 25th, 
1846. This was his only charge, continuing about nineteen years. 
He was elected Stated Clerk of Concord Presbytery, April 17th, 
1848. On February 7th, 1848, he was married to Miss Jane To- 
bias Chamberlain, of Philadelphia, Pa., who died May 4th, 1848, 
in hope of heaven. On January 3d, 1850, he married Miss Cor- 
nelia Hannah Parks, daughter of Wilson and Hannah Parks, of 
Sugar Creek church, who made him a faithful wife, aiding him 
greatly in his work. 

He left a widow and five children — two sons and three daughters. 
He was for years a Trustee of Davidson College, and also of the 
Statesville Female College, and his counsels were of great weight. 
He was a faithful piustor, teaching by his life, sympathetic; jis a 
preacher, clear and earnest and successful. There was never a 
communion in which there Avas not some additions. Two hun- 
dred and fifty were a(l<led during his ministry, and more during 
the last than any ]>revious }car. He sleep,, among the people 
to wliom he preached. 



STUDENTS. 309 



REV. BAZILE E. LANNEAU 

Was the son of Bazile and Sarah L. B. (Pahner) Lanneau. 
He was born in Charleston, S. C, March 22, 1830. He was 
descended from an ancestry which, as far as it can be traced, has 
always feared God, and through five generations has constantly 
served him in "the ministry of reconciliation." Trained by 
pious parents, by whom he was consecrated to the divine service, 
he united, at the age of fifteen, with the "Circular church," in 
his native city, of which, for a quarter of a centfiry his grand- 
father. Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer, Sr., had been the pastor. In his 
nineteenth year, having been graduated with the highest honors 
at Charleston College, he entered the Theological Seminary at 
Columbia, and was graduated there in the spring of 1851, at 
which time he was licensed to preach the gospel by the Charleston 
Presbytery. His remarkable scholarship led to his immediate 
appointment as Tutor of Hebrew in the Seminary of which he 
was an alumnus. This post he filled until declining health com- 
pelled him, in the fall of 1854, to seek a warmer clime. After 
an experimental residence of several months in Florida, he was 
ordained as an evangelist in the city of Charleston, in the very 
church and on the identical spot where, twenty-five years before, 
he had been dedicated in baptism, and where, ten years before, 
he had sealed his engagement to be the Lord's, by the public pro- 
fession of his faith in Christ. Returning to Florida, he resided 
at Lake City, where he organised the church which he continued to 
serve until his father's death, in 1856, devolved upon him the 
protection and care of a large and afiiicted family. A temporary 
connexion with the Southern Presbyterian, as one of its editors, 
together with the charge of the Summerville church, near Charles- 
ton, afforded employment through neai'ly two years. 

In the fall of 1858 he was induced to return to his former 
charge at Lake City, where, amidst feeble health and many 
discouragements, he continued to discharge the duties of a faith- 
ful pastor, till his election to the chair of Ancient Languages 
in Oakland College, Miss., October, 1859. He entered upon his 



310 STUDENTS. 

career as a Professor ■with enlar<;o(l views, and not until liis feet 
had actuall}' touched the cohl -waters of the black river, did he 
relinquish the hope of their realisation. 

He died of consumption, July 12, IHOO. Fitted by his talents 
and the structure of his mind for academical pursuits, he bade 
fair to be one of the first scholars of our age. Besides possessing 
an intimate acquaintance with the Greek and Latin, he read with 
fluency several of the languages of Modern Europe, especially the 
French and 'Jerman. lie was conversant with the Hebrew and 
the cognate languages, and was proficient in the Arabic. 

He was not only a scholar, but an accurate and well-read 
divine. His style was chaste and clear, revealing the operations 
of a mind disciplined to habits of vigorous and accurate thinking. 
His piety was earnest and deep, refreshing itself daily from the 
oracles of God, to whose authority he bowed with the docility of 
a child, and which his biblical and scholastic attainments enabled 
him to interpret with singular clearness and power. 

He married Miss Fannie H. Eccles, a daughter of the late 
John D. Eccles, Esq., of Fayetteville, N. C, who survives him. 



REV. I. S. K. LEGARE, 

Son of Thomas and Ann Eliza Legar^, born in Charleston on 
25th of December, 1810. Prepared for college in his native city, 
entered Yale University in the class of 1831, and was graduated 
with honor; then returned to South Carolina and soon after 
studied theology in Columbia Seminary. Having completed his 
course, he was licensed, onlained, and installed by the old Charles- 
ton Union Presbytery over the Presbyterian church at Orange- 
burg, of which he was the first pastor, and, indeed, under Provi- 
dence, the instrument of forming. 

Here he continued to preach the gospel until arrested by an 
affection of the throat, which ended in the loss of his voice and 
consequent surrender of his charge. He then entered a new field 



STUDENTS. 311 

viz., the education of young ladies. In this department he be- 
came quite successful, and highly esteemed by all who committed 
their daughters to his charge; and these young ladies Avere not 
confined to his denomination, but were sent alike from all. In 
short, when forced by the war to suspend operation, his institu- 
tion was genei'ally regarded as one of the most popular of the 
kind in the whole Southern country. 

The war being over, the condition of the country was such as 
to forbid the renewal of the enterprise. He next turned his at- 
tention to the Sunday-school work, under a commission of the 
American Sunday School Union, in the State of Virginia for two 
years , after which, his general health failing, he was forced to 
abandon the more active duties of the ministry ; but even then 
consented to supply a destitute church once in the month at 
Beech Island, S. C. 

It w as while thus engaged that he was stricken down by a severe 
attack of paralysis, which terminated his earthly career in four 
days after he was taken, at his home, only a few miles from Orange- 
burg, S. C, 26th July, 1874. 

So ended the earthly pilgrimage of a dearly beloved Christian 
brother. The many Christian virtues that adorned his estimable 
character made him a general favorite with all who knew him. 

His death, though felt by all to be a sad event, was yet re- 
garded as so decided a gain to him that none who loved him would 
recall him from his present repose with his loving Saviour. 

T. H. Legare. 



REV. ANDREW RUTHERFORD LIDDELL 

Was born of Scotch-Irish parents in Gwinnett County, Ga., 
in April, 1831. His father was a ruling elder in the Presbyte- 
rian Church, and taught his son at home till he was ten years 
old. He then placed him at school with Rev. J. C. Patterson, 
D. T>., a man of celebrity as a teacher, with whom he remained 



312 STUDENTS. 

five years. Up to this time tlie only special manifestations were 
intense frolicsomoness and rapid physical growth. At the age of 
fifteen, his father, who seems to have heen a wise man, put him 
to work on the farm for twelve months, which resulted in giving 
him a little more j)hysical stamina. In the following year, 1847, 
he entered the Lawrenceville Academy, then under the conduct 
of a Mr. Wilcoxson, of reputed ability as a teacher. Here he 
remained two years, during Avhich time his hitherto dormant 
mind was roused into such activity, and ac(iuired so rapidly, that 
he was induced by an older brother in 1849 to teach school in 
Wilcox County, Alabama. He gave such satisfaction in his work 
that his patrons enlarged his salary and urged him to remain, but 
having determined upon a collegiate course he gave up his school 
and matriculated in the Sophomore class of Oglethorpe Univer- 
sity in 1850, pursuing ardently his studies, with a view to the 
gospel ministry, but greatly perplexed on the subject during his 
whole course in College. He was graduated with some distinc- 
tion in 1852, but still not fully determined about the future work 
of his life, he betook himself for two years to teaching with suc- 
cess that was marked. In both iiistruction and discijdine he left 
behind him a fame that still lingers in the Coweta Academy. 

He was now twenty-four years old, and having settled the 
question of preaching the gospel, he entered the Theological Se- 
minary at Columbia, S. C, in 1855. Here he early discovered, 
about the only tiling that characterised him particularly during 
his Seminary course, a passionate absorbing love for theology. 
Doubtless this inspiration was largely due to Dr. Thornwcll, that 
matchless teacher of the divine science. 

Shortly after leaving the Seminary he was licensed to preach by 
Flint River Presbytery, and having receiveil calls fn>m the Cuthbert 
and Fort Gaines churciies, was ordained and installed in these 
churches in 1858. He entered upon the ])astoral work with great 
energy, and his preaching was attractive and effective from the 
very beginning. 

In the spring of 1850 he was unitcil in marriage to Miss Sarah 
Irwin, of Henry County, Ala., a most estimable woman, who still 
survives in widowhood. At this time symptoms of consumption, 



STUDENTS. 313 

.of -wliicli he had had some apprehension for a year or two, became 
unmistakable. He was induced by an older brother, a physician, 
to get leave of absence from his churches, and go with him and 
another friend to Texas in a spring wagon, and camp out in the 
open air. After an absence of four months in Texas he returned 
and resumed work with apparently restored vigor, but in a short 
time he was compelled by the rapid work of the "fell destroyer" 
to stop preaching. From this time he gradually declined, and 
died quietly and peacefully in his own house in Cuthbert, Novem- 
ber 26th, 1860, aged thirty-two years, and was buried at Fort 
Gaines in the cemetery lot of his father-in-law, Col. Irwin. He 
left no children. 

Thus, after a brief career of two and a half years, his ministry 
on earth closed; a ministry brimful of promise and of rather un- 
usual power from its very beginning. Earnestness and direct- 
ness were the special features in his preaching. In the pulpit 
he reminded one of the stern and inflexible John Knox. 

With his long arms and tall body bending over the pulpit, now 
in blood earnestness, he seemed the impersonation of command. 
Anon with soft pleading voice the King's ambassador has turned 
priest and almost compels reconciliation. In his personnel he 
was striking — six feet five inches high — a bushy head of black 
hair, black eyes and dark skinned. Every movement showed en- 
ergy, decision, and purpose. T. E. Smith. 



REV. G. C. LOGAN 

Was born in Charleston, S. C, May 24th, 1810. His ances- 
tors were among the moving spirits and proprietors of the then 
Province of South Carolina. He acquired his academic and col- 
legiate education in his native State, and when prepared to enter 
upon life's duties, chose the medical profession. But God having 
chosen him to a holier and higher mission, darkened his bright 
prospects by a severe illness, which proved to be the preparation 



314 STUDENTS. 

of his heart for the reception of divine truth and a change in his 
views of life and its duties. It was not, however, until his 
twenty-fifth year that he became the subject of renewing grace. 
From that time, to be a physician of souls burned as a fire upon 
the altar of his heart until the sacrifice was consumed. To this 
determination he was brought by degrees, and having settled the 
point of duty, went calmly forward, entered the Theological 
Seminary in Columbia, S. C, in 1840, and, after two years, he 
received licensure from the Presbytery of South Carolina, and 
commenced his labors in the bounds of Harmony Presbytery. In 
184G he accepted a call from the churches of Aimwell and Iloreb 
united, and it was with them he labored, loving and beloved, till 
suddenly "the silver cord was loosed, the golden bowl was broken." 
The following comprehensive sketch of his ministerial character 
w;is written by one of his associates in the Seminary : "Always 
firm and tenacious in his opinions, sound and evangelical in doc- 
trine, deep and thorough in Christian experience, he was ever a 
judicious and instructive preacher, abundant in public labor, 
anxious for the salvation of souls, neglectful of ease and comfort, 
he wore out his strength in his Master's service." And in the 
midst of his labors, under entire prostration, he closed his useful 
life and sweetly fell asleep. A monument to his memory in both 
churches testifies to tiie love and devotion of his people. 



REV. A. J. LOUGIIRIDGE 

Was born July 23d, 1818, in Laurens District, S. C. His 
academic education was at Montrose, Jasper County, Miss., under 
Dr. J. N. Waddel ; his collegiate course at Oakland College, 
where he graduated about 1850, and immediately thereafter 
entered Columbia Seminary, where he graduated in 18r)3. He 
was licensed by Tombeckbee Presbytery soon after his Seminary 
course was completed. He shortly afterwards removed to Texas, 
and was ordained by the Presbytery of Eastern Texas. After 



STUDENTS. 315 

•a few years of extensive missionary labor in that Presbytery, he 
went to Central Texas Presbytery in 1857. During the war he 
labored in the churches of Blue Ridge and Eutaw and at Marlin, 
supporting himself by surveying. He removed to Stony Prai- 
rie (now Hugh Wilson) church in 1869. He was installed pastor 
of this church on the first Sabbath of July, in 1870, and con- 
tinued in this relation till his death, March 19th, 1881. He died 
of pneumonia. He was married in September, 1862, to Miss 
Susan Hallam, who died in April, 1864, leaving an infant daugh- 
ter, who survives her father. 

"He was a faithful and indefatigable worker; an earnest and 
instructive preacher; and a pastor tenderly and devotedly loved 
by his people. As a presbyter he was punctual in his attendance 
upon our church courts, and in his attention to all the business 
of these courts he was a model of self-sacrifice and punctuality." 



REV. WILLIAM LeCONTE 

Was born in Savannah, Ga., February 17th, 1846, and was 
the eldest son of Louis LeConte, of Liberty County, Ga., and 
Harriet Nisbet, of Athens, Ga. His father died in October, 
1852, and the family removed to Washington, D. C, where they 
remained until January, 1858. Mrs. LeConte then carried her 
children to Europe and for about six years educated them in the 
schools of Germany, Switzerland, and Brussels. At the close of 
1863 all of the family except William returned to America. 
Early in 1864 he obtained a position on a Confederate vessel, 
fitted out in England and bound for one of the Southern ports. 
It was detained off Bermuda a long time on account of yellow 
fever on board, but he was marvellously preserved from the dis- 
ease. He then attempted to enter the Confederacy by land 
through Virginia, but when he did so Richmond had fallen. Go- 
ing to Augusta, Ga., he was employed for some years in one of 
the banks. By devoting his leisure hours to study he prepared 



310 STUDENTS. 

himself for a college course. Entcrinrj Soutli Carolina Univer- 
sity in 18G8, he was graduated in 1809. That fall he entered 
Columbia Seminary and completed the course in May, 1872. 

Whilst residing in Europe he was received into the Church, and 
baj)tized in Brussels by the Rev. Mr. Annet, pastor of the Evan- 
gelical church there, and on his return to America he joined 
the First Presbyterian church in Augusta. He was licensed by 
the Presbytery of Athens in April, 187-, and labored that sum- 
mer in Clarksville and Nacoochee churches. While in the Semi- 
nary he offered himself to, and was accepted by, the Foreign 
Missionary Committee, and in September, 1872, was ordained 
in the Gainesville church. He sailed for Brazil in the Avinter of 
1872—3, and was first stationed at Campinas, In about a year he 
was transferred to Pernambuco, where he toiled earnestly for over 
one year, when he was attacked by the disease wliich finally 
proved fatal. In 1870 he returned to this country, and on No- 
vember 4th, 1870, he died at his mother's home in Washington, 
D. C, and was buried in that city. 

In person he was small and slender, but he usually enjoyed 
good health. His mental faculties were of a high order, and he 
cultivated them assiduously. His early education made him fam- 
iliar with French and German, and he diligently studied Greek 
and Hebrew, He acquired languages readily, and thus was emi- 
nently fitted for the foreign missionary work. He was very 
direct and logical in his thinking, (juickly detected any lurking 
inconsistencies and fallacies in an argument, and could not endure 
a weak or captious method of proof. He always exjiresscd the 
strongest desire to engage in the actual work of preaching. Be- 
fore his departure for Brazil he resolved not to be drawn away from 
this to the work of teaching. This resolution he faithfully kept, 
and hence could not be induced to occupy pernumently the posi- 
tion of teacher or professor in the Campinas Institute. Tliough 
very sensitive, and therefore reserved in manner, his soul burned 
with desire to do the M.ister's work. From l)oyhoodit was char- 
acteristic of him to fearlessly and inflexibly do what he regarded 
as his duty. But as he went forward in his work for Christ his 
faith jrrew ever strouijer and his devotion to the Saviour more in- 



STUDENTS. 317 

tense, until toil and sacrifice for his kingdom was even more a 
privilege than a duty. With such powers of mind and such piety 
great things were expected of him. One of the oldest mis.sion- 
aries in Brazil said, "With the exception of his slender physi(iue, 
no man ever came to Brazil Avho promised to be more useful." 
\_Compiled from a Sketch by Rev. W. S. Bean. 



REV. THOMAS MAGRUDER 

Was a graduate of Franklin College, entered Columbia Semi- 
nary in 1832 and completed the course in 1835. He was a do- 
mestic missionary in Mississippi when he died. 



JOHN BOYD MALLARD. 



John Boyd Mallard, of the Class of 1835, was born in 
Liberty County, Ga., September 18th, 1808. His mother, 
Lydia Quarterman, survived her husband by many years, and 
had her declining days cheered by her son's devotion. Trained 
in a Christian household, graduated from Franklin College, 
studying one year in Columbia Seminary, he was peculiarly qual- 
ified for the office of ruling elder, which he filled for years. His 
prayers Avere clear, comprehensive, and appropriate. Eminently 
conservative in opinion, he tenaciously held to whatever had 
proved useful in Church or State. He rendered valuable service 
as a teacher of youth, first in the Chatham Academy, and then 
as Professor in Oglethorpe. His duties in responsible positions 
in civil life were ably and faithfully done. His death, which 
occurred March 22d, 1877, was sudden, but blessed. 

J. W. Montgomery. 



318 STUDENTS. 



REV. CHARLES W. MARTIN 

Was graduated at Miami University, and entered Columbia 
Seminary in 1832. He remained but a short time. His field of 
labor was perhaps in the Presbytery of South Carolina. 



WILLIAM MATHEWS 

Was born in Franklin County, Ga., November 14th, 1819. 

Like Timothy, the faith that was in him dwelt first in his 
parents and grand-parents before him. 

At the age of fifteen, he made puClic profession of his faith in 
Christ. He did not enjoy the advantages of a collegiate educa- 
tion. After leaving the Gwinnett School, he taught for several 
years. 

In 1846 he entered the Seminary at Columbia, and was gradu- 
ated in 1849. He was licensed to preach in the summer of that 
year, by Flint River Presbytery, and engaged in work as mis- 
sionary in the Counties of Baker, Early, and Randolph. He 
then served Pachitta church, in Calhoun County, as pastor, for a 
few years, and afterwards the church at Perry, Houston County, 
as stated supply. In 1858 he was installed pastor of Mineral 
Spring church, in Decatur County, Ga., which relation continued 
until it was dissolved by death. 

He was married in 1858 to Miss Martha Shivers, of Macon, 
Ga. Three children Avere born to them, who, witli their mother, 
are now living at Macon. 

In the summer of 1862 he had a severe attack of sickness, 
from the effects of which he never fully recovered. lie lingered 
until December, and with the closing year finished his life's work 
for the Master. 

Devotion to duty was one of the prominent characteristics of 
Brother Mathews as a man, a Christian, and a minister. As a 



STUDENTS. 319 

preacher, he was earnest, instructive, and faithful. In pastoral 
work he excelled, winning the affection and gaining the confi- 
dence of his people by his kindly sympathy and genial manner. 
He drew largely on the Shorter Catechism, both in his public 
and private instructions. He was eminently successful in train- 
ing the churches under his care in the grace of giving. The last 
church that he served still shows his influence in this particular, 
in the abounding liberality of its members. H. F. Hoyt. 



MR. JOHN F. MAYNE. 



The subject of this sketch died after a few hours' illness, on 
Saturday morning, February 21, 1880, while attending the 
Theological Seminary, Columbia, S. C. 

He was a son of Wm. H. and Martha Mayne, of Gadsden, 
Ala., and when about fifteen years of age attached himself to the 
Presbyterian church at that place. Afterwards becoming con- 
vinced that he ought to preach the gospel, he placed himself 
under the care of the Presbytery of South Alabama, and after a 
preparatory course of study, he entered Davidson College, N. C, 
in the fall of 1874, and was graduated in June, 1877, and in 
September of the same year entered Columbia Seminary, whence 
he was suddenly removed by death from among loving companions, 
on the eve of completing his course of theological study. His dis- 
ease was diabetes, which had early fastened upon him, and from 
which he was at times a great sufferer. Ill health and defective 
eyesight put him to a great disadvantage in his course of study, 
but by diligence and fidelity he won an honorable rank among his 
classmates. He endeavored to acquire knowledge that would be 
useful to him in after-life. He was cheerful and patient in suffer- 
ing ; a consistent Christian man, living near to God in his 
religious walk ; and those who knew him best, testify to his con- 
scientious discharge of all practicable duty. He earnestly desired 
to preach the gospel of Christ, but he was not allowed to live and 



320 STUDENTS. 

preach it, either at home or abroad. Though denieil in his ear- 
nest desire to preach the gospel from the sacred desk, the influ- 
ence of his bright, pure, and energetic Christian character will 
still preach in the lives of his associates ; and we thank God for 
his life, so honorable, so faithful, and so full of growing virtues. 
"Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright ; for the end of 
that man is peace." J. A. McLees. 



REV. T. L. McBRYDE, D. D. 

Thomas Livingston McBryde was born in Ilamburs:, S. C, 
February 27th, 1817. He graduated at Franklin College, 
Athens, Ga., in 183(3, and at the Theological Seminary in Co- 
lumbia, 1839. He was married in Athens, Ga., November 24, 
1839, to Miss Mary W. McClesky. He was ordained in Charles- 
ton, December, 1839, and sailed from Boston for China March 
8th, 1840. In the fall of 1842 he was compelled to leave China 
by reason of the failure of his health. He spent the following 
year in upper Georgia, resting for the recovery of his health, but 
preaching occasionally. In the fall of 1843 lie went to Ander- 
son C. H., South Carolina, where he remained about two years 
teaching a small school and preaching at Mount Zion church in 
that County. In the fall of 1845 he accepted a call to the pas- 
torate of Providence and Rocky River churches in Abbeville 
County, in the Presbytery of South Carolina. In 1850, having 
lost his voice, he repaired to the mountains of South Carolina, 
where, finding the climate well adapted to his constitution, he 
soon afterwards was settled as the pastor of Hopewell, Pendleton, 
in charire of which he continued till his death. 

He received the degree of D. D. from Due West College. 

His decease took place April 15, 1863, after an illness of two 
weeks from typhoid juieumdnia. A little while l)of<>re he breathed 
his last, while surrounded by friends and during a prayer offered 
by Rev. C. C. Pinckney, D. D., the dying McBryde exclaimed 
aloud, "Brethren, I am surrounded by angels! Glory ineffable!" 

Jno. B. Adoer. 



STUDENTS. 321 



REV. JAMES R. McCARTER. 

James R. McCarter was born near Hebron church, in Frank- 
lin County, Ga., December 11, 1813. His parents were Mattliew 
and Margaret (McEntire) McCarter. Both of his grandfathers 
were soldiers in the war of the Revolution, and received valuable 
land bounties from the State of Georgia. James was altogether 
of Scotch-Irish ancestry. He grew up to man's estate upon 
a farm, with very limited opportunities of learning. After 
entering the communion of the church in early manhood, he 
was moved of God to preach the gospel ; and yet he had made 
very little progress towards the necessary education. However, 
Avith the resolution and energy characteristic of the Scotch-Irish, 
he set to work with a determination to qualify himself for 
the holy ministry. At that time, the Manual Labor School, near 
Laurenceville, Ga., styled the Gwinnette Institute, Avas in great 
repute, and thither young McCarter Avent, and sedulously entered 
upon his preparation for College. But in 1836, Avhen the Creek 
Indians raised the Avar-whoop in Western Georgia and Eastern 
Alabama, he laid aside his books and shouldered his musket and 
knapsack, and, under Capt. Garmany, of Gwinnette County, 
marched to meet the dusky foe. At the close of his military service, 
he resumed and completed his preparatioii for College. Subse- 
quently, he Avas graduated at Franklin College. From Athens he 
went to the Columbia Seminary, completing the full course of study 
in 1845. He Avas licensed by the Flint River Presbytery, October 
11th, 1845. Soon after his licensure, he entered upon the work 
of the ministry in Sumpter County, Ga., in the churches of 
Americus and Mount Tabor. At the fall meeting of his Presbytery 
in 1846, the church of Americus laid before the body a call for his 
pastoral services. He was ordained and installed in the church 
at Americus, November 29th, 1846, supplying also the Mt. Tabor 
church. In this field his life-Avork Avas mainly done, and Avas 
well and faithfully done. The churches prospered under his 
ministry, and highly appreciated his devoted services. Dating 
from the beginning of his labors in Americus, his ministry 
21 



322 STUDENTS. 

there continued about ten years, but only nine years from the 
time of his ordination. October 13th, 1855, his pastoral rela- 
tion to the church in Americus was dissolved, and about the 
close of the same year he removed to Alabama, supplying 
the Union Springs and Bethel churches ; also teaching a school 
at Bethel. But his work in Alabama was soon cut short. In 
June, 1856, he was laid aside entirely and finally from his Avork, 
by that fell destroyer, consumption. Having visited Florida 
during the summer, in pursuit of health, and having derived 
much benefit from the visit, in October, 185(:), he removed to 
Florida. But his improvement in health was only temporary. 
Leaving his family behind him during the Avinter, he went to 
Tampa Bay. But the change did not arrest the destroyer. Away 
from home and family, at Manatee, Florida, in the house of Rev. 
Mr. Lee, he breathed his last, February 16th, 1857, in the forty- 
fourth year of his life, and there his remains repose among 
strangers. Groves H. Cartledge. 



ROBERT WARNOCK McCORMICK. 

Rev. R. W. McCokmick was born in Newtownards, County 
Down, Ireland, December 25th, 1828, and was brought to Amer- 
ica by his godly parents when but five years old. He was trained 
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. Yet, as he grew to 
years of thoughtfulness and accountability, he became (juite scep- 
tical and for years forsook the sanctuary. Not until God brought 
him to the verge of the grave by sickness, did he see himself as a 
sinner. 

His affliction was sanctified, and soon he surrendered his young 
heart to Christ. His elder brother, then a pastor in South Caro- 
lina, was instrumental in opening up the way for him to enter 
the ministry. Having prepared for College in the Ogdensburg 
Academy, N. Y., he graduated at Oglethorpe University, Ga., in 
1856, and at the Columbia Theological Seminary in 1851). That 



STUDENTS. 323 

spring he was licensed by the Charleston Presbytery and labored 
as a licentiate in North Carolina. 

To look after and take care of a widowed and aged mother, he 
removed North, put himself under the care of the Ogdensburg 
Presbytery, and by it was ordained and installed pastor of the 
Heuvelton church, near his parent's home. 

The bitterness engendered by the late civil war amongst his 
people soon drove him away to where he could preach, unmolest- 
ed by political strife, the pure gospel of Christ. 

His venerable mother having died in Jesus, he felt free to go 
forth as a missionary amongst the miners in the mountains of 
Pennsylvania. There his labors were blest. Afterwards he 
became pastor of the Tuscarora church, N. Y., in the beautiful 
Genesee Valley. For the last nine years of his life he was set- 
tled at Waddington, St. Lawrence County, N. Y., a member of 
the St. Lawrence Presbytery, and a pastor who was eminently 
instrumental in winning souls to Christ amongst that Scotch- 
Irish people. 

January 19th, 1879, he performed his last ministerial service 
at his winter communion. Seized with pneumonia on the Wednes- 
day following, he passed away to his rest on the 31st of January. 

Being entirely conscious throughout his sickness, he conversed 
with his family and friends about his future prospects, and desired 
to be buried amongst his loved people. 

Modest in his manners, and retiring in his life, he yet gave 
good witness to the truth as it is in Jesus, practised a life of pu- 
rity and piety in his intercourse with the world, and gave to his 
Church and Presbytery like testimony by his conscientious ad- 
herence to the word of God, the ordinances of his house, and his 
love for the Confession of Faith and Catechisms, and his un- 
swerving fidelity to them. Hence, to use his Presbytery's 
words, he preached a pure gospel. His last illness, says the Rev. 
Dr. Gardner, brought out very strikingly his unobtrusive and 
unostentatious disposition. "Parting counsels were given calmly 
and lovingly to wife and three children, to his elders and mem- 
bers present, and with an undimmed faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ he left earth to enter heaven." W. J. M. 



324 STUDENTS. 



REV. WM. J. Mccormick 

"Was born in Belfast, Ireland, on ^Nlay Gtli, 1821, and died in 
Gainesville, Fla., on June 21), 1883, and was therefore little more 
than sixty-two years of age at the time of his death. He emi- 
grated to this country early in life with his parents, who settled 
in Canada, wliere, as a young man, he led a scholarly and retired 
life, and early became impressed with the desire of entering the 
ministry. 

In a recent sermon he said : "For years — even wlien in our 
teens — it was impressed upon us that this was to be our life- 
work." 

He afterward moved to Ogdensburg, New York, whence, in 
1846, he went to the Oglethorpe University, Ga., where he gradu- 
ated in 1850. After graduating there, he entered the "School 
of the Prophets" in Columbia, S. C, and graduated in 1853. In 
April of that year he was licensed to preach by Harmony Pres- 
bytery in that State, and soon after took pastoral charge of the 
Concord and Mt. Olivet churches in Fairfield County, and that 
fall was ordained. 

In 1857 he was invited by the young church at Kanapaha to 
take charge of that congregation, and make his home in Florida. 
This call, however, he did not then accept, but visited Florida in 
the winter of 1857—58, and delivered his first sermon in the 
present Court House building in Gainesville, on the first Sabbath 
in January, 1858. 

Mr. McCormick remained here during the balance of that win- 
ter, and preached at various points in the County. It was not 
until after his return to South Carolina, however, that he deter- 
n)ined to locate ; but his health failing him, and the people of the 
Kanapaha church still urging his return, he consented to do so, 
and on the first of January, 185'.>, returned to Florida, and that 
year connected himself with the J'resbytery of Flori<la. 

Though Mr. McCormick had ])redecessors in the missionary 
work, he was the first minister to ever settle permanently in this 
County. 



STUDENTS. 325 

During the first years of his residence here, he supplied the 
pulpits of Kanapaha, Gainesville, and Micanopy, which he con- 
tinued to do until the time of his death. He also, during this 
time, often visited Ocala, Fernandina, Archer, and many other 
places that were then Avithout ministers ; and being a faithful 
and untiring worker in the service of his Master, and a pioneer 
in the establishment of the Presbyterian Church in this State, 
his influence has been felt through the State, and had much to 
do with the upbuilding of Presbyterianism in Florida. From his 
youth he was a deep and profound scholar and thinker, and has 
never deserted his books. He has been honored by numbers of 
important ecclesiastical positions. For years he has been the 
Stated Clerk of the Presbytery of Florida; he was the first 
Moderator of the Synod of South Georgia and Florida ; and 
it was only a few months ago that he was chosen a Director of the 
Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, of which he was a 
graduate, and also by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church, South, a delegate to the grand meeting of the Presby- 
terians to be held in Belfast, Ireland, next year. 

There was no man in Gainesville who was more universally be- 
loved than he. No one ever doubted his sincerity of purpose or 
his purity of heart, and his exemplary and Christian life has 
made him an object of profound respect. An able minister, a 
faithful pastor, and an upright citizen, his place in his Church 
and in society will not be easily filled. 

An honest tribute of the regard of the citizens of this place 
was paid to the noble pastor when, last year, his residence lay 
smouldering in ashes. In a few hours, without regard to sect or 
section, funds were subscribed for a new residence. 

Mr. McCormick leaves a most estimable wife, three grown 
daughters, one of whom is married, two sons, who have just 
reached the years of maturity, and two younger boys, who are 
joined by the entire city in mourning his loss. 



326 STUDENTS. 



WM. McDUFFIE, 

The son of Daniel McDuffie and Jane Blue, was born in 1833 
in Marion District, S. C. ; received his academical education at 
Peedee Academy; labored for some years as a printer in Marion 
C. H.; was ^iraduated at Davidson College in June, 1860, and 
entered Columbia Seminary in September of that same year. He 
was a candidate under the care of Harmony Presbytery, which 
adopted the following minute in October, 1861: 

" Wm. McDuffie, a candidate for the ministry of the glorious 
gospel, died of consumption in September, 18G1, among his friends 
in Marion District. He was a young man of good mind, sound 
judgment, consistent character, and (what is of more worth) of 
hopeful piety. He promised, if life had been spared, to be use- 
ful in the great work of preaching the gospel. That a young 
man of such a character, of so much promise, and who was in a 
great degree self-made, should be called away on the thresliold 
of the ministry, is indeed a mysterious dispensation of God's pro- 
vidence." 



REV. DUNCAN E. McINTYRE 

Was born in Marion County, S. C, near Kentyre church, in 
1832; was prepared for College in an academy near Bishopville, 
and was graduated at Oglethorpe University. He became a can- 
didate of Harmony Presbytery in 1855; entered Columbia Semi- 
nary in 1857, and completed his theological course in May, 18()0. 
He was licensed by Harmony Presbytery in April, 186U ; sup- 
plied Turkey Creek and Pine Tree churches during that year ; 
went to Arkansjis in 1861, and lal)ored there a short time; 
returned to South Carolina, and enlisted as a private in Company 
II, of Orr's Regiment of Rifles, in the .spring of 1862 ; and died 
of pneumonia, in Virginia, June 28, 1863. 

He was of Scotch parentage, his father and mother coming 



STUDENTS. 327 

from the Island of Skye, in that country. Tliey were members 
of the Little Pee Dee church, and trained up their children in the 
fear of God. Of their six sons, four were ruling elders, and one 
was a minister. 

Bro. Mclntyre became a communicant at the age of eighteen, 
being led to C-hrist under the ministry of the Rev. Dr. D. E. 
Frierson. Ills ministerial life was not long, but it was steadily 
increasing in usefulness. He preached the gospel to his fellow- 
soldiers with a soul burning with desire for their salvation ; and 
when dying, to one who asked: "What do you want?" he re- 
plied: "All I want is for you all not to forget to pray for sin- 
ners." J, B. Mack. 



JOHN BLUE McKINNON. 

John Blue McKinnon was the son of Col. Murdock and Mrs. 
Mary McKinnon, and was born in Richmond County, N. C, 
September 2Lst, 1842. He was of Highland Scotch descent, 
and inherited the strong and noble traits of character peculiar to 
that remarkable people. 

He was prepared for college at Laurinburg High School, then 
conducted by the Rev. J. W. Mayor. In September, 1860, he 
entered Davidson College, where he remained until the spring of 
1861, when he returned home and volunteered as a soldier in the 
first company that was organised in his county for the Confeder- 
ate service. He went with his regiment (the 18th N. C.) to Vir- 
ginia. In the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, he 
was wounded severely and came home. He returned to the army 
early in 1868, and though suffering from his wound and disabled 
for active duty, he remained in the service until the close of the 
war. After the surrender in 1865, he returned home and taught 
a school during the summer. At the fall meeting of Fayetteville 
Presbytery in that year he became a candidate for the ministry, 
and immediately resumed his studies in Davidson College, Avhere 



328 STUDENTS. 

he reiiiained until the spring of 1866, when he entered the Theo- 
logical Seininarv :it Columbia, S. C. He was licensed to preach 
the gospel by Fayetteville Presbytery at the spring meeting in 
1867, and diirint; the summer of that year he supplied Sandy 
Grove church in Cuml)erland County. In the fall he returned 
to the Seminary, but left early in 1SI»8, having decided to sub- 
mit to a surgical operation in order to the removal of the ball 
from his wound. The operation was successful. He then be- 
came stated supply to Sandy Grove church, where he preached 
regularly until he was killed by lightning at Laurinburg on the 
ItUli day of April, 1868. 

His course, both in College and the Seminary, was irregular, 
owing to the interruptions and the changed condition of things 
resulting from the war. Besides this, his very soul was burning 
with desire to preach the gosj)el. This one thing had taken pos- 
session of his mind and heart, and he went forth to the work 
with the most earnest devotion and zeal, and gave j)romise of 
great usefulness. The providential event which chjsed the life of 
one so full of promise is beyond our scrutiny. We can only lay 
our hands upon our mouths and say, '' It is the Lord : let him do 
as seemcth him good." J. H. Coble. 



REV. JOHN McLEES 

Was born of i)ious parents, in Anderson County, S. C, May 
5, 1812, and died at his home in Greenwood, S. C, June 6th, 
1882, in the seventy-first year of his age. 

In 1842 he entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia, 
S. C, and having completed his course, wa.s graduated in 1845. 
On the 26th of April, 1845, he was licensed by the Presbytery 
of South Carolina. The following year, April 18, 1<S46, he was, 
by the same Presbytery, ordained at a meeting held in Willington 
church. 

IJy far the greater part of his life as a minister of the gospel 



STUDENTS. 329 

•was spent in the pastoral charge of Rock church, Abbeville 
County, in connexion with Greenwood. Installed pastor of Hock 
church, Saturday before the second Sabbath in December, 1847, 
he continued ministering unto them until released by death, a 
period of nearly thirty-five years. 

For many years he was a member of the Abbeville District 
Bible Society, and from 1870 till his death in 1882, a member 
of the Board of Directors. 

Bro. McLees Avas afflicted from his childhood ; so much so, 
that he was compelled to forego a college education ; yet by 
dint of perseverance and industry, he acquired a fair classical 
education. This, together with the intellectual discipline secured 
by his Seminary course and his life-long studious habits, enabled 
him to take rank amongst his brethren as an able minister of the 
New Testament. 

Of a meek and gentle spirit, his voice was always for peace, 
so long as peace could conscientiously be pursued. When, how- 
ever, circumstances called him into the arena of debate, there 
was no trace of cowardice. Then his very gentleness seemed to 
lend him power over the minds of men, causing his opponents to 
feel that they were measuring swords with no mean adversary. 

In his pastoral work he devoted himself with untiring energy 
to the spiritual interests of his people. His sympathetic nature 
seemed to teach him, as if by instinct, how to conduct himself so 
as to exert the happiest influence upon the sick, the dying, and 
the bereaved. He was faithful in encouraging the struggling 
child of God, recovering the backslidden, and warning the im- 
penitent. There was at all times a happy absence of austerity 
and presence of spirituality, which enabled him to win his way 
to the hearts of all who knew him, and at the same time furnished 
him a most favorable introduction to strangers. 

Perhaps the most striking characteristic of Brother McLees' 
preaching was its high-toned spirituality. His sermons were full 
of the marrow of the gospel, being the product of a mind and 
heart continually under the sanctifying influences of the Holy 
Spirit. There was a sweet persuasiveness in the tone, a mellowness 
in the presentation of the truth, a directness and simplicity of 



330 STUDENTS. 

style, a hearty utterance, and a melting unction, which led the 
hearer to forget tlie preacher, to think only of hini.self and of 
God, Avhilst he was borne u))ward in thought, to dwell upon the 
eternal realities of the religion of Jesus Christ. 

J. L. Martin. 



REV. ROBERT McLEES. 



Rev. Robert McLees was born in Anderson County, S. C, 
April 30th, 1820. His early years were spent on the farm. His 
opportunities for iiciiuiiing a liberal education were very limited; 
yet he made considerable progress in the cultivation of his mind. 
Having become a subject of grace and a member of Roberts 
church, under the pastoral care of the Rev. David Humphries, 
in April, 1850, he placed himself under the care of the Pres- 
bytery of South Carolina as a candidate for the ministry. 
He prosecuted his classical studies in Moffettsville Academy, 
also spending one year in the Greenwood High School, then 
taught by Dr. Isaac Auld. In October, 18.")2, he entered the 
Theological Seminary in Columbia, where he took a complete 
course. He was licensed to preach the gospel at Rocky Sjiring, 
in Laurens County, April '20th, 18;");'). Receiving a call from 
the united churches of Smyrna, Gilder's Creek, and Mt. Bethel, 
in Newberry County, and after unavoidable delays he was or- 
dained and installetl August 24th, 18;")(3. He married Miss Sue 
E. Werts, of Newberry, July 5th, 1858. In 1861, being feeble 
in health, he removed to Anderson, continuing, however, to preach 
among the vacant churches despite his physical weakness. Sum- 
moned to the army hospitals to minister to sick and wounded 
kindred, his wnning vitality was exhausted and sinking slowly 
into consumption, he died A]»ril 4th, 1S(!(), in the forty-sixth 
year of his age. 

\\v was characterised by modesty and reserve. His imagina- 
tion was vivid, his style clear and forcible, his delivery solemn 



STUDENTS. 



331 



and impressive. Many thought him one of the most impressive 
preachers in the circle of their ac(|uaintiince. 

"Servant of God, well done ! 

Rest from thy loved employ;* , 

The battle foiisrht, the victory won, 
Enter thy Master's joy." 

Jno. McLees. 



REV. DANIEL MILTON McLURE. 

Daniel Milton McLure was born near Flat Rock, Kershaw 
County, S. C, in December, 1835. He was the son of John and 
Mary McLure, both of whom were members of Beaver Creek 
church. He gave his heart to God in the early spring time of 
life, and joined the Church of his parents. He began his educa- 
tion under the direction of his pastor, Rev. S. Donnelly. He 
first went to Davidson College, but afterwards to Oglethorpe 
University, where he graduated in 1858. That fall he entered 
the Theological Seminary at Columbia, where he graduated in 
1861. He was received by Harmony Presbytery as a candidate 
for the ministry at the spring meeting of 1859 in Cheraw, and 
was licensed to preach the gospel by the same Presbytery during 
the spring meeting of 1861 at Indiantown church. He soon af- 
terwards supplied Hatchet Creek church in East Alabama Pres- 
bytery, but ill health caused him to return to his native State. 
In 1864 a call from Williamsburg church was placed in his hands, 
and on the 23d of the same month he was ordained and installed 
pastor of that church. In the summer of 1865 his health gave 
way, causing him to cease preaching for a while. In the fall he 
returned to his church and resumed preaching, but he soon be- 
came aware that consumption was hurrying him to an early grave. 
Soon after his voice failed, and he ceased preaching altogether. 
He felt that heaven was very near, yet he wished to meet his 
brother presbyters once more. So he attended the meeting of 



332 STUDENTS. 

Harmony Presbytery at Manning. Many will long remember 
the sad scene there presented, and the solemn warning then given. 
A wasted form told that ere long he would depart to be with 
Christ. Three week;? after, on October 2r)th, 18(36, at the house 
of Mr. I). II. Thomas, in Darlington County, he passed through 
the dark river of death to the bright shore of eternal life. 

Tiie mind of Rev. I). M. McLure was of more than ordinary 
strength. Independence and clearness characterised his thoughts. 
He formed his opinions deliberately, and could always give his 
reasons for them. His retiring disposition kept all except his 
intimate friends from knowing the riches of his mind. For years 
he looked consumption, the deadly foe, in the face. When the 
last conflict came, he was ready, his lamp trimmed and burning, 
and he himself anxious to enter into the joy of his Lord. His 
last words, spoken in response to an in(juiry of a friend, were: 
"I am not afraid to die." There was no exclamation of delight, 
no ecstatic vision of the better land. He just 

"For<fot to breathe; and all was o'or — 
Just dropped to sleep; 'twas nothinji; more." I 

While in that sleep he was taken to the church where he began 
to serve the Lord, and laid beside his sleeping loved ones. 

J. B. Mack. 



REV. PETER McNAB. 



Rev. Peter McNab was born October 23d, 1811, and died 
October 27th, 1851, aged forty years and four days. He was 
a native of Scotland. His father died on the passage to America, 
when he was quite young, leaving his mother in reduced circum- 
stances, with a helpless and rather numerous family. But she 
was a woman of intelligence, energy, and piety, and raised her 
children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and trained 
them to read the Bible and the old Scottish autiiors, such as 
Bolton and others, which will account for her son's thorough and 



STUDENTS. 333 

accurate knowledge of the Scriptures, which he quoted with 
remarkable accuracy and fluency, and in which his religious dis- 
courses so richly abounded and made him such an acceptable 
preacher to most of his hearers. Mr. McNab acquired an Eng- 
lish education sufficient to enable him to teach school, and entered 
the Donaldson Academy, in Fayetteville, N. C, when he was 
about twenty-three years old, where he remained about three 
years, and where he obtained a tolerably accurate classical and 
scientific education, under the celebrated Dr. Colton. He entered 
the Theological Seminary at Columbia, in October, 1888 ; but, 
his health failing, he was compelled to abandon his studies for a 
time. However, he w\as licensed in Wilmington in 1844, and 
commenced preaching at Sandy Ridge, in Lowndes County, and 
Providence church, in Montgomery County, within the bounds of 
East Alabama Presbytery, where he continued to labor as a licen- 
tiate for nearly two years ; and having received and accepted a 
call, he was ordained at Tuskegee in the spring of 1846, and 
installed at Providence church, July 5th. Subsequently having 
added Bethel church to his charge, he labored with great accept- 
ance for nearly four years, when his health gave way, and he was 
obliged reluctantly to give up his charge. After this, he engaged 
in selling Bibles and other religious books, as a colporteur, until 
his health gave way entirely, and he died of pulmonary disease. 
He was a brother beloved and esteemed by all who knew him; 
"an Israelite indeed, in whom there was no guile ;" a man of piety 
and sterling integrity, and more than an ordinary preacher. 

M. A. Patterson. 



JOHN CALVIN McNAIR 

Was born on the 22d day of February, A. D. 1822, in Robe- 
son County, North Carolina. He was the second son of Malcolm 
and Margaret McNair. The maiden name of his mother was 
Dalrymple. 

The children of the faithful are the heirs apparent to the pro- 



334 STUDENTS. 

misos. On the 14th Jay of May, 1843, the subject of this sketch 
made a public profession of faith in Christ. It seems that about 
the same time he recognised the fact that he was called of God 
to prepare to preach the gospel. 

On the 27th day of June, 1849, he was graduated from the 
University of North Carolina with the highest distinction that 
venerable institution could confer. He had secured by teaching 
the means necessary to obtain a liberal education, and to this use- 
ful labor he again devoted his energies for several years after his 
graduation. 

In the fall of 185(3 he entered the Theological Seminary at 
Columbia, South Carolina, where he pursued the regular course 
of study until May, 1857. In the spring of that year he was 
licensed by the Presbytery of Fayetteville as a probationer for 
the gospel ministry. 

Mr. McNair's parents were Scotch Presbyterians, and he 
was brought up in a community where the traditions and 
characteristics of Scotland were held sacred. It was natural that 
he should cherish a desire to enjoy the advantages offered by the 
famous schools of Edinburgh. Accordingly we find him in the 
fall of 1857 dividing his time between the University of Edin- 
burgh and the New College. In the former he took Logic and 
Metaphysics with Prof. Eraser, and Rhetoric and Belles Lettres 
with Prof. Aytoun; in the latter he studied Church History with 
Dr. Cunningham, and Natural Science with Dr. Fleming. And 
here we may remark, that his fiivorite study was natural science. 
Had he been spared to the Church on earth, he would have en- 
tered the ministry with peculiar ability to grapple with the ques- 
tions growing out of the relations of natural science to revealed 
religion. But a few months after his arrival in Edinburgh, while 
on an excursion, to the western coast of Scotland, he was seized 
with gastric fever. Ueturning to Edinburgh, he died after a 
brief illness. His end wiis peace. The bust sermon he heard was 
by Dr. Norman McLeod in the Barony church in (ilasgow. Dr. 
Cunningham and I'rof. Eraser with their own liands took part in 
h)wering him into his grave. His ])ody lies close by the remains of 
Dr. Chalmers and Hugh Miller, and a monument marks the spot. 



STUDENTS. 335 

This brief record reveals a man of unusual promise. It leaves 
no room for doubt that this servant of God coveted earnestly the 
best gifts, and that he possessed great force of character. It on- 
ly remains for the writer to testify that his affections were strong 
and his nature genial. W. T. Hall. 



REV. DONALD McQUEEN, D. D., 

Was born June 21st, 1810, in Chesterfield, S. C, of Scotch 
descent, his father being a physician, Avho came from the Isle of 
Skyer 

He was graduated from the South Carolina College in 1832, 
with a good classical education, and after this was engaged for a 
time in teaching in the Cheraw Academy, in connexion with Dr. 
James H. Thornwell. Feeling that he was called of God to preach 
the gospel to his dying fellow-men, he turned his back upon 
worldly honors, and entered the Theological Seminary in Colum- 
bia, and diligently applied himself in preparing for this great 
work. Graduating from that institution in 1836, he soon entered 
upon the active duties of the ministry. 

Accepting a joint call from the churches of Sumterville and 
Concord, he was, in the spring of 1837, ordained and installed 
their pastor. He continued thus for sixteen years, when the 
Sumterville church called him for the whole of his time. Con- 
senting to the change, he removed into the town of Sumter, 
where he resided until his death, January 22d, 1880. Thus he 
spent the whole forty-three years of his acceptable and useful 
ministry in this joint and sole pastoral charge, greatly beloved 
and honored. 

In early life he was united in marriage with Miss Clara Prince. 
His widow and a number of their children survive him, one of 
whom is the Rev. Donald McQueen, of Milledgeville, Ga. 

Dr. McQueen was an earnest and able preacher of the gospel. 
In the pulpit he forgot self in his ardent desire to glorify God, to 



336 STUDENTS. 

save undying souls, and to edify Christians. His Master blessed 
his labors, so that all through his ministry believers were added 
to the church. He was a loving pastor, a wise counsellor, a ten- 
der and sympathising friend ; and so happy was his disposition, 
so genial and cheerful his nature, so warm and hearty his greet- 
intf, that he was the joy and life of every circle he entered. In» 
him there was a living exemplification of the happiness which the 
Christian religion imparts. 

Dr. McQueen was bold and fearless, yet wise and prudent. 
He was a ruling spirit in the ecclesiasticnl courts of which he was 
a nioniber, and ])unctual in his attendance upon them. For many 
Years he was Chairman of the Executive Committ9e of his Pres- 
bvterv ; an influential Director of our Tlieological Seminary, and 
in 1859 was the Moderator of the Synod of South Carolina. He 
was devoted to the standards of his own Church, yet of a truly 
catholic spirit towards others. 

His influence as a citizen was wonderful. So intense was his 
hatred of everything mean and low ; so pure his character and 
spotless his life, that all classes respected and esteemed him. He 
was a true patriot ; and in those times that tried men's souls, he 
not onlv exposed his life at the call of duty, but laid upon the 
altar of his country a costly off"ering, far dearer to him tliaii his 
own life. His memory is embalmed in the hearts of multitudes. 

The followiui: touchinf; memoranda were found in his IJible 
after his death, written under the conviction, doubtless, of his 
departure very soon out of this world : 

''Graduated at the South Carolina College in the class of 1832. 
Graduated at the Theological Seminary, Columbia, in 1836. 
Licensed by the Presbytery of Harmony in the year 1837. 
Called to the churches of Concord and Sumterville ; ordained 
and installed pastor of the same ; afterwards of the Sumterville 
church alone. Resigned pastoral charge on account of ill health, 
at the Presbytery of Harmony, met at Midway church, October 
11, 1870. And now awaits the call of the Master to his heavenly 
home." James McDowell. 



STUDENTS. 337 



REV. JAMES LYMAN MERRICK 

Was born in Munson, Massachusetts, December 11th, 1803. 
He received his preparation for College in his native town, and 
was graduated at Amherst College in 1830. He entered Colum- 
bia Seminary in 1831, and completed his theological course in 
1833. He was licensed by Charleston Presbytery soon after, 
and on April 14th, 1834, he was ordained by the same Presby- 
tery as an evangelist, to labor as a foreign missionary. He was 
sent by the American Board to Persia, leaving this country Oc- 
tober 6th, 1835. After vainly trying for seven years to estab- 
lish his mission there, he was transferred to the Nestorian Mis- 
sion, where he labored only three years, when he returned to 
America. He labored in his native State until 1866, when he 
died. His end was peace. — Abridged from Dr. Wilson s Sketch. 



REV. TELEMACHUS F. MONTGOMERY. 

Rev. Telemachus F. Montgomery, son of Major James 
Montgomery, was born in Jackson County, Ga., January 14th, 
1808, and died in Orange County, Fla., December 4th, 1875, in 
the sixty-eighth year of his age. He united with the Presbyte- 
rian church at Lawrenceville, Ga., in 1827; entered Franklin 
College 1829; was graduated from the Theological Seminary, 
Columbia, S. C, in the class of 1835. Soon after was licensed 
by Flint River Presbytery and ordained by that body in the 
spring of the following year. 

His first charge was Ephesus church, Talbot County, Georgia, 
where he preached for seven years, at the same time teaching 
school. He had charge for two years of a Female College at 
Pickensville, Ala. From thence he removed to Fairfield District, 
S. C, where he remained two years, supplying several feeble 
churches, but upon the death of his wife he returned to Georgia, 
9-? 



338 STUDENTS. 

ami for two years supplied the Newnan and White Oak churches. 
From thence he went to Lafayette, Ga., where he preached for 
one year. He tlien settled in Merriwether County, of the same 
State, supjjlying the Greenville and Ehenezer churches till after 
the war, when he accepted the Presidency of the Masonic Fe- 
male College at Auburn, Ala., where he remained but one year, 
and where he lost his second wife. In the fall of the same 
year (18(39) he made a tour of observation through Florida, and 
soon thereafter settled in Orange County, in that State, being 
attracted thither by the prospect of fruit-<rrowini:, and desirous of 
traiiiintr his children to habits of industrv, and in a business, too, 
so well suited to intellectual culture. Being then the only Pres- 
byterian minister in that portion of the State, he gave himself to 
missionary work, embracing in his field the counties of Orange, 
Volusia, and Sumter, which work he continued until disabled by 
a stroke of paralysis in 1874. 

Mr. ^Montgomery was a man of fine physical frame, of good 
mind, sound judgment, and deep piety. Social in disposition, he 
was always cheerful and full of anecdote. In the home circle, 
remarkably tender and affectionate. As a master he was pa- 
tient and humane, as a neighbor liberal and charitable. Being 
descended from a patriotic ancestry, he inherited their principles 
and exhibited his devotion to country by contributing liberally to 
the support of the widows and orphans during the entire war, and 
even taking up his carpets and cutting them up into blankets for 
the soldiers of the Confederacy. As a minister, though not bril- 
liant, he was always solid and practical. As a pastor, kind and 
sympathising, and particularly skilled in healing church dissen- 
sions and difficulties; and withal very successful in winning souls, 
very few communion seasons passing, according to his own con- 
fession, without his receiving one or more members. He was 
a true man and a faithful and useful laborer, and has left behind 
him an impression for good which will linger for years in tlie 
several conmiunities in which he lived and labored. 

James Stag v. 



STUDENTS. 339 



REV. WILLIAM H. MOORE 

Was graduated at Davidson College in 1841, and entered Co- 
lumbia Seminary in that same year. He did not complete his 
course of study, but left in 1843. His field of labor was in 
Ohio and Alabama. When he died, on July 1st, 1853, he was 
a member of the Synod of Alabama, which adopted the following 
minute : 

'■''Resolved^ That in the death of this beloved and esteemed 
brother, the Church has been deprived of a firm advocate and sup- 
porter of her fiiith and practice, the Synod of a worthy and 
esteemed brother and fellow-laborer ; and that in view of this 
dispensation of Providence, the Synod would present their con- 
dolence and sympathy to the afilicted family of the deceased." 

R. Nall. 



REV. HUGH A. MUNROE 

Was born in North Carolina of Scotch ancestry in 1812, and 
died October 24th, 1874, at Whitehall, in Bladen County, K C. 

He received his literary education at Donaldson Academy in 
Fayetteville, and then went to Columbia Seminary, entering in 
1837, and completing his theological course in 1840. He was 
licensed by one of the Presbyteries in the Synod of South Caro- 
lina, but soon returned to his native State, where he remained 
until his death. In the early part of his ministerial life he went 
to Bladen County, and was the first Presbyterian minister that 
died in that county. It was his lot to labor mostly as a pioneer, 
and, as the result of his self-denial and zeal, "several garden 
spots, once waste places, now greet the eye of the beholder." 

He was rigidly Calvinistic in his views, and much inclined to 
controversy, especially in early life and middle age. He was 
very firm and resolute, and one has said: "When once Bro. 
Munroe has made up his mind on a subject, to attempt to turn 
him is like attempting to dam the Nile with bulrushes." 



340 STUDENTS. 

In social life lie was very attractive, and his genial disposition 
caused him to be much beloved and greatly sought after as a fire- 
side companion. 

He was twice married, first to Miss Lucy Wright, and again 
to Miss C. M. Wooten, of Bladen County, who, with six little 
children, survived him. 

II is death was sudden. On Saturday afternoon, October 24, 
he came in the house and told his wife to give him a camphor 
])il], as he was sick. Having taken it he lay down and soon re- 
" marked that he felt better. His wife then went out of the room 
for a few moments, and when she returned he was dying. The 
summons was sudden, but the steward was ready. He served the 
Master long, and then entered into rest. 



THOMAS MARQUIS NEWELL. 

The subject of this sketch was born at Cross Creek, Washing- 
ton County, Pa., October IGth, 1815. During a revival in the 
Washington church, he made a profession of his faith. He was 
graduated from Washington College in 1834, and studied in the 
Western Theological Seminary at Allegheny, till 183(3, and 
attended the exercises of the Seminary at Columbia during the 
session of 1838-39. He was licensed by Wasiiington Presby- 
tery, and by it was ordained in 1843, and installed pastor of the 
church at Wcllsburg, A'^a. In 1849 he married Miss Martha, 
daughter of Robert Officer, Es((., of Washington, Pa. In 18ol, 
he removed to .lacksonville, 111., wlicrc he was engaged as a 
teacher in the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, meanwhile preacliing in 
the destitute regions around him, as opportunity offered. In 
18.')7, he took charge of the church at Waynesville, 111., where 
lie labored faithfully and successfully until his death. May lOtli, 
18<)0. On the day of his death, he seemed unusually well and 
cheerful ; but at the supper-table he became suddenly ill and ex- 
pired in a few minutes after being removed to his bed. 

As a presbyter, Mr. Newell enjoyed the confidence of hisbreth- 



STUDENTS. 341 

.ren, and had been frequently sent by them to the General As- 
sembly when important -interests were at stake. Rev. Mr. Price 
thus speaks of him : "As a man, he was modest and unassuming, 
yet firm in his adherence to principle. ... As a Christian, he 
was a good man, full of faith and the Holy Ghost. As a preacher, 
he was clear, concise, pointed, experimental, and pathetic. He 
always seemed to feel the force of the truths which he preached. 
As a pastor, he was kind, diligent, and faithful." 

\_Extract from Wilson s Almanac foj- 1866. 



MR. EBEN NEWTON. 



Eben Newton Avas born in Banks County, Georgia, Novem- 
ber 7th, 1851. He w\as the son of Rev. Henry Newton, noAv 
pastor of the church at Union Point, Ga., and the great-grandson 
of Rev. John Newton, wdio came to Georgia in 1786, and laid 
the foundations of several flourishing churches. 

In 1852 thefemily removed to Jackson County, Georgia, where 
his childhood and youth were spent. He became a communicant 
of Thyatira church in August, 1867. He stated to the Session 
that he could remember no period of his life when he did not 
enjoy the worship of God. 

He entered the University of Georgia as a student in 1868, 
and was graduated from that institution in 1871. His academi- 
cal training had been received from Prof John W. Glenn, Prin- 
cipal of Martin Institute, Jefferson, Georgia. 

Dedicated by his parents at his birth to the work of the minis- 
try, God accepted the offering, and impressed upon his heart, 
as he grew up to manhood, the conviction that to this work he 
was divinely called. He taught school for several years in order 
to repay money used in his literary training and also to defray 
his expenses at the Seminary, and entered Columbia Theological 
Seminary in September, 1874. Remaining one session at the 
Seminary, in accordance with his determination to receive no 



342 STUDENTS. 

assistance from tlie Church, he took cliarge of Lagranjre Scliool 
in the autumn. lie did not return, but after a ])ainfiil iHness of 
six weeks he died at Union Point, February 17th, 1876. 

The character of Eben Newton was one much to be achnired. 
"A rare combination of genuine modesty and genial mirthful- 
ness," says one who loved him, "made him a ftivorite in the 
social circle." Talents of a high order, earnestly devoted to 
study, won for him the admiration of his classmates. His attain- 
ments were good for one of his years, but his modesty veiled them 
from all save his most intimate friends. 

A pure and noble worker w^as lost to the Church on earth 
when his spirit went back to God who gave it. 

Robert Adams. 



REV. SAMUEL ORR, 

Son of John and Elizabeth Orr, was born in Jackson County, 
Ga. (but reared in Cobb County, near Marietta), August 12th, 
1823. He united with Mar's Hill church, of which his father 
was an elder, August 16th, 1845; graduated at Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity, Georgia, 1851 ; at Columbia Seminary, S. C, in 1854 ; 
received by Cherokee Presbytery, at Cartersville, April 14th, 
1855; and ordained by Ouachita Presbytery, Washington, Ark., 
October 22d, 1864, as an army chaplain. He preached in Pick- 
ens County, Ala., at Sardis and Mount Olivet churches, for two 
years. On the 13th October, 1857, he was united in marriage 
with Ann E. Baird, at Tuskaloosa, Ala., and soon after removed 
to Arkansas, reaching Tulip, Dallas County, on Christmas day, 
1857. Here he spent about a month in the families of Kev. A. 
R. Ranks, James A. Patillo, and others, and then he and his 
accomplished bride removed to the County of Pike, Ark., where 
Col. Henry Merril had established his cotton factory — a pious 
elder, where Rro. Orr was invited to preach. He remained here 
two or three months, and tb<'n located at Centre Point, Hemp- 
stead County, engaged in teaching, still keeping uj) his preach- 



STUDENTS. 343 

■ ing appointments at the factory, and at other points in reach, as 
he had opportunity. Here he remained until 18G3, when he 
removed to Dallas County, and took charge of the Pleasant Grove 
Academy and church, where he left a happy impress upon pupils 
and people. From here he removed to Clark County, where he 
took charge of Carolina church, near Dobyville, in 1869, until 
his death, on November 24th, 1882. At this time, however, he 
was supplying the churches of Prescott, Marlbrook, and Shady 
Grove. 

Brother Orr was devotedly pious, manifested great zeal for 
Zion's prosperity, and was always punctual in attendance on the 
courts of the Church, While he was not a brilliant orator or a 
fluent speaker, he was ever most exemplary in conduct as a minister, 
husband, and parent. His pious and godly walk was worth much 
to the Church and the world. In the new and sparsely settled 
condition of the country, with but few churches able to support a 
pastor, he Avas compelled to resort to teaching, aided greatly by 
his intelligent Avife. He leaves her and four children to mourn 
his departure. A. R. B.' 



REV. M. A. PATTERSON 

Died at Mt. Holly, Arkansas, March 18th, 1882, after a lin- 
gering illness, in the seventy-second year of his age. 

He was born and reared to young manhood in Moore County, 
N. C. His father, Mr. William Patterson, died when he was 
quite young; hence he was dependent, to a great extent, upon 
his own efforts to secure means for procuring an education. 

He made a profession of religion during the "big revival of 
1832," at Union church, in Moore County, N. C. He received 
his early education at Donaldson Academy, in Fayetteville, N. C. 
After this he went to Princeton Theological Seminary for a while, 
and completed his theological course at Columbia, South Carolina. 

He was licensed to preach by Fayetteville Presbytery in 1842, 
and was during the same year dismissed to East Alabama Pres- 



344 STUDENTS. 

bytery, and soon after received a call to Pea River church, in 
Barljour County, Alabama, ^vhere he was ordained and installed 
pastor. While pastor of Pea River church, he preached part of 
his time at the churches of Palmyra and Pleasant View. He 
labored in this field about eighteen years. 

In 1860 he removed to Ouachita Presbytery, in Arkansas, and 
■was for five years pastor of Mt. Holly church. 

During the last few years of his life he was not able to preach 
regularly, owing to his declining healtli, and this was a great 
cross to him, for he dearly loved to preach the everlasting gospel 
of his Saviour to his dying fellow-men. 

His preaching was of the purest and most evangelical type, 
proceeding from a heart full of rich Christian experience. The 
writer has often heard him remark that "the Southern Pres])yte- 
rian Church is the purest Church on earth," and he was a fair 
representative of its purity and orthodoxy. Cther preachers have 
been more gifted with ekxpience and golden speech than he was, 
but few have been more faithful in presenting the gospel in its 
pifrity and simplicity. 

The last two years of his life were overshadowed by dark clouds 
of affliction, having, during that time, lost two lovely Christian 
daughters, each after lingering illness and much suffering. And 
in the meantime his own healtii was fast declining, and his dis- 
ease was of such a nature that it destroyed his voice, so that for 
several months before he died he was not able to speak above a 
whisper. 

But under these dark and heavy afflictions he was sustained 
by divine power. And his happiness has been all the more en- 
hanced by the strong and sudden contrast, as his released sjtirit 
ascended from scenes of darkness, affliction, and suffering, to 
those bright realms of eternal day, where there is no more afilic- 
tion or sufleringor death. 

"Servant of God, well done ; 
Praise be thy new eihploy ; 
And while eternal •,\<nis run, 
Rest in thy Saviour's jov." 

E. M. M. 



STUDENTS. 345 



REV. RICHARD PEDEN 

Did not obtain the privilege of a collegiate education. He 
entered Columbia Seminary in 1835, and completed the course of 
study in 1838. He labored first in the Synod of South Caro- 
lina, but afterwards in Mississippi, where he departed this life 
many years ago. 



ABNER A. PORTER, D. D. 

I experience great embarrassment in attempting, within such 
narrow limits, to sketch the life and character of Dr. Porter, a 
man in whom were combined rare intellectual gifts, improved by 
careful training; a judgment of calm, judicial fairness, a refine- 
ment of taste that was faultless ; a lofty sense of honor ; a love 
of truth and justice which amounted almost to sternness ; an 
accurate scholarship and an extended acquaintance with theology 
and general literature ; and all crowned with a deep-toned piety 
and an unaffected modesty. 

Abner A. Porter entered the Seminary in the fall of 1839, 
and left March, 1842, leavino- behind him a record as a student 
and as a man to be admired by all. He was licensed to preach 
by the Presbytery of Tuskaloosa, Ala., October, 1842, and in 
November of thie following year was ordained by the same body, 
and installed pastor over the churches of Bethsalem and Burton's 
Hill, Green County, Ala. Resigning his charge of these churches 
in 1846, he removed to Charleston, S. C, where, under his labors, 
the Glebe Street church was organised. His subsequent charges 
were, the First church, Selma, Ala., Spartanburg, S. C, and 
Austin, Texas, where he ended his labors, December, 1872. 
Perhaps the most important labor of his life in the service of the 
Church was performed as editor of the Southern Presbyterian, 
during the years immediately preceding and during the war of 



346 STUDENTS. 

the States. His endowments and acquirements, intellectual and 
moral, admirably fitted him for such a position at such a time. 

As a preacher, few men were more impressive in the pulpit. 
In doctrine he was eminently distinguished for gravity ; in man- 
ner, for earnestness. There was notliinf; sensational about liim. 
In listening to him, you were impressed with tlie feeling that he 
was uttering the deepest convictions of his own heart. Allow me 
to give the estimate of him as a preacher from the pen of one 
•who knew him intimately from the time he entered the ministry, 
who was himself at that time, perhaps, the most influential eccle- 
siastic and popular preacher of our Church in Alabama: "The 
great power, however, of his preaching lay in the thought, so 
clear, well defined, and incisive. His mind was eminently logical 
in its structure and habitudes. This made him the able theolo- 
gian and powerful preacher. His style was a singularly appro- 
priate vehicle for his thoughts, being, as to the construction of the 
sentences, simple and direct, and in the choice of the words dis- 
criminating, apt, and affluent. . . . To an extent not common 
with even the more thoroughly evangelical preachers, the theme 
of his discourses was the great doctrines of grace as epitomised 
in the symbols of the Church to which he belonged. . . . The 
last sermon I heard from his lips some few years before those 
lips were sealed by death, was one of the most tender and affect- 
ing I ever heard. The gentle. Christian spirit which per- 
vaded every part of it, still lingers in ray heart. I love to think 
of it as the last utterance to me of one whom I had so long loved 
and admired ; for certainly, taking it in every aspect, it was one 
of the noblest, grandest sermons lever listened to." Those who 
knew Dr. Porter, and were accustomed to hear him, will concur 
in this estimate as just and true. Wm. Flinn, 



STUDENTS. 347 



REV. DAVID H. PORTER, D. D. 

Dr. Porter was the son of the Rev. Francis H. Porter, and a 
brother of the Rev. Abner A. Porter, D. D., the Rev. Rufus K. 
Porter, and the Rev. Joseph D. Porter. He was born at Selma, 
Ahabama, May 13th, 1830; became a professing member of the 
Presbyterian Church at fifteen years of age ; was graduated at 
the South Carolina College, with the second honor of his class, 
in December, 1852 ; entered this Theological Seminary January 
6th, 1853, and was graduated at the same June 28th, 1855; was 
licensed to preach by the Charleston Presbytery April 1st, 1855 ; 
from July 6th of the same year preached for the First Presbyte- 
rian church, Augusta, Ga., for three months; was by the Pres- 
bytery of Georgia ordained to the ministry, and installed pastor 
of the First Presbyterian church, Savannah, Ga., in November, 
1855. His pastoral relation to this church was never dissolved 
until his death. During the summer of 1861 he alternated with 
Dr. I. S. K. Axson in preaching to the Confederate garrison in 
Fort Pulaski; passed the year 1862 and part of 1863 as an in- 
valid at Beech Island, S. C. ; in the fall of 1863 became chap- 
lain to the 5th Regiment, Georgia Cavalry, serving till the end 
of the war. In the summer of 1865 he resumed pastoral labor, 
in which he continued until disabled by his last illness. During 
this period he bent his energies toward the erection of a church- 
edifice, the dedication of which took place June 9th, 1872, the 
sermon being preached by the Rev. Dr. B. M. Palmer, the first 
pastor of the church. 

His last sickness was protracted, but was borne in faith and 
meekness. Jesus was with his dying servant. His end was 
peace. He died on the Lord's day, December 21st, 1873, in the 
forty-fourth year of his age. His funeral was attended by min- 
isters and people of all religious persuasions, who lamented his 
departure, and his body was buried at Laurel Grove Cemetery, 
Savannah. He left a widow — the daughter of ruling elder Sam- 
uel Clarke, of the Beech Island church — who has since followed 
him to Canaan's land, and several children. He published one 



348 STUDENTS. 

sermon, the subject being the reUition of the State to Reliirion, 
which elicited high praise for ability from Dr. Thornwell through 
the Southern Presbyterian Review. He was graceful in ])cr- 
son and pleasant in manners: was an affectionate husband and 
father, a polished writer, a faithful and efficient presbyter, and 
a vigorous, attractive, and successful preacher. 

J. L. GiRARDKAU. 



REV. JOSEPH D. PORTER 



The son of the Rev. Francis H. Porter, was born about the 
year 1821, and entered Columbia Seminary in the fall of 1S4"), 
completing his theological course in 18-18. He was licensed pro- 
bably by one of the Presbyteries in the Synod of Alal)am:i. and 
in April, 18o0, was ordained by the Presbytery of Tombeckbee. 
In the fall of 1852 he was received by the Presbytery of South 
Alabama. While a member of that body, he served Laurel 
church at one time, and for a period of three years the Baldwin 
church. From 1862 to 1864 he was a chaplain in the Confederate 
army, being stationed at Mobile. In 1868 he was received by 
the Presbytery of Central Texas, where he labored six years, 
supj)lying frontier settlements and destitute churches. In the 
fall of 1874 he became a member of Eastern Texas Presbytery, 
and took charire of tiie Augusta church and several mis>ionary 
points in Houston County. He labored here two years, building 
up the Augusta church and organising Cocliim church. In 1876 
he became the evangelist for the southeastern counties of the 
Presbytery. In this work he continued two years, building up 
decaying churches, searching out isolated saints, and preaching 
at many points never before visited by a Presbyterian minister. 
His extended missionary explorations on horseback into the dis- 
tant and almost inaccessible interior, were of great value in guid- 
ing the work of tjic Presbytery. 

A few months before his death, he took charge of the San 



STUDENTS. 349 

Augustine church, and was much cheered in the prospects of the 
work ; but while on the way to Presbytery, alone by the way- 
side, with no friend to close his eyes, he was taken ill (probably 
of heart disease), and died in 1879. 

He was characterised by a meek and quiet spirit, and a patient 
endurance of labors and privations in the midst of constant bodily 
infirmity and weakness. He was a regular attendant upon the 
church courts, and manifested an accurate acquaintance with the 
principles of our Church Government. He was a faithful, in- 
structive, earnest, and edifying herald of salvation, and was 
specially useful and blest in his ministrations in the sick room 
and with the dying. 

He was the last of four brothers, who were all valiant for the 
truth, and noble preachers of the gospel in our Church. 



REV. RUFUS K. PORTER. 

Rev. Rufus Kilpatrick Porter was born at Cedar Springs, 
Spartanburg District, S. C, January 1st, 1827. At the age of 
sixteen years he made a profession of his faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ and united with the Church in Green County, Alabama. 

In the fall of 1849 he entered the Theological Seminary at 
Columbia, having the same year been graduated from the South 
Carolina College. He was licensed to preach in 1852, and be- 
came pastor of the churches of Waynesboro and Bath, Ga. In 
the following year he married Miss Jane S. Johnston, of Winns- 
boro, S. C. 

When the war between the States broke out he very soon ex- 
changed the quiet duties of a pastorate for the more stirring scenes 
of the camp, and as chaplain of a regiment in the brigade of the 
lamented Gen. T. R. R. Cobb, he found a field of usefulness for 
which his genial manners and warm sympathetic heart eminently 
qualified him. It was his melancholy privilege to pillow in his 
arms the head of his beloved commander, as he breathed out his 
life on the battle-field of Fredericksburof, Va. 



350 STUDENTS. 

In 18GT he was called to the pastorate of the Central Presby- 
terian church of Atlanta, in which important field he continued 
for the brief remainder of his appointed time on earth. On the 
13th of July, 1800, in the forty-third year of his age, he was 
called to rest from his labors. His end was neither sudden nor 
unexpected. For many months his wasting strength gave painful 
admonition that his days were numbered. With unwavering 
faith in the precious promises of his Saviour, he marched with 
unfaltering step to the end of his journey to receive his crown. 

Brother Porter was singularly attractive in liis intercourse with 
men ; genial and sympathetic in his nature, he could readily en- 
ter into their feelings, so that he did literally "rejoice with those 
that rejoiced, and weep with those that wept." With a higlily 
cultivated mind, enriched by extensive reading, by travel in for- 
eign lands, he was a welcome guest in every circle of intelligent 
Christians. As a preacher, he was discreet in the selection of 
his subjects, sound in his exposition of Scripture, attractive, ear- 
nest, and impressive in his delivery. As a pastor, he was pre- 
eminently successful. lie was, in fact, a polished Christian gen- 
tleman, and a faithful laborious pastor, responding cheerfully to 
the very last day of his life to the calls made upon him, to visit 
the sick and comfort the dying. His memory is embalmed in the 
hearts of his people in Atlanta, and they love to recount in affec- 
tionate words their tender remembrance of his many virtues. 

J. L. Rogers. 



REV. J. M. QUARTERMAN. 

Joseph Melanchtiion Quartermax, son of Rev. Robert 
Quarterman, was born in Liberty County, Georgia, on the 13th 
of April, 1828. The child of pious parentvS, lie was consecrated 
from birth by a devoted mother to the work of the ministry, if 
the Lord should see fit to call him. He made a profession of 
faith in Christ at the early age of fourteen, in the old Midway 



STUDENTS. 351 

church, of Liberty County, of which his father was the senior pas- 
tor. He was graduated from Oglethorpe University in 1847, 
sharing the first honor. He immediately repaired to Columbia 
S. C, to attend the Theological Seminary. After finishing his 
theological course, he was licensed by the Presbytery of Georgia 
(now Savannah), and was sent by Presbytery to take charge of 
the newly organised church of Mt. Vernon, Montgomery County, 
Ga. He was married to Miss Eliza Winn Cassels, daughter of 
Rev. Samuel J. Cassels, on the 14th of April, 1851. 

After five years of patient toil, not unmarked by a measure of 
success in his ministry, he left Mt. Vernon for Palatka, Fla., in 
November, 1855, to take charge of the Presbyterian church 
there. He had, in addition to his charge in Palatka, an appoint- 
ment once a month at Orange Springs, twenty-five miles distant. 
It was on his visit to this last place that he was seized with the 
disease that terminated his earthly mission. He fell with the har- 
ness on, March 29th, 1858, aged thirty years. His course was 
short, but his w^ork was done, and well done. He impressed himself 
upon all as a pious and devoted minister of the gospel, whose 
single aim was to win souls for Christ. He was a man of a screat 
deal of modest merit. While never shrinking from duty, he 
illustrated the apostolic injunction, "In honor preferring one an- 
other." There was a fine symmetry in his character, which, 
while a positive excellence, makes it difficult to give desired relief 
to his portrait. There were about him few salient points to 
engage attention. This, with his modest and reiiring nature, 
prevented the full appreciation of any except his nearest and 
most intimate friends. His mortal remains lie entombed in the 
cemetery at Palatka. Upon the monument is this inscription : 
"A grateful tribute to pastoral faithfulness. The trumpet of the 
watchman is still, but a new harp is strung in heaven." 

D. Fraser. 



352 STUDENTS. 



REV. JOHN WINN QUARTERMAN, 

Son of the Rev. Robert Quarterman, pastoi* for many years of 
the old Midway church in Liberty County, Georgia, was born 
Septcml)cr 21st, 1821. In very early life he made a public pro- 
fession of his faith in Christ, and to the end of his days adorned 
his profession. He was graduated by the University of Georgia 
in the year 1839, taking the first honor in his class. He then 
taught school for two years in his native village,, and entered the 
Seminary at Columbia in 1842. Completing his full course 
there, he Avas licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of 
Georgia on November 15, 1845, and was appointed to supply the 
then vacant pulpit of St. Mary's church, which he did for six 
months. Feeling hfmself called to engage in the work of For- 
eign Missions, he offered himself to the Board, and was accepted. 
On ^lay 31st, 184G, he was ordained by his Presbytery as a for- 
eign missionary. In December of the same year he arrived in 
Ningpo, China, his chosen field, where he joined his brother-in- 
law and his sister. Rev. and Mrs. R. Q. Way, who had preceded 
him three years. He soon acquired a sufficient knowledge of 
the laniruaire to enable him to teach in the Mission Boarding 
School, and to preach each day in the native church, and it was 
while thus engaged that he contracted that dreadful disease, small 
pox, which released him from his earthly labors in Octobei', 1857. 

He was a man beloved by all who knew him, conscientious 
and faitiiful in the discharge of duty, public and private; and pre- 
eminently devoted to his chosen work. 

He translated into the Chinese language different portions of 
the Scriptures, and also Dr. C. C. Jones' Catechism, which has 
been extensively used in the native schools. 



STUDENTS. 353 



REV. C. M. RICHARDS. 

Rev. Charles Malone Richards was the third son of Stephen 
M. and Jane L. Richards, and was born in Madison County, Ala., 
on the 13th day of April, 1837. He was a child of the cove- 
nant, both of his parents being consistent members of the Church 
of Christ. In the twelfth year of his age he made a profession 
of faith in Christ, and united with Ebenezer church, in the Pres- 
bytery of Tuscumbia. Charles having expressed it as his convic- 
tion that it was his duty to preach the gospel, his parents sent 
him, in 1854, to York District, S. C, that he might be under the 
supervision of an older brother. Rev. J. G. Richards, and enjoy 
the advantages of an excellent academy, then presided over by 
Gen. J. A. Alston. He entered Davidson College, N. C, in 
1858, and having passed through the Junior year, Avent to the 
University of Virginia, where he graduated in the School of 
Moral Philosophy, and gave special attention to the departments 
of Greek, Logic, and Rhetoric. In the autumn of 1861 he 
entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C. At the 
close of his first term in the Seminary, he went to Arkansas, 
to spend his vacation with his parents, who had removed to that 
State. While in Arkansas, the war between the States, which 
had begun the year previous, becoming more desperate, he enlisted 
as a private soldier in the Confederate army. He was an entire 
stranger to every member of his command ; but his merits were soon 
discovered, and he was promoted to the position of lieutenant of 
cavalry. In this position he was frequently called upon to exe- 
cute the most difficult and trying duties. In the battle of Bayou 
Metre, near Little Rock, he received a serious wound, being shot 
through both knees, from the effects of which he never fully 
recovered. After the close of the war, he taught in Arkansas, 
for a short while. But returning to the Seminary in the autumn 
of 1867, he was graduated in the class of 1869. He Avas licensed 
to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Arkansas, at Des Ark, 
on the 9th day of July, 1869, and immediately took charge of 
the churches of Bentonville and Cincinnati, his first and only 
23 



354 STUDENTS. 

cliarire. He was ordained to the full work of the ministrv at Jackson 
Port, on the 11th day of April, l.STO. While on his way from 
Bentonville to Cincinnati, to fill an appointment, the wound in one 
of his knees became inflamed, and after a few days of great suffer- 
ing, he died at Cincinnati, Ark., on the loth day of July, 1872. 
Mr. Richards was a good scholar, a good preacher, and a faith- 
ful servant of the Lord Jesus Christ. The Synod of Arkansas 
says of him : "His official character, as a minister, was marked 
by the same sound judgment, the same conscientiousness, the 
same inflexible adherence to principle, the same resolute attach- 
ment to truth, which characterised him as a student, a soldier, 
and a Christian." J. Gr. R. 



REV. H. W. ROGERS 



AVas received under the care of the Presbytery of Western 
Texas as a licentiate of the Presbytery of Tuskaloosa at Victoria, 
Texas, April 3d. 1851, and was ordained evangelist April 7th, 
1857. He was placed in charge of Seguin and adjacent points, 
March 2<jth, 1852; was elected Trustee of Aranama College, 
which he resigned October 15th, 1853. 

Acted as Temporary Clerk of Presbytery at Gonzales, Octo- 
ber 2l8t, 1852; reported the organisation of churches at Seguin 
and Cibolo (now Rector's Chapel), October 22d, 1852; reported 
church organised at San Marcos at Presbytery, October 13th, 
1853, in which he was assisted by Rev. N. P. Charlotte; chosen 
Moderator of Presbytery at Gonzales, March 3()tli, 1855. Pres- 
bytery granted request of Seguin church for half his time as 
stated suj)i)ly, March 30th, 1855. Died, August 3d, 1856. 



STUDENTS. 355 



REV. W. n. ROANE 

Was born November 11th, 182G, near Whitesburg, Alabama; 
professed feith and joined the Chui*eh in July, 1844; commenced 
studying for the ministry with Rev. N. A. Penland, in Somer- 
ville, Alabama, November, 1844; afterwards attended Union 
Seminary, near Spring Hill, Tennessee; next entered Oglethorpe 
University, Georgia, and was graduated November 14th, 1849, 
and took the full term of three years in the Seminary at Colum- 
bia. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Tuscumbia 
Presbytery in 1852, after which he went to Louisiana, and 
preached and taught in Tensas, Madison, and Carroll Parishes 
until the autumn of 1854. He accepted a call to Red Lick and 
Ben Salem churches in Mississippi, and entering immediately on 
his pastoral labors, was ordained by the Presbytery of Missis- 
sippi, December 24th, 1854, and installed pastor of Red Lick 
church at the same time. 

He was married, March 14th, 1855, to Mary L. Macfeat, of 
Columbia, S. C. After serving the churches above mentioned 
for about four years, a wider field of usefulness opened before 
him, and he removed to Magnolia, Mississippi, taking charge of 
the churches at four points on the Jackson Railroad — Summit, 
Magnolia, Osyka, and Amite. His life seemed opening bright 
for usefulness, when the dreadful war of Secession burst upon us. 
Still, through many difficulties and persecutions, he Avorked on, 
and worked successfully too. After the dark hours came morn- 
ing; many who had been enemies and accused him, came up and 
confessed their injustice and begged pardon. He was called to 
fill many positions of honor and trust, in all of which he was ac- 
counted faithful, and it was always said he did his work well. 
He was conscientious, and would have laid down his life sooner 
than to have given up a principle. He served the Church as a 
minister twenty odd years, and then bronchitis compelled him to 
close public exercises. He died, "knowing that his Redeemer 
lived," and that for him "all was well." He fell asleep in Jesus, 
April 4th, 1876, aged nearly fifty. M. L. R. 



356 STUDENTS. 



REV. ISAAC HADDEN SALTER 

Was born in Monroe County, Ala., and died at Lower Peach 
Tree, Wilcox County, Ala, in the thirty-seventh year of his age. 

Bereft of his fatiier at the early age of nine years, he was 
blessed in being reared by a pious mother. Being the eldest 
of five children, his mother's fervent prayers were that he 
would set the rest an example of consecration to God. In this 
she was no,t disaj)pointed. When merging into manhood, he was 
received into the Presbyterian Church at Monroeville, Ala. He 
entered the Theological Seminary at Columbia in the year 1858, 
■was licensed to preach by South Alabama Presbytery in April, 
18G1, and was afterwards ordained by that body as a Domestic 
missionary. He preached at Monroeville, the home of his child- 
hood, and at Scotland and Claiborne churches from 1861 until the 
spring of 1865, and removed to Lower Peach Tree, Wilcox 
County, Ala., and was installed pastor of Hopewell church in 
1868, which relation was dissolved by death. His natural gifts 
were good, aiul he persevered amid difficulties in the improvement 
of his talents by diligent and faithful study. He was a devoted 
Christian and an earnest preacher, free from guile and remarkable 
for his amiability and catholicity of spirit. It was his custom at 
the Seminary, before entering upon his studies for the night, to 
spend the first and freshest moments in devotion. He endeared 
himself to all who knew him, both as a man and as a preacher of 
righteousness. While he was thoroughly grounded and warmly 
attached to the doctrines and polity of his own Church, he had 
the art of so presenting them as not to offend the tastes of others, 
which rendered his ministry acceptable to all denominations. He 
constantly improved in preaching. His sermons were clear, ear- 
nest, and affectionate presentations of truth, and his last were his 
best. He was diligent in the use of the pen, and made many 
valuable contributions to religious journals. His work was brief, 
but it was faithfully done. In his last moments he said : "I do 
not fear death, but I would like to live. I have always wanted 
to live, on account of my mother and sisters and the Church. 



STUDENTS. 357 

Though "\ve cannot understand why it pleases our Father to thus 
afflict us, it will soon be plain to us all." 

His was no unmeaning profession, and he was enabled, without 
a fear, to commit his soul and all that was most dear to him on 
earth to a fjiithful Creator. His declining health warned him of 
the approaching end. He stood upon the watchtower, and con- 
tinued as long as he was able, to cry to sinners, '"''Come to Jesus;'' 
and when laid for many long weeks upon a bed of suffering and 
death, he taught, by his patient, meek, and quiet resignation, 
how to suffer the will of God. 

He fell asleep August 23, 1869. It was in the prime of life, 
and just as a wide field of usefulness was opening before him. 

C. M. HUTTON. 



WM. EDWARD SCREVEN, 

Of the class of 1847, was born on the 31st of August, 1823, 
in Sunbury, Ga., one of the most picturesque and beautiful towns 
of the sea coast. His grandfather. Brig. Gen. James Screven, 
one of the most zealous patriots of the Revolution, fell early in 
the struggle for independence near Midway church in the same 
County. His mother's maiden name was Barbara Rankin Gol- 
phin. His f;ither. Rev. James 0. Screven, was pastor of the 
Baptist church in Sunbury, and Avas among the founders of his 
church in that section of the State. Wm. Edward, when about 
sixteen years of age, united with the church of his father, and 
■was immersed in Sunbury River by the Rev. Josiah S. Law. 

A part of his academical education was under the tuition of 
John B. Mallard, and in Walthourville. He was graduated from 
Franklin College, under the Presidency of Dr. Church, in 1844. 
In the fall of the same year he entered Columbia Theological 
Seminary with the view of entering the ministry of the Presby- 
terian Church. With this view he united with the Columbia 
church, then under the pastoral care of Dr. Palmer. At the be- 



358 STUDENTS. 

ginning of his Seminary course he was so tortured by doubts as 
to his call to the ministry as to be on the point of leaving for 
home. These were so far resolved l»y his friends that he devoted 
himself with diligence and zeal to his studies, and was active in 
missionary work on Sabbath afternoons in the surrounding coun- 
try. One who knew him well and often accompanied him, testi- 
fies that his address on such occasions were fluent and intelligent. 
Possessing a handsome person and engaging manners, and unusual 
eloquence as a speaker, he gave promise of abundant usefulness. 
Returning home in 1845 with his health impaired he gave up the 
active prosecution of his studies. In July, 1845, he was married 
to Miss Cornelia Harris, of Bryan County. Hoping at some 
time to enter the ministry, he gave much attention to literary 
pursuits, and in the year 1847 he published a small volume of 
147 pages on the Relations of Christianity to Poetry and Philo- 
sophy, and dedicated it to Dr. George Howe, as a token of his 
aftectionate regard for his preceptor. 

In 1849 he was struck by lightning in the twenty-sixth year 
of his age, which so shattered his constitution as to disqualify 
him for any further work. He departed this life February 1:2th, 
1860. J. W. Montgomery. 



LUCIUS A. SIMONTON 



Was born in Crawford County, Georgia, June 20th, 1880. 
He was reared in the bosom of the I*resbyterian I'hureh, his father 
being a ruling elder. He was graduated at Oglethorpe Uni- 
versitv ; and it was during his connexion with that institution 
that he made a profession of his faith in Christ and devoted iiim- 
self to the gospel ministry. His theological studies were pursued 
at the Columbia Seminary, and finished there in 1855. He was 
licensed during the following summer by Hopewell Presbytery. 
He entered upon his ministerial labors in the churches of Sparta 
and Mt. Zion, in the State of Georgia, on the 1st January, 1856, 
and was ordained and installed the following spring. 



STUDENTS. 359 

. In the fall of 1858 lie accepted a call from the Presbyterian 
church of Albany, Greorgia. In making the necessary arrange- 
ments for the removal of his femily to that place, he contracted a 
severe cold, which terminated in a rapid consumption. He died 
30th March, 1859, leaving a wife and three little children. Two 
of his children have followed him to the grave. 

He was a very acceptable preacher, and much beloved by his 
people. Tiios. E. Peck. 



REV. ARTHUR MELVILLE SMALL. 

A. M. Small was born in Mecklenburg County, N, C, Oc- 
tober, 1831. His parents were Scotch-Irish, possessing in a high 
degree the characteristic excellences of that people. They re- 
moved, when he was quite young, to Charleston, S. C, where 
Arthur grew up and, together with his brother Robert, attended 
the High School in that city, taught at the time by that distin- 
guished scholar, Mr. Bruns, and was there prepared for college. 
In early life he made a public profession of faith in Jesus Christ, 
uniting with the Second church, Charleston, then under the pas- 
toral care of Dr. Thomas Smyth. Consecrating his life to the 
work of the gospel ministry, he entered Oglethorpe University in 
the year 1849, and graduated with the highest honor of his class 
in 1852. He at once entered the Theological Seminary, and 
after passing through the prescribed course of study was licensed 
to preach by the Charleston Presbytery April 1st, 1855. 

He commenced his ministry in the Huguenot church, Charles- 
ton, where he preached four months. In the fall of 1855 he took 
charge of the church at Liberty Hill, S. C, where he preached 
until April, 1858, when he accepted the call to the church in 
Tuskegee, Ala., where he labored for a little more than two years. 

In October, 1860, he became pastor of the church in Selma, 
Ala., where he continued to labor until April 2d, 1865. On 
that day he was ordered out by the military authority of the city, 



3G0 STUDENTS. 

who re(iuired all men able tu bear arms to repair to the trenches 
to repel the threatened raid of General Wilson. It was the Sab- 
bath day, but instead of entering his pulpit, he had to arm him- 
self for war. With foreboding as to what the result might be, he 
gathered his loved family around him and kneeling down, he 
commended them, himself, his church, and his country to that 
God whom he loved and trusted; tiien rose from his knees, armed 
himself with the unfamiliar and uncongenial weapons, and ten- 
derly embracing his -wife and sister-in-law, took his place in the 
trenches with his people. Late in the evening of that Sabbath 
day the enemy made an assault on the city, and he fell, ])ierced 
to the heart by a bullet fn»m the Federal lines, and died at his 
post. 

Mr. Small was married November 14th, I800, to ^liss Martha 
Ann, daughter of B. P. Stubbs, Esq., of Midway, Baldwin Coun- 
ty, Ga., with whom he lived most happily until the day of his 
death. She survives him as Mrs. Chancellor Graham, of Tus- 
kegee, Ala. 

In person he was rather below the medium stature, but sym- 
metrically formed and handsome; his manners easy and pleasant; 
and his uniform courtesv, amiable and <fentlemanlv beariny;, ren- 
dered him attractive to all wiio came in contact with him. He 
had a pleasant voice and nuinner in the pulj)it. and was sound in 
doctrine. As pastor he was greatly beloved by all. 

AV.M. Flinx. 



REV. BOBERT R. SMALL. 

RoRKKT RoinoRTSoN S.MALL was born in Charleston. S. C. 
A\ bile he was (piite young, his ])arents removed t(» Mecklenburg 
(,'0., iS'. C, where for several years he atten<led scho(»l. At the age 
of fifteen, he became a clerk in a mercantile house in his native 
city. In this position he maintained an unblemished character. 
At a time when there was no religious excitement, he was made 
a subject of converting grace, and connected himself with the 



STUDENTS. 361 

Second Presbyterian church, Charleston. After making this 
profession of his faith in Christ, he felt himself called to preach 
the gospel. He began his studies preparatory to the ministry in 
1847. He entered Oglethorpe University in June, 1849, and 
was graduated in 1852. While in College, he won the esteem of 
his fellow-students for his integrity and the consistency of his 
Christian walk. He was one of the founders of a missionary 
society which was connected with the institution, and Avith affec- 
tionate earnestness endeavored to brino; his fellow-collegians to 
the savino; knowledsre of Christ. In November, 1852, he entered 
Columbia Theological Seminary, where he pursued his studies 
for three years, and was graduated in 1855, with a reputation for 
uncommon piety. He was licensed by Charleston Presbytery, 
April 1st, 1855. Soon afterwards he undertook a missionary 
work amono; the ignorant and destitute "sand-hillers" in the 
neighborhood of Columbia, S. C, which was signally blessed. 
Having received a unanimous call to the church at Rocky Mount, 
Bossier Parish, La., he prepared to enter upon the pastoral work. 
But the distinction between the preceptive and the decretive will 
of God received in his case a fresh illustration. The one will 
called him to preach ; the other appointed him to die. He was 
stricken with typhus fever, and exhibited under its fatal ravages 
the sweetest acquiescence in the Avill of the Lord. One circum- 
stance connected with his last moments deserves to be recorded 
and noted ; and for the fact the writer vouches as an eye-witness 
of the scene. After having lain in the dying change for hours, 
speechless, motionless, and at the last with a fixed, unwinking 
gaze, three times his arms were lifted and extended in the direc- 
tion in which he was apparently looking, and an indescribable 
expression of joy flashed each time, like a beam of glory, across 
his sunken features. The third time his lips parted, and he Avas 
heard to say, in a faint, but thrilling voice : "Earth is receding — 
heaven I" He died, at the time when he expected to be married, 
in Charleston, in 1856, and his body was buried in Magnolia 
Cemetery. A more affectionate and Christlike spirit the writer 
never knew. He thirsted to preach Jesus to sinners, and had a 
heart to bring the world to him. Joiix L. Girardeau. 



362 STUDENTS. 



ANGUS FERGUSON SMITH 

Was born in Jones County, Mississippi, March 'liHh, 1833. 
His collegiate course was pursued at Oakland College, in his 
native State, where he graduated with the highest honors of his 
class in 1858. In the autumn of the next year he entered the 
Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, and began his direct 
preparation for the gospel ministry. He applied himself with 
diligence and zeal to the studies and duties of a Seminary student, 
and was also ready at all times to engage in Christian work outside 
the institution He was endowed with a vigorous mind, a ready 
delivery, and an energetic spirit; and these gifts he held as conse- 
crated to the Masters service. 

He did not, however, complete the three years' course in the 
Seminary. Having married Miss Carrie Golding, of Spartan- 
burg, S. C, shortly after the close of his second year's course, 
and in the meantime having been licensed by his Presbytery to 
preach the gospel, in July, ISljl, he became the stated supply of 
the Spartanburg church, and thus entered regularly upon the 
performance of his ministerial work. He did, indeed, attempt 
for a time to keep up his studies in the Seminary, going down 
there for the week, but this he abandoned after a few months, and 
took up his residence in Spartanburg with his wifes family. 

His connexion with the church at this place continued, through 
not a few trials and discouragements in those dark days of war, 
until January, 1804, when, leaving the work at home, he repaired 
to the Confederate army of Tennessee to engage in ministerial 
labor there, under the direction of the Assembly's Committee of 
Domestic Missions. But his career in this new field was short. 
Though spared the missiles of the enemy upon the battle-field, he 
soon fell a victim to disease. After a wasting illness of many 
days with typhoid fever, he expired in the Empire Hospital at 
Atlanta, Ga., on the 8th of July, 1804, dying in the full confi- 
dence and joyous triumphs of Christian faith. T. II. Law. 



STUDENTS. 363 



ROBERT L. SMYTHE 

Was born in Charleston, S. C, of Irish parents, about 1841. 
He was prepared for College in Sumter District, and becoming 
a candidate for the ministry under the care of Harmony Presby- 
tery, he went to Oglethorpe University. In 1863 he entered the 
Seminary at Columbia, but soon after went into the Confederate 
army. 

He married Miss Mary Scudder, of Savannah, Ga., and died 
in Elizabeth City, N. J., leaving her and two small children to 
mourn his loss. 



REV. W. R. STODDARD. 



Rev. W. R. Stoddard was the son of Mr. Francis Stoddard, 
a highly respectable citizen of Laurens County, S. C, and a con- 
sistent member of the Presbyterian church of New Harmony. 
He set a godly example to his children, and did all he could to 
impart to them religious instruction. His son William R. pro- 
fessed faith in Christ when about fifteen years of age. Soon 
after he began to think of consecrating himself to the work of 
the ministry. From the academy of Rev. J. L. Kennedy, he 
went to Erskine College, where he was a faithful and diligent 
student for some time, but did not complete his College 
course. In 1857 he entered the Theological Seminai-y at Co- 
lumbia, S. C, and completing the prescribed course of stud}^ he 
was licensed April, 1860, by the South Carolina Presbytery. At 
the commencement of the Confederate war he volunteered as a 
private soldier in one of the companies of James's Battalion. 
Besides his duties of soldier, he ofiiciated as minister of the gos- 
pel, preaching and holding prayer-meetings in camp whenever 
opportunity presented. Though not highly gifted as a speaker, 
such was his faithfulness as a Christian, and so untiring were his 
efforts, that he soon Avon the confidence of the whole command. 



364 STUDENTS. 

The officer in eomnKuul was .so impressed with his piety and his 
zeal for the cause of Christ, that he kindly relieved him from the 
common duties of the soldier, and made him chaplain. His char- 
acter was lovely, because it was Christlike. His very life 
preached to others, and told upon the hearts of those who knew 
him, because it was a godly life. Selfish thoughts and feelings 
were unknown to him. He was ever ready and willing to make 
sacrifices for the good of others. He was at the close of the war 
chaplain at Lauderdale Springs in ^lississippi, where lie was mar- 
ried to Miss Yates, in thes])ring of 1805. 

While on a visit to his parents in South Carolina, he was 
stricken with disease, and died at his father's residence only a few 
weeks after his marriage. 

His age was about thirty-five years. He was truly a good man. 



REV. WALLACE HOWARD STRATTON 

Was born in Eufaula, Barbour County, Alabama, April 2Gth, 
1839, and died in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, August 21st, 1873. 
He was the son of the Rev. James Stratton and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Floyd Stratton. 

At fifteen, while absent in Bridgeton, N. J., the native place 
of his father, he was received into the comtnunion of the Church, 
and from that time until called into the Church above, we believe 
he could say, "The life that I now live in the fiesh, I live by the 
faith of the Son of God, who loved me and gave himsulf for me." 
Many years after he said to the Avriter: "1 am (juite persuaded 
that at eleven years of age I had the same gracious exercises which 
I now have, and which old Christians have, and think that at fif- 
teen they were only confirmed and increased." Until he entered 
Oakland College, which was then in high repute, and where he 
graduated with honor, he had been fiivored with the best instruc- 
tors, and had been a close student. 

In the year 18 — , he went to Cohnubia Theological Seminary, 



STUDENTS. 365 

■v^as licensed, ordained, and installed pastor of the clmrcli at An- 
derson C. H., S. C. His health failing, he removed to Pass 
Christian, La., and afterwards became pastor of the church in 
Baton Rouge, La., Avhere after an honored and useful pastorate 
he Avas taken ill and died. 

He had always been a hard student, was a consecrated man, 
and died in the "full assurance of faith." 

James Stratton. 



REV. PHILIP H. THOMPSON 

Was the youngest son of William Thompson, an elder in the 
First Presbyterian church at Nashville, where the subject of this 
sketch Avas born, April 3d, 1830. He enjoyed the privilege of 
Christian training, as both of his parents were godly people. 

He was graduted from the University of Nashville, under the 
presidency of Dr. Philip Lindsley. He chose his father's pro- 
fession — that of the law; was admitted to the bar in 1851, and 
in 1852 married Miss Juliet Marshall, of Bowling Green, Ky. 
Their only child died in infancy. In 1853 he removed to Mem- 
phis. Before leaving Nashville he made a profession of religion, 
and he was elected to the office of ruling elder in the Second 
church of Memphis. In 1856 his wife died. The loss of his 
wife and child was instrumental in weaning him from the world, 
and in directing his mind to the ministry. He entered the Semi- 
nary at Columbia in 1859, shortly after his licensure by the 
Presbytery of Memphis, which took place at Osceola, Ark. He 
was ordained early in 1860, by the same Presbytery, to the work 
of an evangelist. After travelling with Dr. Thornwell in Europe, 
he was installed pastor of the Fourth Presbyterian church of 
Memphis, in December, 1861. His church increased from 
twenty-one to fifty in a short time. His church building was 
burned during the war. In 1862 he married Miss Lucy C. Bills, 
by whom he had two children, both of whom are still living, the 



36G STUDENTS. 

elder one being at present a student in Columbia Tlieoloirical 
Seminary. In 1803 he accepted a call from Emmaus and Belle- 
mont churches, in Fayette County, Tenn., wiiere he labored for 
three years with great acceptance. After two years of preaching 
at Bartlctt, he took charge of the Portland church, near Louis- 
ville, Ky., where he labored with great acceptance for two years 
and a half. In August, 1870, he was installed pastor of Mulberry 
church, the late charge of the beloved Samuel McPheeters. He 
livc<l less than a year, doing his Master's will with his might. 
He died June 13th, 1871, aged forty-one. He was a man of 
piety, zeal, and boldness. Everywhere he went, he succeeded 
in winning the hearts of his people. Among his dying words 
were : "It will all be right ;" and his very last words were: "My 
hope is in Christ." John S. Park. 



REV. EDWARD R. WARE. 

He was graduated at the University of Alabama, entered Co- 
lumbia Seminary in 1840, and completed his theological course 
in May, 1849; was licensed by the Presbytery of East Alabama, 
October 24th, 1849, and ordained September 28th, 1850. He 
was pastor of the church at Jacksonville, Ala., and died Octo- 
ber 19th, 1854. As a man, he was kind, affable, and concilia- 
tory. As a Christian, he was truly pious and humble. As a 
minister, faithful, laborious, and persevering. As a husband, he 
was affectionate and devoted. But his work was done, and he 
has gone to his rest. He met death with great composure, and 
in his last hours was blessed by the grace of God, with full as- 
surance of a happy immortality. — Minutes of Synod of Ala- 
bama, 185If.. 



STUDENTS. 367 



REV. JOHN F. WATSON. 

John Franklin Watson, son of Rev. S. L. and N. H. (Neel) 
Watson, -was born in Steele Creek, Mecklenburg County, N. C, 
March 21st, 1839. 

John received his preparatory training at Bethel Academy, and 
entered the Sophomore Class of Davidson College, N. C, in 
1856, and here made a profession of faith. He was graduated 
in July, 1859, and in the fall of the same year entered the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Columbia, S. C. Having completed the course 
there, he was licensed as a probationer by Bethel Presbytery in 
1862. Having served as a missionary to the soldiers in 1862 for 
a while, he was ordained October 3d, 1863, by Bethel Presby- 
tery, at Waxhaw church, and returned as a missionaiy to the 
army in Virginia. During the following winter he had a severe 
attack of typhoid fever, which forced him to return to South Car- 
olina in the spring of 1864. During the fall of that year he 
returned to the army of Northern Virginia and served as chap- 
lain of the 16th North Carolina Regiment of Infantry, until the 
close of the war. It was his delight to labor for the spiritual 
good of the soldiers, in the camp and on the march, ever zealous 
in the work. It was often difficult to keep him from taking ac- 
tive part in battle. It was hard to make him see that the proper 
place for a chaplain was at the field hospital. Like every true 
patriot, he longed to be at the front. 

After the close of the war he united school-teaching with 
preaching until November, 1866, when he went to Arkansas, and 
engaged in teaching while supplying the Camden church. In 
the spring of 1867 he returned to South Carolina, and on 
April 2d, 1867, he was married to Miss Mary Elizabeth Alston, 
of Ebenezer. Removing in 1867 to Princeton, Ark., he had 
charge of a female school, also preaching at Princeton and Tulip, 
where he labored till 1870, and after a protracted sickness died, 
June 8th, 1870. He left no children. 

He was highly esteemed as a teacher and preacher. Fearless 



368 STUDENTS. 

and detenniiied in the performance of duty, desiring to have al- 
ways "a conscience void of offence toward God and toward men." 
On his tombstone are inscribed these words: 

"A sincere, practical man, 
An luinilile Christian, 
In death triinii]ihant." 

S. L. W. 



REV. W. B. WATTS. 

WiNSLOAV Brainard Watts and Thus. Espy Watts, twin 
brothers, were born in Iredell County, N. C, five miles west of 
Statesville, March 29th, 1833, sons of substantial Scotch-Irish 
Presbyterians. The father was an earnest, praying member of 
Concord church ; two uncles Avere elders, and two other uncles 
were Presbyterian ministers. The motlier (Mary K. Adams) 
was a granddaugliter of an earnest Presbyterian elder, the founder 
of Buck Creek church, in Kowan County, N. C. The parents 
died when the twin brothers were quite young, and they were 
taken in charge by Dr. J. R. B. Adams, their mother's brotlier. 
In early life they became communing members in Concord church, 
and were pupils in Ebenezer Academy, at Bethany church, the 
best school in Western North Carolina in that day. They entered 
Davidson College, and were graduated with honor in 1854. 

W. B. Watts, spending a few years in teaching in Chester 
County, S. C, where he left his mark as a scholar and man, 
entered the Seminary at Columbia in 18r)8. Having coniplcted 
his course, he was licensed by Concord Presl)ytery, Aj)ril 18th, 
1861, and installed pastor of Prospect and Buck Creek churches 
in October following. On the ")tii December, 1861, he was 
united in marriage to Miss E. Melvina Alexan<ler, daughter of 
the late Col. Ben. W. Alexander, of Charlotte, N. C. During a 
service of seven years, one hundred and forty members were added 
to his churches. A combination of diseases terminated his life July 



STUDENTS. 369 

18, 1868, in the thirty-sixth year of his age. A vast assemblage 
attended his funeral, and the Rev. Jethro Rumple may be said to 
have emphasised his character in announcing as his text, "For he 
was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith, and 
much people was added unto the Lord." Acts xi. 24. 

Bro. Watts was an enthusiastic member and minister of the 
Presbyterian Church. He loved her ways, her doctrines, ordi- 
nances, and influence. The pastor of his youth, Rev. Henry N. 
Pharr, early and effectually impressed him Avith spiritual power ; 
and he never forgot his instructions. Indeed, he would almost 
take off his hat when he referred to him. 

Bro. Watts was a most industrious and successful pastor. His 
reports to Presbytery, and his efforts on the floor of Presbytery, 
encouraged and helped his brethren. He was a constant, con- 
fiding friend, generous and warm-hearted. It was always a privi- 
lege to meet him and grasp his hand. ! how memory struggles 
under the sound of his name ! The tear will moisten the cheek 
while these lines are written of one who could so well understand a 
brother's difficulties, and who was ever so faithful to advise and 
help. R. Z. JoHXSTOX. 



SAMUEL PARK WEIR. 

Samuel Park Weir was born October 12th, 1839, in Greens- 
boro, N. C. Deprived at a tender age of a mother's care, he be- 
came a special object of solicitude to his father, Dr. David Weir, 
until a happy marriage with Miss Susan Dick secured for the boy 
such lovincr care as bound the two toorether in closest affection. 

He was prepared for college by the well-known Dr. A. W^ilson, 
and entering the L'niversity of North Carolina, after a brilliant 
course was graduated thence with the second place in a class of 
eighty-four, in 1860. 

One year previous to his matriculation, he united with the 
church at Greensboro, and he adorned his profession through the 
24 



370 STUDENTS. 

temptations of college life, the peaceful current of the Seminary, 
unil tiie trials of the camp and battle-field. 

Of a cheerful disposition, a generous spirit, a manly bearing, 
and a conscientious deportment, it was no wonder that his society 
and friendship were prized by his associates. 

He entered the Seminary at Columbia in ISiJO, but the bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter summf»ned his i>atriotic spirit to the de- 
fence of his country. Entering the ranks of a North Carolina 
regiment at Fort Macon, he was soon elected a lieutenant. Ilis 
zeal for Christ prompted him to do the work also of a colporteur. 
On the heijxhts of Frcdericksburj; he met death in the act of ren- 
dering assistance to a wounded officer (Col. Gilmer). The fatal 
shot entered his temple, and so "he was not," for God took him. 
His mortal dust rests in the cemetery at Greensboro. 

R. E. Cooper. 



WILLIAM WILEY 



Was born in Jefferson County, Missouri, December 25th, 1832, 
of Presbyterian parentage, but grew up with but few privileges of 
the Church, outside his father's family. Arriving at maturity, 
an ardent desire to secure an education led him to dispose of his 
little property and repair to the Des Peres Institute, in St. Louis 
County, Mo., then under the supervision of Rev. J. N. Gilbreath, 
AVhile here he united with the Church in the fall of 1852. Hav- 
ing completed his preparatory studies, he went to Centre College, 
Danville, Ky., and entered Freshman in November, 1854. He 
graduated September Ifith, 1858, taking third honor in a class 
of twenty-seven, delivering the Greek oration. On the 20th of 
the same month he entered the Theological Seminary at Danville, 
where he remained until the spring of 1850. In the fall of the 
same year he entered Columbia Seminary, graduating in the 
spring of LSOL He Avas licensed by the Presbytery of St. Louis, 
May 22d, 1801, and ordained by the same Presbytery, Novem- 
ber nth, 1802. 



STUDENTS. 371 

On leaving Columbia he returned to his home, but his health 
being impaired, together with the outlawry prevailing consequent 
upon the Avar, induced him to retire (the writer thinks) to Mon- 
tana Territory. At the close of the war he returned to his native 
State, and transferred his presbyterial relations to Palmyra Pres- 
bytery, by which body he was received October 12th, 1866. His 
charge was in Monroe County, Mo., chiefly Mt. Horeb church, 
where he labored for two years, when failing health compelled 
him to temporarily lay aside his work as a minister. He maiTied 
in Chillicothe, Mo., and settled on his farm, intending to assume 
again the full work of the ministry, so soon as his health would 
permit. He preached occasionally as his strength would allow,, 
but never recovered sufficiently to enter full work again. He 
died July 25th, 1872, in the fortieth year of his age. 

He was a diligent and successful student; an earnest, conse- 
crated Christian; a laborious, faithful minister; an honest, truth- 
ful man: called away by "Him who doeth all things Avell," at a 
comparatively early period, in what promised to be a career of 
extensive usefulness. I. J. Long. 



REV. ALBERT WILLIAMS, 

A MINISTER of the Baptist Church, was born in Eatonton, Ga., 
August 14th, 1816; made a public profession of religion in 
1835; was graduated at Franklin College on Aug. 1st, 1837; 
attended Columbia Seminary in 1838-9; and was ordained in 
April, 1840. 

He was first a pastor in Columbus and then in Savannah and 
then in Macon, Ga. On account of feeble health he resigned his 
pastorate in Macon in 1848. He became Professor of Languages 
in Mercer University at Penfield, Ga., and then removed to Au- 
burn, Ala., where he taught until 1853. He then removed to 
Montgomery, and engaged in secular pursuits, becoming a suc- 
cessful banker. 



372 STUDENTS. 

Bro. "Williams yearned to preach the irospel. He groaned un- 
der the trial of" being debarred from preaciiing by disease. Though 
greatly blessed in his tiiree pastorates in Georgia, and though 
successful as a business man in Montgomery, he said, " My life 
is a failure, because I am deprived of my loved employ." Yet in 
Montgomery he did great good. He preached as often as health 
and opportunity enabled him, and at one time for a year conduct- 
ed the services of the Second Baptist church. During this period 
many were converted, and among them two of his daughters. 

His life, which was an impressive sermon, came to an end in 
Mellonville, Fla., in February, 1873. He had just gone there, 
hoping to find some relief from the wasting effects of consump- 
tion, but God ordered otherwise. His body now sleeps in Mont- 
gomery, awaiting the glad resurrection morn. 

He was twice married: in 1842 to Miss Mary Irving Clarke, 
and in June, 184G, to Miss Ann Eliza Hollis. Four children 
survive — three daughters, who live in Mobile, Ala., and a son in 
New York. 

Bro. Williams was feeble physically, but his mind was of the 
highest order. "His reputation from the beginning was high, 
as one of the most well-trained, accomplished, and eloquent 
preachers of his day. His objective and subjective knowledge of 
the way of salvation seemed to be extraordinary." "His preach- 
ing was delightfully clear and unaffected, and marked by a chas- 
tened and delicate tenderness." "Genius distinguished every 
paragraph, and celestial unction flowed out upon all that heard." 



REV. A. W. WILSON. 

Among those who have ceased, by reason of death, to answer 
to the calling of the roll of Synod during the past year. Rev. A. 
W. Wilson will be affectionately r«mend)ered. He was a native 
of South Carolina, and was blessed in having had in early life ex- 
cellent religious training. His father, Cajit. J. J. Wilson, was for 



STUDENTS. 6 ( 6 

.many years an elder in Bethel churcli in York County. His 
mother, a Christian of eminent piety, died when he was six years 
of age. The family constituted a centre of marked religious in- 
fluence. Often in mature life, Brother Wilson was heard to speak 
in veneration of the influences which were brought to bear upon 
him around the fireside in the home of his parents. From child- 
hood he maintained the character of a thoughtful and pious fol- 
lower of Christ, and accordingly, in the morning of life, he was 
admitted to a seat at the communion table of our Lord. He grew 
up with the fixed impression that his calling was to be that of an 
ambassador for Christ. 

Mr. Wilson pursued his academic studies in a school at York- 
ville, S. C. Entering Davidson College in 1870, he completed his 
classical course and graduated in that institution in the year 1873. 
He was one of the class that graduated in the Theological Semi- 
nary of Columbia in 1876. A year prior to that event, he 
received license from Bethel Presbytery to preach the gospel of 
Christ. Through his entire course of education he labored under 
difficulties which would have deterred a less resolute person from 
effort. The trouble encountered arose from physical defect in the 
organs of vision, which caused apprehension that he might finally 
be prevented from entering upon the work to which he looked for- 
ward with eager expectation. 

Brother Wilson came to Mississippi in the fall of the year 
1876, and entered upon a field of labor, embracing the churches 
of Greenwood and Roebuck in the Yazoo Valley. His introduc- 
tion there awakened general interest and gave new life to Presby- 
terianism in that comparatively destitute section. He raised the 
standaM of the cross before the eyes of those who seldom heard 
the voice of ministers of the word. At a meeting of the Presby- 
ter}' of Central Mississippi, held at the Roebuck church in Octo- 
ber, 1876, he was received from Bethel Presbytery as a licentiate, 
and a call for one-half his time from the church in which Pres- 
bytery met was placed in his hands. He was accordingly or- 
dained and installed pastor. On the 27th day of December of 
that year he was united in marriage Avith Miss Mary H. Caroth- 
ers, daughter of Rev. W. W. Carothers, of Summerfield, Ala., 



374 STUDENTS. 

and soon afterwards settled in the town of Greenwood. To the 
two churches he continued to labor until the end of his life, giv- 
ing also a part of his services in the last two years to Teoc church, 
in Carroll County. The influence Avhich he wielded became strong 
and extensive. The hearts of the people were won by the min- 
ister, and the work was prosecuted in earnest spirit. His strength 
was mainly in the pastoral work, which extended over a wide dis- 
trict. He was willing and adapted to this department of minis- 
terial duty : hence he could not rest at ease when the impression 
existed in his mind that the sick could be comforted, the poor 
assisted, or sinners moved to seek Christ by his personal efforts. 

Brother Wilson was a man of truly missionary spirit, and paid 
frequent visits to vacant churches. ]Modest, social, unassuming, 
and zealous, he gained the good-will of the masses. As a preacher, 
he was earnest, faithful, and often very impressive in the pulj)it. 
By untiring labors, amiable and unselfish spirit, and by personal 
sacrifices made for the cause of the Master, he acquired the name 
and character of a model Christian, and proved himself a faithful 
minister of Jesus Christ. 

When the memorable overflow came in the month of March, 
1882, and brought disaster to the people of Greenwood and Roe- 
buck, Bro. Wilson moved liis family to Teoc, in Carroll County, 
and then returned to his home. He then passed in a skiff' down 
to Roebuck, to look after the people of his charge. There he 
visited the sick and the suff'ering. Calling at the house of ex- 
Governor Humphreys, he found his family in affliction, and while 
leading them in devotional exercises, he himself became suddenly 
ill. That illness was the prelude to fatal issue. Exposure and 
effort in rowing liis boat proved too much for his strengtii and 
constitution. By painful exertion he returned in the skiff' to the 
vicinity of his home, and stojqied at the house of a friend. Pneu- 
monia in violent iorm had already ]trostrated his physical system. 
His wife was sent for and medical aid procured. When apjtrised 
that liis end Avas near, no cloud gathered over his head. He 
assured his friends and his wife that he had taken firm hold of 
the promises of (iod, and that he felt secure in his reliance upon 
the mercy of God through Christ. Spending his last moments 



STUDENTS, 375 

in prayer for his people, he ch:)se(l his eyes in death, and his spirit 
passed, on the first day of April, 1882, into the rest that remains 
for the people of God. J. H. Alexander. 



REV. CHARLTON H. WILSON, 

The son of Wm. T. and Eunice AVilson, Avas born in Marion 
District, S. C, March 6th, 1828, and died in Richmond, Va., 
June 4th, 1864. 

As a boy, he was remarkable for his orderly deportment and 
affectionate disposition. His early education was received in an 
academy near home, and the last year of his preparation for Col- 
lege was spent in Greensboro, N. C, under Dr. Alexander 
Wilson. 

In January, 1848, he entered Oglethorpe University, and was 
graduated with the first honor in 1850. While there, during 
one of the many revivals with which that institution of our 
Church was blessed, he professed faith in Christ and consecrated 
himself to the work of the ministry. 

After teaching one year in Alabama, he entered the Columbia 
Seminary in 1852, and completed the course in 1855. In the 
spring of that year he was licensed in Williamsburg church by 
Harmony Presbytery. On May 9th, he married Miss Julia A. 
Wilson, of Mt. Zion church, and on .June 1st he went to laber as 
a missionary among the Chickasaw Indians. His work here was 
exceedingly difficult, but as successful as it was difficult. He 
took charge of the large and important school at Wapanucka. 
Misunderstandings had existed among the teachers ; jealousies 
had sprung up among the poorer classes of the Indians against 
the richer ; and differences were growing betAveen the trustees of 
the school and the Board of Foreign Missions in New York. But 
in a short time he corrected all these things by his prudence, 
sagacity, Christian frankness, and conciliatory manners ; so that 
the school flourished greatly. 



376 STUDENTS. 

In tlie spring of 1859 he was compelled to leave the Indian 
country on account of the health of liis fiimily. That summer 
he spent in inissionavy labors, mainly at Conwayboro, S. C. In 
18GU he accepted a call to the churches of Great Pee Dee and 
Bennettsville. In the spring of 1862 he entered the Confederate 
army as a chaplain, but remained only a few months, sickness 
and loss of voice compelling him to return home. In April, 1864, 
he went again to the army, but in one short month he was stricken 
down by severe sickness, and on June 4th died at the oflBcers' 
hospital in Richmond. 

"A man of decided and .eminent piety ; of sound and culti- 
vated intellect : of a remarkablv clear and discriminatins: iudii- 
nient ; open, frank, and judicious in all his intercourse with his 
fellow men ; acceptable and imi)ressive as a preacher ; and 
especially conscientious and faithful in the discharge of every 
duty that devolved upon him as a Christian, a minister, and 
a citizen." 



REY. JOHN D. WILSON. 

Rev. John D. Wilson was born in Darlington County, S. C, 
in 1816 or 1817. In his boyhood he became a member of the 
Darlington Presbyterian church, of which his father, Samuel 
AVilson, was a ruling elder. He graduated in the South Carolina 
College in 1837 ; soon after entered the Theological Seminary, 
Columbia, and graduated there in 1841. Immediately upon his 
graduation in the Seminary he was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Player, of Columbia. He was licensed by the Presbytery of 
Harmony in April, 1841. By permission of that Presbytery he 
became the supply of Providence and Rocky River churches, Ab- 
beville County, S. C, in the bounds of the South Carolina Pres- 
bytery, October, 1841. He was taken under the care of the lat- 
ter Presbytery, March 25, 1842, and at the same date received 
and accepted a call to the churciies of Providence and Rocky 
River. He was ordained pastor of these churches. May 20, 1842. 



STUDENTS. 377 

. His ministry was brief. Scarcely twelve months had revolved 
before he was called to give an account of his stewardship. He 
died in Columbia in the midst of his friends, and with the vener- 
able Dr. Howe, his preceptor, sitting by his side, guiding and 
instructing his pupil in his death as he had done in his life. 

Mr. Wilson, though so young, died greatly lamented. He was 
a perfect man. Tall, of fine personal appearance, of persuasive 
address, and with a voice that commanded attention. A man of 
purpose, he walked with vehemence; studied thoroughly; pur- 
sued an argumentation with ardor, never losing sight of dignity 
and generosity. His sermons were complete, of the polemical 
kind, yet winning and impressive. He had no idiosyncrasies, no 
whims; morally symmetrical and superior to petty suspicions. 
The foreign missionary work had been Ids choice, but the Lord 
had otherwise ordered. 



LEIGHTON B. WILSON 

Was born in Sumter County, South Carolina, July 10th, 1837, 
being the third son of Samuel E. and Sarah D. Wilson. His 
earlier years were spent on his father's farm. He was never very 
robust physically, but possessed intellectual gifts of a high order. 
As a child he was remarkably conscientious, and as he grew up 
to manhood this regard for right principles developed and 
strengthened with his character. Two instances, trifling in them- 
selves, will illustrate the character of the boy and man. While 
a very small boy, he came to his mother's bedside at midnight in 
deep distress, and there confided to her sympathising ears his 
grief that a younger brother, with whom he was sleeping, had 
gotten in bed and gone to sleep without having said his prayers. 
That was such a trouble to him that he could not sleep himself. 
Later in life, while he was in the army of Virginia, and terribly 
emaciated with disease, one of his friends determined to get him 
a chicken and make him some soup. This was done; but when 



378 STUDENTS. 

the soup wiis brought to him he refused to take it unless assured 
that the chicken had not been surreptitiously procured. 

He entered Ogletliorpe College and graduated in the class of 
1857, dividing with another the first honor of his class. He tiien 
taught school a few years, and at the same time prosecuted his 
medical studies. He was attending his third and last course of 
medical lectures in Charleston when the civil war began. He 
came home and joined the army, but soon sickness rendered him 
unfit for military service, and he was honorably discharged from 
the army. AVliile recuperating at home he made a public pro- 
fession of faitli at Mt. Zion Presbyterian church in October, 
1861. This important step led soon to one still more important. 
After mature and deliberate thought, he conceived it his duty to 
abandon his cherished object of entering the medical profession, 
and to give himself to the gospel ministry. He now entered Co- 
lumbia Seminary, but the war still continuing, and his health 
bSing partially restored, he felt that his country demanded his 
services, and accordingly he rejoined the army, going this time 
to Virginia, where it was hoped the climate would not be so try- 
ing. But his old disease returned with increased virulence, and 
he was soon attacked with typhoid fever. He was at length 
brought home again, Avhere he lay hovering for six weeks between 
life and death. But his end was not just yet. Once more he 
rallied from tiie fell destroyer; once more he was partially re- 
stored to health. Soon as he could travel he determined to re- 
turn to the front. In vain his friends entreated him to remain 
till his health was stronger; in vain his physician warned him 
that he was only courting certain death. He went, only to bo 
dashed down again ; only to be brought for the last time to his 
old home and loving friends; only after intense and protracteci 
suffering to yield his life a willing sacrifice upon the altar of his 
country, on the 4th of September, 1804. G. H. Wilson. 



STUDENTS. 379 



REV. WILLIAM W. WILSON 

Was born in Darlington County, S. C, 26tli March, 1823. 
He enjoyed from early life all the advantages of a common school 
education, never being honored with a College diploma, and then 
entered upon the business of life as a teacher. Early in the year 
1843 he Avas invited by a large number of relatives and friends in 
the bounds of Mt. Zion church, Sumter District, to take charge 
of the male academy in that neighborhood. He accepted, and 
commenced his duties with a cheering prospect of usefulness. He 
had been but a very few months thus engaged when a precious 
revival occurred among the youth of Mt. Zion church, and he, 
through God's mercy, became one of the earliest subjects of the 
converting grace and love of God, and soon after, in company 
with many others, he publicly professed his faith in a crucified 
Saviour by uniting Avith the church. He immediately after this 
•experience of the blessedness of a "good hope through grace," 
determined to give the remainder of his life to his blessed Saviour 
in the ministry of the gospel, and entered the Theological Semi- 
nary in Columbia, in December, 1843, and completed the three 
years course of study. He was soon after called to the ministry 
of Bishopville church, Sumter District. He was ordained and 
installed pastor in May, 1848, and for nearly twenty years pro- 
claimed from that pulpit the glad tidings of salvation. For a 
part of this period, the Hephzibah church shared the half of his 
labors. Among this much-loved people he fell asleep in Jesus on 
Sabbath morning, 26th August, 18G6, at 11 o'clock, the usual 
hour of preaching from his pulpit. 

Gifted by nature with highly respectable talents, he was emi- 
nently qualified for the holy office to which he consecrated his 
efforts. He Avas sound in the faith, clear in his expositions, ear- 
nest and impressive in delivery. In prayer he Avas humble and 
fervent ; as a man, he Avas conscientious and exemplary in every 
relative and social duty ; and by his consistent life and pious con- 
versation, conciliated the esteem of all Avith Avhom he Avas asso- 
ciated. Wm. M. Reid. 



380 STUDENTS. 



REV. PP]TER WINN. 

Rev, Peter Winn was born in Liberty County, Ga., in 1815, 
being the son of Maj. John and Mrs. Eliza (Wilson) Winn. He 
had by nature a serious and thoughtful turn of mind ; and when 
about fourteen years of age he professed conversion under the 
preaching of Rev. Joseph Stiles, 1). D., and united with tiie 
Midway Congregational church. He received his early lite- 
rary training in the academy at Walthourville, then a school of 
much notoriety. In January, 1886, he entered the State Uni- 
versity at Athens, Ga., then called Franklin College, and was 
graduated with the second honor, in August, 1838. He went 
thence immediately to Taliaferro County, and taught in a country 
school for a few months. In November of the same year he en- 
tered the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C, with a view 
of preparing for the Presbyterian ministry. Returning home in 
the summer vacation of 1839, he took charge of the Walthour-- 
ville academy for a few months, during the absence of the pre- 
ceptor, and thus by incessant labor undermined and destroyed his 
healtii for life. He resumed in due time his studies in the Semi- 
narv, but had soon to leave on account of ill-health, never more 
to return. 

After laboring as Bible agent and colporteur in North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, he was, in the fall of 
1843, licensed to preach in Midway church, by the Presbytery of 
Georgia. Having spent the winter recruiting his strength in 
Cuba, he engaged for about two years in missionary labors among 
the negroes in the vicinity of Port Gibson, Miss., and there mar- 
ried Miss Margarette McComb. Being now a confirmed consump- 
tive, and entirely broken down in health, he returned with his 
wife in the spring of 1846, to the home of his mother, and on the 
18th of January, 1847, died, antl was buried among his fathers, 
in the old cemetery at Midway. 

Thus ended the brief but laborious and useful life of Rev. Peter 
Winn, admired, h)ved, and honored by all who knew him. His 
work was rapidly performed and well done. In manner he was 



STUDENTS. 381 

affable and prepossessing ; in principle and purpose exceedingly 
firm ; in habit studious, diligent, and very energetic ; in charac- 
ter above reproach; "an Israelite, in whom was no guile;" in 
piety and devotion to his Saviour, constant and untiring ; and in 
death calm and resigned. Cut off in the prime of life and in 
the beginning of his ministry, he did not live in vain. He stood 
and worked when other men would have fallen. He fell at his 
post, and died in the harness. "Well done, good and foithful 
servant ; thou hast been faithful over a few things ; I will make 
thee ruler over many things ; enter thou into the joy of thy 
Lord." "^ T. T. Winn. 



JOHN A. WITHERSPOON. 

John Alfked Witherspoon, the youngest son of Hon. I. D. 
Witherspoon, was born in Yorkville, S. C, May 16th, 1841. 
He began his studies at Davidson College, but in January, 1859, 
entered the South Carolina College, where he immediately took 
rank with the first of his fellow-students, contending with fair 
prospects of success for the highest honors of his class. Here the 
fine traits of his character were developed, and he soon became a 
leading spirit among the pious youth of the College. Ardent 
and enthusiastic in temperament, buoyant and elastic in spirits, 
of gentle manner and winning address, but always manly and 
brave, with a high sense of honor, and of transparent purity of 
character, he became the object of universal love and admiration. 
A professor of the religion of Jesus Christ, he felt its obligations 
to be sacred, and earnestly sought by consistency of life and a 
conscientious discharge of duty to adorn the gospel, and to ele- 
vate the standard of Christian character in the College. His 
popularity among his fellow-students was won by the genuineness 
of his character ; and his influence was gained by his firm adher- 
ence to principle and uncompromising devotion to duty. His 
health becoming impaired, in the summer of 1860 he accom- 



382 STUDENTS. 

panied Iiis uncle, the Rev, Dr. Thornwcll, with whom he was al- 
ways a favorite, on a voyage to Europe. Returning in the fall, 
he entered the Theological Seminary and began his course of pre- 
paration for the great work to which he had devoted his life. 
But, the war coming on, lie was among the first to volunteer his 
services to his country, and as colporteur and soldier he accom- 
panied the 5th S. C. Volunteers to Fort Sumter (April, 1801), 
and thence to Virginia. In the. battles of Bull Run and Manas- 
sas he acquitted himself with marked distinction. 

In September lie resumed his studies, but the coast of his 
State being invaded, lie raised a company for the service and be- 
ing elected their captain, joined the 17th S. C. Volunteers under 
Col. Means, in December, 1801. In the summer of 1802 the 
regiment was ordered to Virginia, and pausing on the way only 
lon;i enough to consummate his marriage engaorement with Miss 

O o COO 

Elizabeth E. James of Dai'lington District, he pressed forward to 
the strife. In the second battle of Manassas, August 30th, he 
received a painful wound and was about to retire from the field, 
when, noticing that the lines appeared to waver, he drew his 
sword and calling to his comrades to follow, he leil them in a des- 
perate charge, and at the head of the column fell mortally wound- 
ed. He was borne from the field, and the next day was carried 
to Warrenton. Here, attended by a loving wife, a tender mother, 
and other affectionate relations and friends, he lingered in great 
suffering until October 19th, when with sweet acquiescence in 
the divine will, and with unclouded faith in Christ, he passed 
gently and peacefully away. He died in the twenty-second year 
of his age. 

With a mind gifted and thoughtful, with a piety earnest and 
ardent, the Church lost in his death one of the brightest and 
purest of her sons. A life beautiful and full of promise was sac- 
rificed, as so many were, on his country's altar. 

E. M. Green. 



STUDENTS. 383 



ARTHUR McDOW WRENN 



Sox of James and Eliza P. Wrenn, nee McDow, was born in 
Sumter County, Ala., May 11th, 1832, and died September 2d, 
1858. 

He made a profession of religion in 1851, and was enrolled a 
communing member of Bethel church in Tuskaloosa Presb3'tery. 

His early education was conducted by Benjamin P. Burwell, 
who taught a classical school in his father's nei^ihborhood. He 
entered Oglethorpe College, where he remained for two years, and 
then went to Princeton, where he was graduated. It was there 
that the writer saw him first, and remembers being much im- 
pressed with his earnest and unobtrusive piety. 

He entered the Theological Seminary, Columbia, S. C, in 
October, 1856, but failing health prevented his finishing the 
course. The following extract in reference to him is from the 
Report of the Faculty to the Synod of South Carolina and 
Georgia, for 1859 : "He departed this life during the summer 
vacation, . . . deeply lamented by all who knew him." 

R. B. Anderson. 



WILLIAM BLACK YATES 

Was for forty-six years the chaplain of the Seamen's Bethel 
in the city of Charleston, S. C. In that city he was born, 
February 9, ]809, and there died in July, 1882. Four years of 
his early life were spent at school in Abex'deen, Scotland. When 
he returned to America he spent four years in learning a trade. 
At the age of nineteen years, he endured with astonishing forti- 
tude a surgical operation, then unprecedented, the removal of the 
greater portion of the left clavicle. For over four hours, without 
any relief from anaesthetic agencies, he remained under the knife 
of the operator. The ordeal served not only to reveal his char- 



384 STUDENTS. 

acter, but decide his destiny. He consecrated himself to the 
service of God in the ministry of reconciliation. 

ITis studies were pursued in Virginia, Princeton, X. J., and Co- 
lumbia, S. C. Mr. Yates was one of the first class that graduated 
at the Theological Seminary of Columbia, S. C. Having for a 
time served other churches, and among them the Scotch Presby- 
terian church of Charleston, he entered upon his life-work of min- 
istry to the seamen. To this he gave himself with characteristic 
energy for nearly half a century, and then rested from his labors 
amid the tears of those whom he had so unselfishly served. At 
his funeral ministers of all the evangelical churches in Charleston 
bore the pall. C. S. Vedder. 



PART V, 



EULOGY OjST 

GEORGE HOWE, D. D., LL. D,, 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, 

BY PROF. JOHN L. GIRARDEAU, D. D., LL. D., 

MAY 9th, 1883. 



25 



Eur.oaY ON 
PROF. GEORGE HOWE, D. D., LL. D. 

BY PROF. JOHN L. GIRARDEAU, D. D., LL. D. 

About one year and a half ago the Alumni Association of the 
Columbia Theological Seminary convened in this city on a glad 
and festive occasion. They met to celebrate the fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the connexion of the Rev. GeoritE I [owe, D. D., LL. D., 
with their Ahna Mater. It was then determined that they would 
hold annual meetings at the close of the respective sessions of the 
Seminary. We have now come together in pursuance of that 
resolution, but alas ! a deep shadow falls upon our present assem- 
blage. The great and good man, to whom at our last gathering 
peculiar honors were paid, has recently been summoned to the 
eternal world; and it has been deemed proper that at our present 
meeting we should record the main facts of his life, commemorate 
the virtues of his character, and express our estimate of the influ- 
ence which he exerted upon the history of this Theological Semi- 
nary and upon the cause of theological education in this Southern 
land. 

Reluctant as I was, albeit at the instance of esteemed brethren, 
to undertake this delicate duty, I could not refuse it. Bred in 
this institution at the feet of our venerated Professor in the school 
of sacred criticism, associated during life with him as a younger 
member of the same Synod and the same Presbytery, and for 
several years past honored by a still closer intercourse with him 
in the sweet and precious communion of these sacred cloisters, I 
take a mournful pleasure in weaving a garland for his grave. 
Others there are who would have brought greater ability to the 
performance of this office, but there are none who would discharge 
it with a profounder admiration or a sincerer affection for our 
distinguished dead : 

"Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit •,] 
NuUi flebilior quam mihi." 

In doing honor to those who have attained to eminence, there 
is a tendency unduly to exalt the perfection of human nature, 



388 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

from the indulgence of which "vve are restrained by the principles 
of Christianity. It can never be forgotten by those who are im- 
bucil with its instructions and possessed of a consciousness illumi- 
nated by its light, that all men, even the greatest and best, are 
sinners; and that, whatever advancement in mere moral culture 
may be effected by the force of natural resolution, neither the be- 
ginning nor the development of holiness is possible without the 
application of the blood of atonement, and the operation of super- 
natural grace. To signalise, therefore, the virtues of a departed 
Christian is to celebrate the provisions of redemption, and to mag- 
nify the graces of the Uoly Ghost. 

There exists, however, in the breasts of every people an in- 
stinctive sentiment, or rather a group of instinctive sentiments, 
which impels them to rescue from oblivion, and place on endur- 
ing record, the heroic deeds and the exalted characters of their 
worthies who have fallen under the stroke of death. Some of the 
finest specimens of both ancient and modern composition have 
been eulogies upon departed statesmen, patriots, and warriors. 
Orators and poets, French, German, English, and American, as 
well as Hebrew, Greek, and Roman, have kindled into lofty elo- 
quence in rehearsing the fame of their illustrious dead. Every 
noble emotion of humanity comes into play in the discharge of 
such offices. Gratitude for benefits conferred upon a common- 
wealth by self-sacrificing toil in the public councils or valor ex- 
erted upon the field of battle for the deliverance of a country from 
an invading foe; a natural admiration for intellectual or moral 
qualities which illustrate the genius or the virtue of a nation ; the 
disposition to emulate and copy the examples of those who had 
risen by their eftbrts above the level of the multitude; the desire 
to transmit to posterity the traditions connected with representa- 
tive and historic names in a form suited to redeem them from 
evanescence and integrate them as permanent elements into the 
corporate life of a conunuiiity — all these motives have couibined 
to induce the eulogistic connnemoration of departed worth. 

To these feelings the Church is not insensible. Nor is there 
any legitimate reason which would compel their utter extinction. 
Properly restrained, and held in subordination to the great law 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE, 389 

that all glory is to be ascribed to God for everything good, great, 
and noble in human nature, she is at liberty to give them the 
fullest expression. The Scriptures abound with biographical por- 
traitures of the saints of old. And the writer of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews enforces his inculcation of a vigorous and triumph- 
ant faith by citing from the history of former dispensations glori- 
ous examples of its power, the recital of which still falls upon 
the ear of the Church like the thrilling blast of trumpets. 

The conviction of the impropriety of celebrating to the same 
extent the acts and attainments of the living, is one which re- 
quires but little explanation. The temptation to the indulgence 
of pride and the lust for applause is too strong in its influence 
upon their poor, imperfect natures to allow of its being urged to 
greater vehemence by the laudation of their virtues and the re- 
hearsal of their praises. And this obvious consideration is en- 
hanced by the contingency which attaches to the good repute of 
all who are still struggling with infirmity and sin. The danger 
is always imminent of some lapse from integrity which would 
render unwise and premature the tributes which could only be 
warranted by unblemished reputations. 

When, however, we stand at the graves of Christ's eminent 
servants, Ave feel that death has impressed an inviolable seal upon 
their characters. Their records are closed and lie forever beyond 
the peril of stain. The grief occasioned by their death is min- 
gled with emotions of triumph. The battle, with them, has been 
fought and the victory won. There is no risk in recounting their 
virtues and in pointing to them as distinguished exemplars of the 
grace of God. They are jewels which the Church wears upon 
her breast, as they are gems which her Saviour shall set in his 
mediatorial diadem. While, then, it is true that every sentiment 
of piety impels us to render all praise to God and to exclaim : 
"Not unto us, Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give 
glory," our hearts at the same time respond to the justice and the 
beauty of the inspired utterance: "The righteous shall be in 
everlastinor remembrance." Is it not meet that his surviving 
brethren, and especially his former pupils, should, as far as in 
them lies, perpetuate the remembrance of that righteous man who 



390 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

for so protracted a ])oriod taught the blessed word of God in this 
seat of sacred learning ? 

It is true that it is not the circumstances of one's origin which 
impart to him real dignity and honor. To have acted well his 
jiart in the solemn drama of life — this it is Avhich entitles him to 
grateful remembrance when dead. It was beautifully said of an 
illustrious Roman who owed nothing to his ancestors, *■' Videtur 
ex se natus — he was the son of liimself alone." But while this 
is tine, it is a matter for devout thankfulness when one is able to 
trace his descent from a line of progenitors who were in covenant 
with God, and to whom and their seed peculiar promises of divine 
blessing were vouchsafed. 

Dr. Howe was born at Dedham, iNIassachusetts, November 6th, 
1802. His fjither was William Howe, of Dedham, who was born 
August 10th, 1770, the son of Thomas Howe, of Dedham, a 
godly and conscientious man, born August 24th, 1735, and Han- 
nah Leeds, the daughter of Comfort and Margaret Leeds. The 
genealogical line ran back to one of the pilgrims who landed at 
Plymouth Rock. His inotlicr was Mary Gould, the daughter of 
Major George Gould and Racliel Dwight. Major (Jeorge Gould, of 
Sutton, his maternal grandfather, was born in 1738. lie served 
in the old French war, and afterwards in the Revolutionary war, 
first as Captain, and subsequently as Major: and was with Gen. 
Washington when that commander occupied Dorchester Heights. 
After the war he became a farmer at West Ro.xbury, then a part 
of Dedham. He lived a life of great piety, and died January 
6th, 1805, aged sixty-seven. Rachel Gould, his wife, and ma- 
ternal grandmother of Dr. Howe, was the daughter of Samuel 
Dwight, of Sutton, and Jane l>ulkU'V, and was of the family to 
Avhich the celebrated Dr. Timothy Dwight belonged. "She is 
described as having been a woman of great energy, fortitude, and 
perseverance. When over ninety, she visited one of her daugh- 
ters in Dorchester, and observed with her family a religious fast- 
day very comfortably to herself in entire abstinence from food. 
She was very spirited, and patriotic beyond many around her in 
the Revolutionary war. Her faculties were clear and bright until 
near the very end of her life." She died March 15th, 1834, at 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 391 

ninety-five years of age. Her daughter, Mary Gould, afterwards 
Mrs. AVilliam Howe, who as has already been mentioned was Dr. 
Howe's mother, was born at Sutton, May 29th, 1772, and died 
at South Braintree, Massachusetts, October 31st, 1859, at eighty- 
seven years of age. 

Dr. Howe, when quite young, was led to begin the study of 
the Latin language in consequence of reading Dr. Cotton Mather's 
Magnalia, a copy of which he found among his father's books, 
and encountering Latin sentences interwoven with the text. He 
prosecuted the study of that tongue at the school of Mr. Ford, 
in his native town ; and, to use his own words, "said his hie, hwc, 
hoc in his trundle-bed." 

At twelve years of age he removed with his father to Holmes- 
burg, near the city of Philadelphia, and attended a school kept 
by Mr. Scofield in that village. The teacher having transferred 
his place of labor to Philadelphia, his pupil followed him. In 
that city he was favored of providence in listening statedly to the 
faithful preaching of the Rev. Dr. James Patterson, the pastor 
of the First Presbyterian church in the Northern Liberties. It 
was the custom of this minister to converse with each member of 
the families which he visited in regard to the interests of the 
soul. On the occasion of one of these visits, he asked young 
George whether he believed in the Lord Jesus Christ. This 
question caused him great distress ; it was used by the Holy 
Spirit in bringing him under conviction of sin, and the result 
was that he shortly afterwards made a public profession of his 
faith in Christ in connexion Avith Dr. Patterson's church. 

After this he received instruction from the Rev. Thomas Biggs, 
near Philadelphia, until he was sufficiently advanced to apply for 
entrance into College. Acting under the advice of his friend, 
the Rev. Dr. Joshua Bates, his father sent him to Middlebury 
College, Vermont, in connexion with which institution he was 
graduated with the first honors of his class, in 1822, when he was 
twenty years of age. 

He then entered Andover Theological Seminary, where he pur- 
sued the usual course of three years' study, and at his gradua- 
tion in 1825, was rewarded for his attainments by being appointed 



392 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

Abbott scholar. Having studied for about a year and a half on 
that foundation, he received the singular distinction of being 
elected, in his twenty-seventh year, as Phillips Professor of Sacred 
Theology in Dartmouth College, then under the presidency of 
the Rev. Dr. Bennett Tyler, who became prominent in the dis- 
cussions occasioned bv the New Haven Theologv, and was the 
founder of East Windsor Seminary, which was afterwards trans- 
ferred to Hartford. 

He was ordained to the gospel ministry, August 7th, 1827. 

In the Professorship at Dartmouth he continued about three 
years, when he was threatened with ascites and consumption, and, 
by medical advice, came to the South in the hope of securing a 
restoration to health. He sailed from Boston in a packet vessel 
for Charleston, S. C, and passed the month of December, 1830, 
in that city. Some time during the same month, the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia held its sessions at Augusta. The 
Rev. Dr. Thomas Goulding, who was in charge of a few theo- 
logical students, wrote to that body asking for the appointment of 
a teacher of Hebrew and Greek. The Rev. Joseph C. Stiles and 
the Rev. Aaron Foster, who had been classmates of Professor 
Howe at Andover, were present at the meeting of the Synod and 
warmly recommended his appointment to the discharge of that 
office. At the same time, he was the recipient of an invitation 
from the First Presbyterian, commonly known as the Scotch, 
church of Charleston, to become its minister. He deemed it to 
be his duty to enter into an engagement with the Synod to teach 
for the winter at Columbia. After he began the performance of 
this office, in connexion with the incipient Seminary, the first 
matriculation of students took place. The exercises were then 
conducted at the parsonage in Marion Street, opposite to the 
Presbyterian churcli. It thus appears, from this account fur- 
nished by Dr. Howe himself, that his first connexion with the 
Theological Seminary occurred in January, 1831, so that tlie 
whole period of his labors in the institution, with a slight inter- 
ruption, was fifty-two years and about three months. 

At the exj)iration of this temporary engagement, he returned 
in imjiroved healtii to the North. He was married, August 2oth, 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 393 

1831, to Mary Bushnell, who was born June 25th, 1808. She 
was the daughter of the Rev. Jedediah Bushnell of Cornwall, 
Vermont ; a man, according to Dr. Howe's own description of 
him, of singular piety and Avisdom. His wife having become 
consumptive, he brought her to Columbia, where she died Septem- 
ber 18th, 1832. Her remains were buried in the cemetery of 
the First Presbyterian church, and the slab which covers her 
grave bears an affecting tribute from her husband to her piety and 
worth. 

In the fall of 1831, the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia 
met in Columbia, and at that meeting he was elected Professor of 
Biblical Literature in the Theological Seminary. This call he 
accepted, and at once entered upon the duties of his chair. Thus 
began his relation as Professor to the Theological Seminary of 
the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, which continued un- 
broken for more than fifty-one years. 

He presided Avith grace and dignity as the Moderator of the 
General Assembly in the year 1865 — a year in which the strug- 
gle of the Confederate States came to a disastrous close, and the 
tears of a people were falling for such an affliction as seldom 
crushes the hopes and breaks the hearts of men. 

In November, 1881, a year and a half ago, the semi-centennial 
commemoration was had by the Alumni Association of his incep- 
tion of his professorial work in our Theological Seminary, and he 
received the congratulations of his former pupils. The tribute 
w^as one which was eminently due to his noble character, as well 
as his prolonged and untiring devotion to the interests of the 
institution, and it was rendered with a unanimity and heartiness 
which were peculiarly grateful to his feelings. The scene was 
one which will never be blotted from the memory of those who 
witnessed it. From different sections of the Southern country 
those who had sat at the feet of this Nestor of theological instruc- 
tion had gathered to do him honor. The Presbyterian church 
edifice was crowded with an intelligent and distinguished assem- 
bly. The music was inspiring. An eloquent opening speech, 
which thrilled all hearts, Avas pronounced by the Rev. Dr. B. M. 
Palmer. That veteran preacher of the gospel, the Rev. J. H. 



39-4 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

Saye, a member of the graduating class of 1837, delivered to 
him a congratulatory address, -while he courteously stood to 
receive it. It was a picture for the brush of a painter. The 
light fell upon a grand and massive head which had grown white 
in the service of his Master and the Church. Saintly and ven- 
erable was his appearance. The dense auditory was hushed into 
profound silence, and nian}'^ an eye was dimmed with tears, as 
with unaffected humility and grace, in rich and melting tones, 
and in a manner simj)le but sublime, he acknowledged the kind- 
ness of his ])rethren, and dwelt upon the wisdom and the good- 
ness of that JKtly providence which first k'd liim to cast in his lot 
with theirs, and had conducted him through all the vicissitudes of 
so protracted a term of labor to that auspicious hour. 

On the evening of his last birth-day — the eightieth — his col- 
leagues of the Faculty and the students of the Seminary called 
in a body to offer to him their congratulations and good wishes. 
He was taken by surprise, and made a most touching response. 
Moved to tears by this expression of the affection of his brethren, 
he tendered his thanks, alluded to the approaching end of his 
labors, expressed his joy at the near prospect of his heavenly 
home, and of appearing in the presence of the glorious Saviour 
whom he loved, and paid a beautiful and affecting tribute to the 
companion of his life who was standing beside him, as having 
been his chief earthly support and solace under the trials to which 
he had been subjected in that long pilgrimage which was now 
drawing to a close. 

During the last year or two bodily infirmities and distempers 
multiplied upon him. None but those who intimately knew him 
Avere aware of the sufferings through which he daily passed. 
But his industry never flagged. His indomitabh- spirit spurred 
the yielding frame to usual exertion. AVitb undeviating punc- 
tuality he met his chusses, and after consuming the day in work, 
toiled on far into the night until tiretl nature clamored for repose. 
Like his Master he felt himself pressed to finish the work which 
had been given to him to do, and acted under the conviction that 
the hour was nigh which would put a period to all earthly labor. 
Nor did he mistake. The clock was soon to strike the moment 



EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 395 

when he wouhi lay down his pen upon the manuscript for the hist 
time, and pass to that sphere where there shall be no more curse — 
where the sweat of toil is Aviped from the face, and work and 
rest, service and joy, are the same. No doubt the soul is slow to 
part with a body which had been its partner in the journey of 
life, the sharer of its pleasures and its pains ; and we may well 
conceive that it would linger at the instant of departure, to bid 
its old companion a reluctant farewell. But when it has dropped 
its clog of clay, with what transports must the burning, disem- 
bodied, deathless spirit begin the free and unimpeded, the untir- 
ing and blissful energies of heaven ! 

On the first Lord's day in April, which was the first day of the 
month, Dr. Howe partook, in the sanctuary, of his last com- 
munion on earth. On hi? way home, the carriage which bore 
him broke down at the crossing of Bull and Taylor Streets, throw- 
ing him suddenly and violently to the ground. By the fall the 
leg was fractured which had been for so many years a source of 
pain to him. The accident — so we term it in our human dialect, 
but it was ordered of God — hardly seemed at first to threaten a 
fatal result ; but after the lapse of nearly a fortnight, he was 
seized with a chill and hemorrhage from the luno;s. These dan- 
gerous symptoms recurred on the next day, and it became evident 
that his end was approaching. On the evening of Sabbath, April 
loth, 1883, he grew suddenly worse, and, in a few moments 
afterwards, without being able to speak, but without a struggle or 
groan, in the eighty-first year of his age, he peacefully breathed 
out his spirit into the hands of his God, and fell asleep in Jesus. 

There is not much of interest to record touching his experience 
in his last illness ; for the painful injury which had disabled him 
rendered it necessary that opiates should be administered, and 
the consequence was that for a good part of the time his noble 
faculties were clouded. Still there were intervals when he was 
free from that influence, and then he gave most touching evidence 
of the prevailing bent of his thoughts and aff"ections. On one 
occasion he asked his beloved and venerable companion, who had 
so often before ministered to his necessities, and now with tender- 
est assiduity was nursing him on what was to prove his bed of 



396 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

death, to bring the Bible and read to him the hist two chapters of 
the Epistle to the Konians. When she had finished this office of 
love, he took the Holy Book into his own hands, and remarked 
that he would read those same chapters to her. This he did, and 
interspersed the reading with many interesting comments. Then 
closing the sacred volume, and clasping his hands upon his breast, 
he poured out his soul in fervent prayer, first for her and then 
for what he affectionately called "the dear Seminary," This was 
his last connected prayer on earth which fell on human ears ; one, 
the remembrance of which will console his fellow-pilgrim as, now 
parted from him for a while, she follows him at no distant inter- 
val to the brink of Jordan, and will affectingly recall to its friends 
the love he cherished for the institution to which his life had been 
devoted — a love which the many waters of death could not 
quench. 

At another time when his brain was influenced by the illusions 
created by partial delirium, he saw seated before him his class in 
exegesis, and in broken sentences, and with muffled utterance, he 
proceeded to deliver to them a lecture. One is reminded of a 
similar fact in the dying experience of the great Neander and of 
our own lamented Thornwell. 

Such incidents are strikingly impressive. It would seem that 
the last efforts of expiring nature spontaneously heave up to the 
surface of the mind the latent enersries which bv long exercise 
have become habitual elements of ones being, the most deeply 
imbedded in its structure. No exertion of the will is required to 
give them expression. They are the very mould into which 
thought and feeling are cast, and in all probability constitute the 
type of their future and everlasting manifestation. Their unbid- 
den utterance in the last moments of life are indexes of those 
principles which dominantly characterise our intellectual exist- 
ence, and enforce, with an emphasis which only death can give, 
the pregnant maxim of Christ, that "out of the abundance of the 
heart the mouth speaketh." May it not be, that we have in 
these spontaneous activities of the dying a sort of prophetic inti- 
mation of the employments of the eternal world ? Death may 
make no cleavage, open no impassable chasm, betwixt the sancti- 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 397 

. fied exercises of intelligence in this sublunary state, and the glo- 
rified energies of our heavenly home. May it not be that both 
the quest and the inculcation of truth may be carried over with 
us to that transcendent sphere ? Delightful thought ! The gains 
of painstaking labor which the student of divine mysteries has 
here amassed may constitute imperishable attainments, which 
shall survive the wrecking change of dissolution — permanent ac- 
complishments, destined to become a point of departure for the 
immortal progression of thought in the eons of the future. 

And if we may hope that these things are so, may it not also 
be triie that we shall not bear with us to heaven the mere discip- 
line of our faculties, but the actual results of toil — that we shall 
transport with us in our emigration to that celestial shore the 
whole furniture of truths which we had here acquired, the jewels 
for which we painfully mined, the rich spoils won on many a field 
of conflict, which once suspended around us shall be worn as 
amaranthine adornments and trophies of our souls ? And while 
every serious pursuit, in the temper of pious reverence, of truth 
as well physical as spiritual, as well natural as redemptive, must 
enstamp an abiding character upon our intellectual being, it may 
without extravagance be supposed that the student of the divine 
word, the preacher of the gospel, and the teacher of the Holy 
Scriptures, Avill have the incomparable advantage of having in- 
corporated into his intelligence elements which will peculiarly 
adapt him to the employments and the services of heaven. Such 
a possibility is suited to stimulate our flagging zeal, and inspire 
us with ever freshening ardor in the prosecution of those sacred 
studies which asserted themselves in the dying utterances of our 
departed brother. 

There is, moreover, impressively suggested by the warm out- 
going of his social affections in his last hours, the thought that 
our love for kindred and friends in Christ is not extinguished by 
the dreadful shock of death, but that, on the contrary, purified 
and heightened they will go with us into the inheritance of the 
saints in light. It cannot, without violence to our deepest in- 
stincts, and the whole analogy of Christian culture, be supposed 
that the dearest bonds of human affection, the most precious rela- 



398 EULOOY ON DR. HOWE. 

tions and covenants of earth are forever sundered by the blow of 
death — that its hand as it smites the harp-strings of the soul 
which had emitted sweetest liarmony at the touch of human fin- 
gers, so rudely snaps them that they shall be eternally silent. 
These gushes of sanctified affection at the very verge of life — are 
they not eloquent predictions of a future condition in which the so- 
cial affections, purged from the dross of carnality, shall find their 
highest expression, their destined consummation ? Do they not 
anticipate that home of beauty, glory, and bliss which Jesus, our 
elder Brother, called his Father's house, and into which he gath- 
ers all his Father's children; a home, beatified b}'' a joyful com- 
munion of saints, a convivial fellowship of the redeemed, who, 
collected from every kindred, tribe, and tongue of earth, shall sit 
down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with prophets, apostles, 
and martyrs, at the banquet of the Lamb ? 

In the early part of his illness Dr. Howe, notwithstanding the 
desire of his attending surgeons, Dr. George Howe, his son, and 
Dr. B. W. Taylor, that he should be kept quiet, expressed an 
earnest wish to see his brethren of the Faculty. They accord- 
ingly repaired to his chamber, and, having expressed their sym- 
pathy with him, knelt at his bedside and commended him in 
prayer to the tender mercies of his God and Saviour. The stu- 
dents of the Seminary evinced their love for their venerated pre- 
ceptor by watching nightly with him, and ministering to his 
necessities. During one of these vigils a student heard him say, 
" The Lord afflicts his people for wise ends ; blessed be his holy 
name !" 

To the question addressed to him by one of his colleagues : 
"My dear brother, do you trust in Jesus?" he promptly replied: 
"Yes; what would I do, did I not trust in him?" The interro- 
gator construed the answer as not only containing a clear and 
positive affirmation of his faith in his Redeemer, but also a spon- 
taneous protest against the implication that under any circum- 
stances, much less the present, he could do otherwise than trust 
in him. It was as if he had been asked, whether he loved his 
wife and children, or confide<l in their affection for him; whether 
the profound habit of faith in Christ, which pervaded his whole 



EULOGY OlSL DR. HOWE. 399 

•being and had regulated his life, were under those trying circum- 
stances unaccountably placed under arrest, or it were possible that 
the Saviour in whom for years he had trusted could forsake him 
in this season of emergency. Still, it is to be remembered, that 
there is no fixed necessity, no mechanical and undeviating law 
of divine operation in the processes of an applied redemption, by 
which the dying believer is exempted from the agitations of doubt 
and the transient darkness of spirit which may be directly caused 
by Satanic malice, or may spring from the weakness of a soul in 
which sanctification is not completely matured. To the last, he 
is exposed to the temptations incident to thie conflict with the 
devil, the flesh, and an evil heart of unbelief. To the last breath, 
he needs the infusions of grace, the witness of the Spirit, and the 
assuring smile of the Lord. The inquiry, therefore, was not 
wholly gratuitous. It was suited to elicit ^an outspoken confes- 
sion of faith, which by a reflex influence would contribute to the 
conscious comfort of the expiring saint, and would furnish un- 
speakable consolation to those who were Aveeping at his side, and 
yearning for those final words of trust and hope which the mem- 
ory never suffers to die. 

Nor was this assurance of his reliance upon his Saviour a soli- 
tary one. Whenever a similar question was propounded to him, 
he never failed to return a decided and satisfactory reply. By a 
providential coincidence, his Presbytery were holding their ses- 
sions in Columbia during the last days of his illness. Of course, 
their warmest sympathies were drawn out towards him, and ear- 
nest supplications were off'ered in his behalf. On being informed 
of this fact, he expressed his gratitude, and desired that they 
should know that he was passing through suffering; and when he 
was asked whether they should be assured of his reposing trust 
in Jesus, he replied in the affirmative. The Presbytery adjourned 
on Saturday afternoon, and he died on the following day. On 
Sabbath morning, the Moderator, the venerable S. H. Hay, 
preached a sermon which was touchingly appropriate to the af- 
flictive circumstances which were casting a shadow upon the con- 
gregation and the community. A few hours only before the final 
summons came, the suffering saint was told that his brethren and 



400 EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 

friends liad been praying for him, when with the wonted courtesy 
of a Christian gentleman — and such he emphatically was — al- 
though hardly able to speak, he expressed his thanks for the in- 
formation. Prayer having been then offered by one of his fellow- 
professors at his bed-side, he was asked whether he heard it. 
His answer was: "Yes; and I was delighted." This was his 
last coherent expression of his religious feelings; and not long 
afterwards his disprisoned spirit, like an eagle breaking through 
the bars of its cage, took its flight to that land where its groans 
of anguish will be lost in shouts of triumph, and it will be ever- 
lastingly delighted with praise. Brother, not for thee we weep. 
Thou hast fought the good fight, thou hast finished the course, 
thou hast kept the faith. Henceforth, there is laid up for thee a 
crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, 
shall give thee at th{\^ day. Thy God has wiped all tears from 
thine eyes, and thou hast entered into that rest which shall never 
be clouded with a shade of doubt, and never broken by a shock 
of conflict, or a throb of pain. 

■ On Tuesday, April 17th, 1883, his body was carried to the 
Presbyterian church, where a large congregation was assembled 
to pay a last tribute to his memory. The funeral services Avere 
conducted by the members of the Faculty of the Theological 
Seminary — Professors Woodrow, Hemphill, Boggs, and Girar- 
deau. Addresses were made by the two last nauied, and the Rev. 
Dr. J. B. Mack. Tears flowed freely from the eyes of those 
present, attesting the sincere love as well as the profound esteem 
in which the departed servant of Christ avjis held. The remains 
were then interred in the church-A'ard, near the spot where the 
dust of his first wife and of his dead children is sleeping, and 
only a few rods from the grave of his gifted colleague, the Kev. 
Dr. A. W. Leland, who preceded him to the eternal world. For 
many years they were closely associated in labor. Here let them 
repose together, till the unconsciousness of their neigliborhood 
shall be broken by the shout of the Lord, the voice of the arch- 
angel, and the trump of God. 

Dr. Howe, December 10th, 1836, married as his second wife, 
Mrs. Sarah Ann McConnell, the daughter of Andrew Walthour, 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 401 

of Walthourville, Liberty County, Georgia, and Ann Hoffmire. 
Mrs. Howe was born October oth, 1803, and survives her hus- 
band, being now in the eightieth year of her age. She outlives 
him, not because she was less meet for heaven than he. They 
had for nearly half a century trod haml in hand the road of life, 
and bowed together at the mercy-seat in prayer; and they might 
fitly have soared in company to the gate of the celestial city and 
begun together the triumphant anthem of the skies. But God 
had heard her petition to be allowed the mournful privilege of 
ministering to him on his last bed, and smoothing his dying pil- 
low. To say that she has discharged the self-denying offices as- 
signed her with the purity, the gentleness, the patience of a saint 
is true, but it is hardly enough. This venerable mother in Israel 
seems to have anticipated that final transformation by which the 
followers of Jesus Avill be made "like unto the angels." 

In person. Dr. Howe Avas above the middle height. His eyes 
were bluish gray, his features strongly marked, and his frame 
was massive. His presence was unassuming but imposing. In 
early life he suffered from an affection of the right knee, which 
ended in permanent stiffness of the joint. This occasioned his 
Avalking Avith a crutch. It AA^as a thorn in the flesh Avhich Avas 
never extracted, but his Master gave him grace Avhich Avas suffi- 
cient for him, and made the divine strength perfect in his Aveak- 
ness. He has left his crutch in his dying chamber, and he Avill 
leave his lame knee in the grave. In God's eternal Paradise he 
will only remember them as the instruments of a Avholesome 
earthly discipline. He might Avell have cried Avhile listening to 
the Avhispered invitation of angels to come aAvay from these 
shackles of the flesh : 

"Lend, lend your Avings, I mount, I fly." 

As a preacher. Dr. HoAve, although not possessed of the super- 
ficial but attractive and useful graces of elocution, Avas evangeli- 
cal and able, and sometimes rose to the heights of the sublime, 
and to flights ofi oratory by Avhich his hearers Avere thrilled. He 
was no sensationalist Avho aimed to tickle the ear or please the 
fancy. He had himself been taught of God, both in the school 
of Moses and in that of Christ. He had, in his inmost soul, felt 
26 



402 ei'lo(;y on dr. iiowe. 

the terrors of the law, and had experienced the sweetness of that 
rest which the troubled conscience finds alone in Christ, and the 
result was that he strove to lead his fellow-sinners to the fountain 
of consolation from which himself had drunk. Penetrated with 
the conviction of eternal realities he preached "as a dying man to 
dying men." The poor taunt that sucli preachers fail to address 
themselves to the recjuirements of living men, was one that could 
make no impression ujion his serious sj)irit ; the arrow fell harm- 
less at the feet of one who carried engraved deeply upon his con- 
sciousness, the solemn words of tlie great preacher to tlie Gentile 
world : '' I charge thee, therefore, before God and the Lord Jesus 
Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing 
and his kingdom : preach the word, be instant in season and out 
of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doc- 
trine." It was to have been expected that one who was habit- 
ually engaged in the exposition of the originals of the Scriptures 
would often deliver sermons which were exegetical and didactic 
in their cast. While this was true, it was by no means exclus- 
ively so. Frequently he discoursed with oratorical freedom u])oii 
the beneficent and attractive aspects of the scheme of redemp- 
tion, and his gentle and aftectionate heart led him to urge them 
upon the attention of his hearers. With persuasive and pathetic 
accents he would dwell upon the love of Christ, and with wonder- 
ful fiuency of utterance would depict the rich provisions of re- 
demption. On such occasions tenderness Avas the chief charac- 
teristic of his preaching. But there were times when he would 
be roused to impassioned fervor, and his deep and powerful voice 
would become a fitting vehicle for the conveyance of sublime sen- 
timents, a suitable organ for the proclamation of :iwful ;ind majes- 
tic views of the character of God, the greatness of the human 
soul, and the endless destinies of eternity. A few instances may 
sullice to evince the power with which he would occasionally pour 
out the burning feelings of his heart, and the striking results 
which would then be produced upon his audience. 

AVhen Professor Howe made his first appearance before the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, at its meeting in Augusta 
already mentioned, and the (juestion was raised in regard to his 



EULOGY ONT DR. HOWE. 403 

appointment as teacher of the sacred languages in the Seminary, 
some doubt was felt growing out of the Synod's want of acijuain- 
tance with him. Among tliose present who hesitated was the 
famous Dr. Moses Waddel. Professor Howe Avas invited to 
preach. He did so, and discoursed upon the power of faith. In 
an elo(iuent passage ho compared the fluctuations of that grace 
as consistent Avitli its final fixed and assured direction to Christ, 
Avirh the oscillations of the magnetic needle which are sure to be 
followed by its settling down to a steady point towards the pole. 
The effect was electric, and Dr. Waddel, with an emphatic ges- 
ture of his arm, exclaimed so as to be heard all around him, 
"Sublime!" The sermon made a marked impression upon the 
Synod, and his election was unanimous. 

On one occasion, being in Philadelphia, he went on Sabbath 
night to hear the Rev. Dr. Wadsworth, whose preaching was then 
attracting crowded audiences. Another minister, with whom the 
distinguished preacher had engaged to exchange pulpits, was ex- 
pected to officiate that evening; but he f;iiled to appear. After a 
consultation of the elders, one of them approached the pew in which 
Dr. Howe was sitting, and inquired if he were a preacher. Having 
learned that he was, he pressed him to take the pulpit. The re- 
quest was declined. Another consultation was had, and the same 
elder again came to Dr. Howe, and asked hira to go forward, ex- 
plain the circumstances to the congregation, and dismiss them. 
This he consented to do, but, as he walked towards the pulpit, 
his conscience impelled hira to preach. Announcing a hymn, he 
collected his thoughts, and then preached with such unction and 
power that the elders and others pressed around him to thank 
him, and he was afterwards told by a friend from home, who 
chanced to be present, that he had on that occasion delivered 
himself with extraordinary force and impressiveness. 

At another time he was invited by some of his Methodist breth- 
ren to preach at a camp-meeting held a few miles from this city. 
He consented. On Sabbath, when the communion of the Lord's 
Supper was to be administered, he was asked to follow the ser- 
mon, which was to be delivered by another preacher, with an ex- 
hortation. The sermon, inappropriately enough, had for its sub- 



404 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

jcct the human eye. At its conclusion, our preacher arose, and 
remarked that they had listened to a discourse on the human eye, 
but that he ■would direct their attention to the human soul. As 
he grew warm in the discussion of his great theme, the congrega- 
tion began to shout. This led him to raise his voice louder and 
louder, so as to be heard, and the effect became overwhelming. 
The multitude present were shouting and weeping, and when he 
sat down, the ministers came into the pulpit and embraced him, 
while tears rolled down their cheeks, and exclamations of joy 
burst from their lips. It was characteristic of Dr. Howe that 
he said afterwards: "They made me ashamed, and I did not 
know what to do." 

When, and under what drcumstances, he first became con- 
nected with the Synod of South Carolina and the Charleston 
Presbytery , I am not now able to say. His introduction into 
those bodies must, however, have been contemporaneous with the 
contraction of his relation as Professor to the Theological Semi- 
nary. An association with those judicatories lasting for more 
than fifty-one years, has been terminated by his death. His ven- 
erable form will no more be seen in the assemblies of his brethren 
on earth. Although not inclined by constitutional bias to be, 
strictly speaking, an ecclesiastic, nor addiete*! in ])ractice to the 
discussion of questions pertaining to church order, he took a 
warm interest in all measures contemplating the extension of 
gospel knowledge, and was a powerful advocate of those schemes 
of policy by means of which the Church endeavors to build up 
the kingdom of Christ in a world of sin. At a time when the 
Southern Church was surrounded by a dense mass of slaves who 
were dependent upon her for the preaching of the gospel, he was 
ever the earnest and able advocate of their systematic instruction 
by the ministry of pastors, and their evangelisation by the labors 
of missionaries. For years he was the chairman of the Commit- 
tee of Domestic Missions in his Presljytery. Nor was he less 
zealous in behalf of Foreign Missions. Whenever the opportunity 
was afforded, he was ready to plead for that great cause. There 
is an extant sermon of his, preached at Salem, Black River, 
church, and published, in 1833, which most elo(juently defends 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 405 

and ur<rcs tlie effort to evangelise the benighted tribes of earth. 
In that discourse he alludes to the circumstances under which 
Dr. John Leighton Wilson went to the "Dark Continent" as a 
missionary. "When," says he, "did we send our first missionary 
to the heathen ? In 1833. He went away amid misconceptions, 
sneers, and bitter words on the part of many, and but a few 
months ago planted his feet on barbarian shores." That such a 
state of things would now be impossible among us upon the de- 
parture of a missionary for a foreign shore is, under God, largely 
due to the able and persistent efforts of Dr. Howe and men of 
like spirit with him in the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia — 
Church, Talmage, and Hoyt, Leland, Smyth, and Thornwell, 
who died before him in the Lord, and are now followed by their 
works. His departure has opened another gap in the ranks of 
faithful laborers for the advancement of Christ's cause and king- 
dom. It affords reason for thanksgiving that those who hear the 
call of their Leader to close up the ranks are not under the neces- 
sity of contending for the theory of Foreign Missions. That is 
now admitted, and it only remains for them to prosecute its en- 
forcement. Happily, the cases are rare in which a hearty echo 
would not now be given to the closing words of the sermon to 
which allusion has been made: "Let him wdio is opposing mis- 
sions think what he is doing. He is opposing the best interests 
of his beloved country. He is making the churches dwarfish, 
inefficient, and selfish. He is opposing the object Christ had in 
view in dying for men. He is opposing the cause in which apos- 
tles bled. He is saying to the primitive Christian and modern 
missionary that they are fools. He is opposing fulfilling pro- 
phecy. He is fighting against God. He is filling hell with joy." 
Six months ago the Charleston Presbytery was called in the 
providence of God to mourn the departure of a venerable servant 
of Christ, the spotlessness of whose character attracted to him 
universal esteem. Remarkable as was the exhibition of holiness 
furnished by his life, it was not singular. Another there was, a 
fellow-presbyter whose head was hoary with age, and who shared 
with liim the reputation of uncommon sanctity. It was he Avhose 
removal we now deplore. The Presbytery had scarcely adjourned 



40G EULOGY OX DR. II0^7E. 

tlioir following scnii-:iiiiiual session? wiien tliey were summoned 
to lament a loss similar to that which had so recently afflicted 
them. But although their tears stream forth afresh, they cannot 
refrain from acclamations of thanks to God that a glorious testi- 
mony has hvvu f"iinii<lK'(l to his grace by another protracted life 
of holiness, and another peaceful death. Their traditions are 
graced, and their records illuminated, by the sainted names of 
Palmer and Howe. The Synod had just before placed upon its 
obituary calendar the name of the aged William Brearley, a 
synonym for devoted piety in the churches of "Harmony Presby- 
tery. Noble triumvirate ! In life they were united in labors for 
Christ, and in death they were not long divided. "The fathers, 
where are they ?" Their vacant seats at our council-board 
are the mute response to the impiiry. But why do we grieve ? 
The dirge of the militant Church at the biers of its fallen heroes 
preludes the pealing anthem of the Church triumphant. 

The life of Dr. Howe as a Professor, has, as we have seen, 
been coincident with the existence of this Theological Seminary. 
At the early age of twenty-nine he was called to undertake the 
exacting duties of the exegetical chair. It was a high attestation 
of his scholarshij), but it was one which was not undeserved. He 
had, in the providence of God, been prepared for the position by 
the discipline to which his faculties had been subjected. At Mid- 
dlebury and at Andover he had received the distinctions awarded 
to superior proficiency in study, and at Dartmouth the opportunity 
Avas afforded him of maturing his training and increasing his ac- 
quirements. Acfjuainted with the methods adoj)ted in the already 
existing theological institutions of this country, he was prej)ared 
at the very origin of our Seminary to draft a curricidum of study. 
He delivered his inaugural address at Cohnnbia, March 28th, 
1832, being in the thirtieth year of his age. In that discourse, 
he sketched the duties of the chair to which he had been assigned, 
discussed the false methods which had been pursued in interpret- 
ing the sacred writings and indicated the true, pointed out the ad- 
vantages which accrue from actpiaintance with the tongues in 
which the Scriptures were originally composed, and concluded 
with advice to the student to seek the wisdom which the Holy 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 407 

Ghost imparts, and to cultivate sinijjlicit}' and ;^"odly sincerity in 
"the investigation of the truth as it is in Jesus Christ. (Johlcn 
words ! They struck the kej^-note of his own career, and deserve 
to be inscrihc'd upon the heart of every theological student. 

Starting with a good foundation of classical scholarship, and 
pursuing with unremitting energy the studies to which he had 
now peculiarly devoted himself, it was not long before he was 
abreast of the demands of his department, heavy as they were. 
He became intimately acquainted with the Greek and with the 
Hebrew and its cognate dialects, and mastered, in the language 
whicli was their chief organ, the critical controversies concerning 
the sacred text, in the forms in which they were developed in his 
day. His learning was extensive, his attainments varied ; but 
they were so veiled by his native modesty, that it may well be 
doubted if he ever displayed to the full the measure of his re- 
sources. Characterised by a quality of mind which irresistibly 
impelled him to take the path of historical exposition, his eai'e- 
fully prepared lectures presented critical hypotheses in a com- 
parative view which covered the whole field over which they 
raniied. It was the student's fault if through neiilisTence or in- 
attention he did not become possessed of the complete literature 
of the subjects discussed. If there were a defect in his method 
of instruction, it lay in his want of sympathy with the attitude 
of the student's mind and the difficulties which it experienced. 
Pei'haps he took too much for granted in regard to the amount of 
knoAvledge possessed by the pupil, and did not sufficiently incul- 
cate his own views with that minute precision, that definiteness 
and positiveness of dogmatic utterance, which as with an incisive 
edge carve them upon the inquiring and forming intelligence of 
youth. But there was no deficiency in his own sympathy with 
the topics which he handled, and no lack of adequacy in their 
treatment. He speke with the accuracy and fulness of an expert. 
Nor did his learned prelections give any uncertain sound in refer- 
ence to the great and vital doctrine of the plenary inspiration of 
the sacred writings. From first to last he stood by the INIosaic 
authorship of the Pentateuch and the genuineness and authen- 
ticity of all the canonical records. He heartily and unreservedly 



408 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

subscriljcd the declaration of Paul : "All scripture is given by 
inspiration of (iotl, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for 
correction, for instruction in righteousness, that the man of God 
may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works." May 
the day never come when that fiintlamental truth shall be shaken 
in this institution ! Better would it be that its invested funds 
should be withered up, its doors be bolted, and that the youthful 
seekers of truth should rc])air for instruction to the pastors of 
Christ's flock who remain faithful to his word. 

It might be supposed that as he drew nigh the close of so pro- 
longed a term of labor Dr. Howe relaxed the rigor of study and 
rested upon past acquisitions. lie did not. He did not make 
so signal a mistake. He was emnliatically a man of studious 
habits, and his industry in the pursuit of knowledge continued 
unal»ated to the end of life. Tliere is no calculus by wliich can 
be estimated the value of that influence which for fifty years he 
exerted upon tlie minds which he directed in the study of the 
sacred Scriptures. But his Avas not the influence of mere scholar- 
ship and learning. Deeply imbued himself with the precious 
doctrines of grace, he impressed them with constancy and earnest- 
ness, in the lecture-room and in the chapel, upon the minds of the 
students, while, at the same time, his instructions received double 
force from the l>lameless sanctity of his character and the con- 
sistent godliness of his walk and conversation. No pious student 
could ever have left the halls of the Seminary without carrying 
■with him the hallowing remembrance and the salutary influence 
of such a life. For he was a man of prayer, full of the Holy 
Ghost and of faith. He needed not to be a rigid disciplinarian. 
His own gentleness won for him that love which is the soul of 
obedience, and the saintliness of his spirit secured him a respect 
approaching to veneration — approaching to veneration, I say, 
for the meekness of his spirit, and the exquisite modesty of his 
bearing were hardly suited to inspire in the beholder the senti- 
ment of awe. They attracted esteem mingled with affection. In 
these regards his loss to the Seminary cannot ]>e over-estimated ; 
and the < 'hurcli which is bereaved by his death may well exclaim 
a liis grave: "Jlelji. Ji()r<l, f«»r the godly mum ceaseth ; for the 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 409 

faithful fail from among the children of men." He has ascended 
to heaven, and these sacred shades will know him no more ; but 
God grant that the mantle of the departing prophet may fall 
upon each of his surviving brethren, as, gazing after him, he ex- 
claims : "My fither, my father, the chariots of Israel and the 
horsemen thereof!" 

Such a life and such labors as those of Dr. Howe could not 
fail to exert a powerful influence upon the theological education 
in this Southern land. There have always been those who, in 
view of the practical demand for preachers growing out of the 
spiritual destitutions of our territory, fjivored a curtailment in 
time of the course of preparation for the ministry. And there 
have been others who were controlled by the extraordinary opin- 
ion that a thorough-going education, instead of adapting preach- 
ers to the wants of the uneducated classes, actually hinders 
their success ; that it induces a habit of thought and expression 
Avhieh lifts its possessor out of sympathy with the masses, or con- 
stitutes a barrier to their sympathy with him. Against these views 
the whole life of our departed Professor was a standing protest. 
Nor was he content with the unaggressive resistance of such a testi- 
mony. He was outspoken in maintaining it. From the day on 
which his inaugural address was pronounced until death closed his 
career and sealed his lips, by the pen as well as by the tongue, in 
the courts of the Church, in the pulpit, on the platform, in the con- 
ferences and debates of the Seminary, he raised his voice in favor 
of a high order of ministerial education, and in opposition to the 
tendency to depress the standard of qualification for the sacred 
office. Some of his most recent utterances in the meetings of 
the Faculty were those in which he strenuously contended against 
a depreciation of ministerial culture. This is his latest as it was 
his earliest testimony, and, coming from one who was competent 
to judge in the premises, it deserves to be seriously pondered by 
the Church. 

That the long-continued connexion of Dr. Howe with this 
Seminary was not necessitated by the absence of inducements to 
enter other and inviting fields of labor, but was the result of de- 
liberate choice, is proved by the fact that he was the recipient of 



410 EULOGY ON DR. UOWE. 

several calls to important clmrclie.s, and of one from another 
theolojiical institution in which a flattering; tribute was rendered 
to his abilities and learning. In 1836, when he was thirty-four 
years of a;^e, he was elected by the Board of Directors of Union 
^J'heological Seminary, New York, to the Professorship of Sacred 
Literature. The letter in which the election was communicated 
to him is among his papers, and is signed by Tiiomas II. Skinner, 
Knowles 'J'aylor, and Ichabod S. Spencer. "I*,ermit us, Kev. 
and dear sir," these gentlemen said, "to express the hope that 
you may see it to be your duty not to decline the appointment, 
which in the name of the Board of Directors we have the honor 
to tender to you. There was great cordiality in your election, 
and your acceptance, we are confident, will give general satisfac- 
tion to the friends of the institution throughout the community." 
In his answer, under date of December 7th, 1830, he says : '"In 
reply to your letter, I alluded to the circumstances of my situ- 
ation which prevented an immediate decision of a (juestion so im- 
portant. I must now say, that it a])pears still my duty to cast in 
my lot and earthly destiny with the people of the South, among 
whom I have made my home. VVJien I accepted the Professor- 
ship I hold, it was Avith the hope that I might be the means of 
building up the wastes, and extending the borders, of our South- 
ern Zion. This motive still holds me here. Though our institu- 
tion nnist be a small one through the present generation, and 
yours will be large, it is important, it is necessary, whatever be 
the fate of our beloved country, that this Seminary should live. 
If I leave it at the present juncture, its continuance is exceed- 
ingly doubtful. If I remain, though the field of my effort must 
be small, and I must live on in obscurity, we may yet transmit 
to the men of the next generation an institution which will bless 
them and the world." 

^Ve have here a glimpse of the early struggles of the Seminary 
to maintain an uncertain existence, and a proof of tiie tenacity 
with which he clung to it amidst difficulties which were little less 
than a])i>alling. He lived to see its prospects brighten, and then 
darken ajjain amidst the disasters which followed in the wake of 
a great war; but at last he was i)ermitted to close his eyes upon 



EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 411 

his beloved Seminary — the darling of his heart — emerging from 
its troubles and entering upon a new career of usefulness and 
hope. It might well have been conceived, in response to such 
affection, as exclaiming in the words of the faithful spouse of the 
hero of Ithaca : 

"Tiia sum, tua dicar oportet • 
Penelope: conjux semper Ulixis ero.*' 

Its history and his are plaited together; its name and his will 
go down together to succeeding times. For more than half a 
century our venerable brother, without intermission, except that 
■which was recently occasioned by the suspension of the exercises of 
the institution, through trials many and formidable, devoted him- 
self to the instruction of those who sought in its halls their pi'epara- 
tion for the sacred work of the gospel ministry. Not a few of them 
died before him ; and his colleagues, Goulding, Jones, Thornwell, 
Leland, and Plumer preceded him to the eternal world. Is it 
extravagant to suppose that they have welcomed him to those 
higher seats of learning, where teachers and pupils will study in 
the clear light of heaven the profound problems of providence 
and redemption ? 

The Synod of South Carolina, at its meeting November 19th, 
1849, appointed Dr. Howe to prepare a history of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in its bounds. The labor imposed upon him by this 
appointment was arduous and protracted. Materials had to be 
collected from all the churches occupying the territory of the 
Synod, and these had to be examined and corrected, in many in- 
stances to be reduced in bulk, and to be difjested into something 
like systematic order. Steadily and persistently he worked upon 
the difficult task assigned him. The first volume was completed 
and issued in 1870, covering the period ending with the close of the 
last century. The second volume, which was expected to embrace 
the first half of the present century, has occupied his attention 
for several years past, and recently he wrought night and day to 
bring it to completion. Just before he received the injury which 
alas I proved fatal, he sent off the concluding sheets to the press. 
With the exception of a part of the index, and a few corrections 
of errata in the first volume which he intended to insert, he had 



412 EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 

finisliod it, and his brethren congratuhited him upon the prospect 
of rest from liis toil. Yes, the period of repose had come, but it 
was not destined to be enjoyed on earth. " Rest !" said the great 
Arnauhl, "I sliall rest in eternity !" That is the rest which our 
dear brother now enjoys. He has ceased at once to labor and to 
live: he rests In heaven. 

lie often expressed the apprehension, that in performing this 
office, he had to an undue extent diverted his energies from the 
proper duties of his professorship. But he has accompli.she<l for 
the Church, and at its bidding, a work of incalculable value ; 
and his name cannot perish from her memory as long as she 
reads in these volumes the record of God's dealings with her in 
the past. He is dead, but he shall yet speak in these invaluable 
productions. 

Besides this history, the theological and literary remains of 
Dr. Howe, so far as could be ascertained, are the following: A 
volume of 243 pages on Theological Education, published in 
1844 — a learned and valuable production, which merits re-publi- 
cation; a volume of 48 pages, being An Appeal to the Young 
Men of the Presbyterian Church in the Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia, issued in 1886; "Thy Kingdom Come:" A Mission- 
ary Sermon, ])reachcd before the Presbytery of Harmony, at the 
Brick c-hurch in Salem, South Carolina, 1833; A Sermon, occa- 
sioned by the death of the Rev. Robert Means, of Fairfield Dis- 
trict, S. C, preached in the Salem church, on the second Sab- 
bath in June, 1886; A Eulogy on the Rev. Joshua Bates, D. D., 
former President of Middlebury College, delivered on Commence- 
ment Day, August 9th, 1854; Early History of Prcsbyterianism 
in South Carolina: a Sermon preached at the opening of the 
Synod of South Carolina, in Charleston, S. C, November 15th, 
1854; Tlie Early Presbyterian Immigration into South Carolina: 
a Discourse delivered before the General Assenddy in New Or- 
leans, May 7th, 1858, by appointment of the Presbyterian His- 
torical Society; The Value and Influence of Literary Pursuits: 
an (Jration delivered before the Eunienean and Philanthroi>ic So- 
cieties of Davidson College, N. C, on Commencement Day, Au- 
gust 13th, 1846; The Endowments, Position, and Education of 



EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 413 

Woman : an Address delivered before the Hemans and Si<^ourney 
Societies of the Female High School at Limestone Springs, July 
23d, 1850; Introduction to the Works of the Rev. Robert Means, 
with a Note on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch ; The Second- 
ary and Collateral Influences of the Sacred Scriptures: a pam- 
phlet ; Articles published in the Southern Presbyterian Revieiv : 
On the Holy Spirit, 1847; on Ethnography, 1849; on the 
Unity of the Race, 1849; on the Mark of Cain and the Curse of 
Ham, 1850; on Nott's Lectures, 1850; on the Genuineness of 
the Pentateuch, 1850; on the Unity of the Human Race, 1851 ; 
on the Types of Mankind, 1855; on the General Assembly of 
1858 ; on Renan's Origins of Christianit}^, 1866 ; on Jean Calas, 
the Martyr of Toulouse, 1874; on Dr. Charles Colcock Jones's 
History of the Church, 1868. 

It only remains that somewhat be more particularly said with 
reference to the character of our departed bi'other, which has al- 
ready, to some extent, been delineated in the preceding remarks. 
Not that any information upon that subject needs to be furnished 
to you, my brethren, who knew him so well; nor is an office so 
superfluous, so gratuitous, now attempted. But it is not impro- 
per, it is right, however inadequate may be the attempt, to give 
expression to the common estimate of a character which may, in 
all sobriety, be represented as an illustrious specimen before the 
eyes of men of the sanctifying grace of God. 

It is but simple justice to say that our lamented friend was 
faithful in all the relations which he sustained. He was tlie in- 
corruptible patriot, the useful citizen, the aff'ectionate husband 
and father, the true and sympathising friend, the compassionate 
benefactor of the poor, the hospitable entertainer of tlie stranger, 
the catholic lover of all Jesus's people, the sincere and earnest 
ambassador of the cross, the conscientious teacher of scriptural 
truth, the meek yet intrepid servant of Christ. 

One of the most prominent traits of his character was purity. 
It marked his life and dwelt like a law upon his lips. Who of 
us,- however intimate with him, ever heard him utter a word which 
would cause a blush upon the cheek of modesty, or unworthy of 
insertion upon the most stainless page ? His ordinary conversa- 



414 EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 

tion Avas as delicate and refined as his discourses from the sacred 
desk. Another distinguishing characteristic was his profound 
humility. I speak not of an intellectual humilit}' merely which 
springs from a just sense of the limitations impo-^ed upon tlie hu- 
man faculties. That he possessed. lie had measured the short 
tether of human thought, and had learned the lesson that what- 
ever may he its attainments, it is surrounded by a boundless 
ocean of unknown and it may be unknowable realities. But I 
speak of that spiritual grace whieh is born of a deep conviction 
of human sinfulness and divine holiness. This led him ever to 
express implicit dependence upon supernatural grace and to ab- 
jure the conceit of vanity and the arrogance of pride. Hence, 
too, his unselfishness — a quality which prompted him to sacrifice 
personal comfort and ease, to prefer others to himself, and to re- 
joice without any alloy of jealousy in the gifts and honors of his 
brethren. He never, perhaps, was known to breathe a syllable 
of depreciation in regard to the achievements even of an oj)ponent. 
Always ready to join in encomiums upon tlie laudable qualities 
of others, he blushed at receiving the praise of his own. Siiining 
as were the graces by which he was adorned, he seemed to know 
them not. He could not see what all besides himself beheld. 
Every compliment which was paid him he transferred to his 
Saviour, and hastened to lay upon that Saviour's feet the crown 
of his endowments and his toils. 

Akin to this lovely feature of his character was his proverbial 
gentleness. No dulness of a student drew from him flashes of 
irritability, no unkindness of opponents provoked him to expres- 
sions of acrimony or even of inqiatience. Whether this was a 
constituti(jnal quality, or whether it was the result of a discipline 
induced by grace, he seemed to have put away all bitterness and 
wrath and clamor and evil-speaking with all maliee; and to fulfil 
the injunction: '*]Je ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, for- 
giving others, even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you." 
Severe towards himself, he was charitable towards others. Keady 
to nuike allowance for their imperfections and even for their 
faults, prone to place the most favorable construction upon their 
motives, did he not j)resent as near an approach as we have ever 



EULOGY ON DR. IIOAVE. 415 

known to a realisation of the picture drawn by the inspired 
apostle of the noblest grace of our religion : "Charity suffereth 
long and is kind: charity envieth not: charity vaunteth not 
itself, is not puffed u]i, <loth not behave itself unseemly, seek- 
eth not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketli no evil, rejoic- 
eth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth: beareth all things, 
believeth all things, hopeth all things, endurcth all things" ? 

But although thus humble, gentle, and charitable, it would be 
doing injustice to his memory to suppose that his character was 
neutral and undecided, that his virtues were purely negative, and 
that he was deficient in tenacity of purpose and courage in action. 
Unaggressive and unpolemical, he was given to seeking the things 
which make for peace, but where principle was involved or arduous 
work was to be done, he was positive in maintaining the one and 
resolute in performing the other. To assure him that some labor 
desired of him was facile of discharge, was to lead him to hesi- 
tate ; to paint its difficulties was to ensure his undertaking it. 
Diffident and retiring in ordinary circumstances, in seasons of 
danger and exigency he was as dauntless as a lion. On the fear- 
ful night when a storm of fire was ravaging this beautiful town, 
and a rampant soldiery was let loose to sack it, he displayed the 
courage of a hero, and it was a remark of Dr. Thornwell that he 
who met him in debate had no easy victory to win. 

Eminent catholicity of spirit was not the least conspicuous of 
the graces which adorned him. All God's people, of whatever 
name, he owned as his Father's children ; every servant of Jesus 
he recognised as a brother beloved. The fact that for years he 
was the President of the Columbia Bible Society, Avas an index 
of his cordial affection for his brethren of other evangelical de- 
nominations than his own. Esteemed as he was by them in life, 
he is lamented by them in death. 

Marked by transparent simplicity of character, he was lifted 
immeasurably above the arts of the politician and the wiles of the 
trickster. He was no engineer of measures. What could not be 
accomplished by direct and overt means, he used no other instru- 
mentality to effect. Truth was his end, and truth his road to 
reach it. He was a man, of whom we might ask : 



41G EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 

"Cui Pudor et Justitia? soror 
Incorrupta Fides nudaque Veritas 
Quando ullum inveniet |)arein ?' 

To say that he liad no weaknesses and imperfections wouhl he 
to say that he was not hunian ; hut "e'en his failings leaned to 
virtue's side." They were the exaggerations of those lovely 
and self-denying qualities which have been designated as his 
principal attributes. Little is risked when it is said that there 
has not lived among us in this generation one more pure, more 
unselfish, more free from self-seeking and from ambitious aims 
than he over whose grave Ave now shed our tears. In a character 
moulded and polished by grace there seemed to be gathered into 
unity whatsoever things are true, venerable, just ; whatsoever 
things are pure, lovely, and of good report. To sum up all in a 
single word. Dr. Howe Avas a godly man, a man of prayer and 
faith, of devotion to the ordinances of the Lord's house, of zeal 
for the glory of God and compassion for the souls of men. Con- 
fessing himself to be a sinner, he repaired for pardon to the blood 
of atonement and leaned for support upon free and sovereign 
grace. Christ to him was all. He gloried only in the cross, and 
in tliat face of a dying Saviour which was covered Avith spittle 
and reddened Avith gore. Jesus he oAvned to be his Avisdom, 
righteousness, sanctification, and redemption. Him he loved and 
delighted to honor and adore. And having testified to him in 
life, in death he explicitly declared that in him alone he trusted. 

It is a law of Christ's kingdom that in the world his followers 
shall have tribulation. This Avould be, in view of the fact that 
he sufl'ercd in their stead, an inexplicable mystery Avere it not 
cleared up by the light Avhich the gospel pours upon it. The 
penal feature has been extracted from the sufferings of the be- 
liever, Avhich are transmuted into the benefits of a salutary discip- 
line, lie not only knoAvs Jesus and the poAver of his resurrec- 
tion, but the fellowship of his sufferings and conformity to his 
death. The consideration of his communion Avith his Lord in the 
bitter school of tri.al, is sufficient to reconcile him to every pang 
of suffering, and he is sustained by the assurance that his light 
afflictions Avhich are but for a moment shall work out for him a 



EULOGY ON DR. HOWE. 417 

far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. He who walks 
with Jesus and with whom Jesus walks in the fiery furnace, will 
sit down with Jesus on his tlirone and reign with him for ever. 
We need not therefore be disturbed by the spectacle of suffering 
which the most eminent servants of Christ affbid. Although our 
venerable brother j)ursued the even tenor of his way amidst the 
quiet of academic shades, he was no exception to the law that 
the disciple is not greater than his Master, nor the servant than 
his Lord. He endured a constant fight of afflictions. He was 
acquainted with grief, and literally walked with pain as an almost 
inseparable companion. He had wept over the graves of some 
who were as dear to him as his own soul — one a noble boy who 
sacrificed his life for his country. But, conscious of a Saviour's 
sympathy, supported by the invisible but almighty power of 
grace, and cheered by the hope of immortal bliss, he more than 
con([uered every earthly ill, and rose superior to every tempest of 
life: 

"As some tall cliff that rears its awful form, 
Swells from the vale and midway leaves the storm ; 
Though round its breast the rollintf clouds are sijread, 
Eternal sunshine settles on its head.'' 

His duties are done ; his pains are over ; his afflictions are past. 
The grand old man has been gathered to his fiithers, full of years 
and full of honors ; having left a reputation without a blemish 
and a record without a spot. That body which was the home of 
suffering shall sleep as in the bosom of Jesus until the mornino- 
call of a descending God shall wake it from its dusty bed. Those 
bones which once ached and broke shall lie undisturbed by "the 
drums and tramplings of conquests," the revolutions of earth, and 
the shaking of thrones. 

That noble spirit, which so lately held converse with us in this 
vale of tears, now disembodied and glorified, expatiates in realms 
of joy, approaches the throne of God and of the Lamb, and un- 
scales its vision at the fountain itself of heavenly light. With 
what seraphic love does it pour out its praises to that Eedcemer 
whom it adored and magnified below ! With Avhat transports of 
affection does it salute sainted kindred, brethren, and friends ! 
27 



418 EULOGY OX DR. HOWE. 

With what ecstacies of joy does it commune with "the spirits of 
just men made perfect" — the great, the good, the sanctified, who 
have been gathered out of every tribe and tongue of earth ! To 
that rendezvous of holy beings we, too, aspire ; to tliat communion 
which sliall realise the idea of a perfect society. The accusations 
of conscience silenced, the stains of defilement washed out from 
the soul, the notes of discord hushed, truth, justice, and love 
reigning in every heart and controlling every relation, the sobs of 
the dying chamber stilled, and the tears of parting for ever wiped 
away, we shall comprehend, as now we cannot, the import of 
those sublime and thrilling words : "We are come unto Mount 
Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusa- 
lem, and to an innumerable company of angels : to the general 
assembly and church of the first-born which are written in 
heaven." 

Voicing, brethren of the Alumni Association, your common 
sentiment and that of all who ever sat at the feet of this master 
of Israel, and survive to lament his departure, I exclaim : Well 
done, servant of Jesus : veteran soldier of the cross, well done ! 
Farewell, brother beloved, for a season, farewell ! "What there 
is of separation is but for a while. This reconciles us to the 
grave, that our greatest hopes lie beyond it." 



APPENDIX. 



CATALOGUE OF THE FACULTY AND STU- 
DENTS OF COLUMBIA SEMINARY. 



FACULTY. 

Accessns. Exitus. 

1828. Thomas Goulding,* D. D.. Professor of Ecclesias- 
tical History and Church Polit3\ 1834. 

1831. George Howe,* D. D., LL. D., Professor of Bibli- 
cal Literature. 1883. 

1§33. A. W. Leland,* D. D., Professor of Christian 

Theology. 1856. 

1836. Charles Colcock Jones,* D. D., Professor of Ec- 
clesiastical History and Church Polity. 1838. 

1848. Charles Colcock Jones,* D. D., Professor of Ec- 
clesiastical Historj' and Chui'ch Polit}'. 1850. 

1852. Alex. T. McGill, D. D., Professor of Ecclesiastical 

History and Church Polity. 1853. 

1853. B. M. Palmer, I). D., LL. D., Provisional Instruc- 

tor in Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. 1853. 

1854. B. M. Palmer, D. D., LL. D., Professor of Ecclesi- 

astical History and Church Polity. 1856. 

1856. A. W. Leland,* D. D., Professor of Sacred Ehet- 

oric and Pastoral Theology. 1871. 

1856. J. 11. Thornwell,* D. J)., LL. D., Professor of 

Didactic and Polemic Theology-. 1862. 

1857. J. B. Adger, D. D., Professor of Ecclesiastical His- 

tor}' and Church Polity. 1874. 

1861. James Woodrow, Ph. D., M. D., D. D., LL. D., Per- 
kins Professor of Natural Science in connexion 
Avith Revelation. 

1867. William S. Plumer,* D. D., LL. D., Professor of 

Didactic and Polemic Theology. 1875. 

1870. Joseph R. Wilson, D. D., Professor of Pastoral 

and Evangelistic Theology and Sacred Rhetoric. 1874. 

1875. William S. Plumer,* D. I)., LL. D., Professor of 

Pastoral, Casuistic, and Historic Theology. 1880. 

1876. J. L. Girardeau, D. D., LL. D., Professor of Didac- 

tic and Polemic Theology. 
1882. Charles R. Hemphill, A. M., Associate Professor 

of Biblical Literature. 1883. 

1882. Wm. E. Bog6s, D. D., Professor of Ecclesiastical 

History and Church Polity. 

1883. Charles R. Hemphill, A. M., Pi-ofessor of Biblical 

Literature. 

TUTORS IN HEBREW. 

1851. Bazile Lanneau,* A. M. 1855. 

1856. James Cohen,* A. M. 1862. 

1874. Charles R. Hemphill, A. M. 1878. 

* Deceased. 



422 



APPENDIX. 



STUDENTS. 



NAMES. 




H 
< 

CO 



CLASS OF 1833. 

James M. H. Adams,* 

James Beattie, 

Francis R. Goulding,* 

John C. Keenev, 

James L. Merrick,* 

AVilliam M. Jieid,* 

J. Leighlon Wilson, B. D., 

William B. Yates,* (8) 

CLASS OF 1834. 

I. S. K. Axson, D. D., 

Julius J. DuBose,* 

Then. M. Dwi^ht, 

A. M. Kdr^crton,* 

Malcolm D. Fraser,* 

I. S. K. Legart',* 

Andrew G. Peden, 

Geo. H. AV. Petric, D. D., (8) 

CLASS OF 1835. 

Alexander 11. Banks, 

J. II. Carwile,* 

John B. Cassels,* 

John Douglas,* 

^y. C. Dana, D. D.,* 

AVilliam A. Gray,* 

Iiicliard Hooker,* 

Thomas Magruder,* 

John B. Mallard, 

Charles AV. Martin,* 

T. F. Moiitgomcrv,* 

Charles B. PelUm", (12) 

CLASS OF 1836. 

James C. Cozby,* 



F. C. 
F. C. 
A. C. 
U. C. 



C. C. 
S. C. C. 

F. C. 
Dart. C. 

Y. C. 

C. C. 



S. c. c. 

Dart. C. 

Y. C. 
F. C. 
F. C. 
M. U. 
F. C. 



F. C. 



1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 



S. C. 

Scotland. 

Ga. 

Alass. 
:S. C. 



1831 iS. C. 
1831 S.C. 



1831 
1831 
1832 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 



1832 
1833 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
18.33 
1832 
1S32 
1833 



1833 



S.C. 
S.C. 
Conn. 
N. H. 

S.C. 
S.C. 
S.C. 
S.C. 



S.C. 

Ga. 

S.C. 

Mass. 

S.C. 

Mass. 

Ga. 

Ga. 

Ohio. 

Ga. 



S.C. 



APPENDIX. 



423 



NAMES. 


Where 

(Jradu- 

ated. 




P4 
H 

< 


Thomas Hobb}^,* 




1834 


S. C. 


Animus Johnson, 




1833 


s. c. 


E. C. Ketehum,* 


F. C. 


1833 


Ga. 


T. H. Lefrare, 




1833 


S. C. 


John Leyburn, D. D., 


N. H. 


1835 


Va. 


Donahi McQueen, 1). D.,* (7) 


s. c. c. 


1833 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1837. 








Julius L. Bai-tlett, 


w. c. 


1834 


S. C. 


Edwin Cater.* 


F. C. 


1834 


S.C. 


James F. Gibert,* 


F. C. 


1834 


S.C. 


James H. Save, 


F. C. 


1834 


Ga. 


D. McNeill turner, D. D., 


C. C. 


1834 


S.C. 


John Winn, (6) 


A. C. 


1834 


Ga. 


CLASS OF 1838. 








Donald J. Auld. M. D.,* 


C. C. 


1835 


S.C. 


S. R. Brown. D. D.,* 


Y. C. 


1836 


Conn. 


Samuel Donnelly,* 


s. c. c. 


1835 


S.C. 


W. W. Eells.* 


Y. C. 


1835 


Conn. 


Mitchel Peden.* 




1835 


S.C. 


James Rosamond, (6) 


M. U. 


1837 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1839. 








Auo;ustus 0. Bacon,* 


F. C. 


1836 


Ga. 


Richard M. Baker, 


N. H. 


1837 


Ga. 


J. C. Brown. D. D..* 


J. C. 


1838 


Pa. 


H. B. Cunninirham, D. D.,* 


W. C. Pa. 


183G 


Pa. 


L. W. Curtis, 


U. C. 


1836 


N. Y. 


David Finley,* 


F. C. 


1836 


Ga. 


John Jones. D. D., 


F. C. 


1836 


Ga. 


James T. Phelps,* 


M. C. 


1837 




T. L. McBryde, D. D.,* 


F. C. 


1836 


S.C. 


W. Theobold, (10) 


U. C. 


1837 




CLASS OF 1840. 








William Banks.* 


F. C. 


18.37 


S.C. 


James R. Gilland, D. D.,* 


J. C. 


1839 . 


Pa. 



424 



APPENDIX. 



NAMES. 


Where 
Gradu- 
ated. 


a 5 
Si < 

Z S 


H 

< 


M. W\ McClesky,* 


K. C. 


1837 




Geo. W. McCoy,* 


F. C. 


ls.37 


Ga. 


Ilu<i;l) A. Muni-oe,* 




1837 


X. C. 


T. M. Xcwcll.* 


W. C. Pa. 


1838 


Pa. 


E. F. Rockwell, 1). 1)., (7) 


Y. C. 


1838 


Conn. 


CLASS OF 1841. 








Janios B. Dimwody, 


y. C. 


1838 


Ga. 


W. C. Emerson, " 


M. C. Ala. 


1840 


S.C. 


Geo. Coo])cr Grcs^ii;^* 


S. C. C. 


1838 


S. 0. 


"Williatn P. Harrison, 


F. C. 


1838 


Ga. 


.Samuel II. Ilav, 


S. C. C. 


1838 


S.C. 


John L. Mclver,* 




1838 


N. C. 


Neill McKav. D.I)., 


XJ. C. 


1838 


N. C. 


Peter McNab.* 




1838 


X. C. 


B. M. Palmer. I). D., LL. D., 


F. C. 


1838 


S.C. 


M. A. Patterson,* 


N. II. 


1838 


X. c. 


Colin Sliaw, 


U. N. C. 


1838 


X. c. 


Alliert Williams,* 


F. C. 


1838 


Ga. 


J. 1). Wilson, 


S. C. C. 


1838 


S. C. 


Peter Winn, 


F. C. 


1838 


Ga. 


James Woods, (15) 




1838 




CLASS OF 1842. 








David Iv Frier.-^on, D. D., 


S. C. C. 


1839 


s. c. 


Z. L. Holmes, 


K. C. 


1839 


X. Y. 


A. A. Porter, D. D.,* (3) 


N. H. 


1839 


Ala. 


CLASS OF 1843. 








Goori^e H. Ijojran,* 


C. C. 


1840 


S.C. 


Pichard Q. Way, (2) 


F. C. 


1840 


Ga. 


CLASS OF 1844. 








Edmund Anderson, 


F. C. 


1841 


S.C. 


James K. Baird. 


Dav. C. 


1841 


S.C. 


Wm. Curtis. LL. D..* 




1S41 


S.C. 


William Flinn. D. D., 


Dav. C. 


1841 


N. C. 


Josepli (iibert,* 


F. C. 1 


1841 


S.C. 



APPENDIX. 



425 



NAMES. 


Where 

ATKI). 


w z 




Homer Hendee,* 


0. u. 


1841 


N. y. 


Ezekiel F. iryde, 


U. C. 


1841 


Canada, 


"William 11. Moore,* 


Dav. C. 


1841 


S. C. 


William H Smith, 


U. C. 


1841 


N. Y. 


Clarke B. Stewart, 




1841 


S.C. 


Charles A. Stillman, D. D., (11) 


0. IT. 


1841 


s. c. 


CLASS OF 1845. 








Ct. W. Bogfjr^. 




1842 


S.C. 


Sava<i;e S. Gaillard,* 




1842 


S.C. 


H. W. Henderson,* 




1842 


S.C. 


J. B. Hillhouse, 




1842 


S.C. 


James R. MeCarter,* 


F. C. 


1842 


Ga. 


R. H. Laffertj,* 


W. C. Pa. 


1842 


Ohio. 


John McLees.* 




1842 


S. C. 


Henry Xewton. 


F. C. 


1842 


Ga. 


J. W. Quarterman,* 


F. C. 


1842 


Ga. 


K. E. Sherrill. 


Dav. C. 


1842 


N. C. 


Julius J. Fleming, (11) 


C. C. 


1842 


s. c. 


CLASS OF 1846. 








P. C. Calhoun, 


S. c. c. 


1843 


s. c. 


Joseph Furse, 




1843 




William T. Savage, 


Dav. C. 


1843 


S.C. 


Norm an Terrv, 




1843 




William W. Wilson,* 


s. c. c. 


1843 


s. c. 


Thomas S. Winn, (6) 


F. C. 


1843 


Ga. 


CLASS OF 1847. 








T. C. Crawford, 


Dav. C. 


1844 


N. C. 


AVilliam L. Hughes,* 




1844 


S.C. 


William H. Roberts. 




1844 


N. C. 


William Tv Screven,* 


F. C. 


1844 


Ga. 


William H. Thompson, 




1844 


Ga. 


Joseph K. Wight, (6) 


N. H. 


1844 


Conn. 


CLASS OF 1848. 








G. H. Cartledge, 


0. U. 


1845 


Ga. 



426 



APPENDIX. 













i — 




• 










NAMES. 


= J H 


'f- 5^ 






-^ '~ < 


Z 7, 


E-i 




r^ ^ 




CC 



S. R. Frierson,* 

John L. Girardoan, T). D., LL. D.. 

Robert W. IfaddiMi.* 

Arnold W. Miller, I). T>.. 

Eduai-d P. Palmer, D. D., 

Josej)b I). Portei-,* 



(7) 



CLASS OF 1849. 

B. L. P.oall 

S. M. Blaiiehard, 

A. E. Chandler, 

William H. Hall, 

Thomas A. Iloyt, D. D., 

A. (r. Johnson. 
"William Matthews,* 
Robert H. Reid, 
Albert Shotwell, 
"William 11. Sintjletary,* 
Edward W. Ware,* 

M. A. Williams, 

CLASS OF 1850. 

J. M. Qiiarternian,* 
H. "W. Po^rers.* 
AVilliam H. Telford, 
David Wills, D. D., 

CLASS OF 1851. 

Robert A<i;ncw, 
John P. Bowman, I). D., 
Asahel Enloe. 
CJurdoii P. Foster, 
Donald Eraser, D. D., 
Albert A. James, 

B. E. lianneau,"^' 
A. J. Tjou<;hridi;e,* 
"Washi Hilton I'eace,* 
Jame»» Fj. Po(rers, 
A. M. Watson, 



(12) 



(4) 



N. H. 

C. C. 
N. H. 
C. C. 

F. C. 



0. U. 
Dart. C. 
Dav. C. 

O. U. 

F. C. 
Mar. C. 

S. C. C. 

Dav. C. 
U. A. 
J. C. 



O. U. 
N. H. 

s. c. c. 

T. C. 



1845 iTenn. 

1845 S. C. 

1845 Ala. 

1845 S. C. 

1845 S. C. 

1845 Ala. 



1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 



IN. C. 
iCoun. 

Is. C. 

Ga. 

jGa. 

Ga. 

Ga. 

S. C. 

Ga. 

S. C. 

Ala. 

Pa. 



1847 Ga. 

1847 Miss. 

1847 S. C. 

1847 Tenn. 



Gl. U. 


1849 


Ireland 


N. H. 


1848 


Ga. 


Dav. C. 


1848 


s. c. 


0. U. 


1848 


.\la. 


0. U. 


1848 


Ga. 


Dav. C. 


1848 


S. C. 


C. C. 


1848 


s.c. 


0.0. 


1848 


s. c. 


N. 11. 


1S48 


Pa. 


J. C. 


1S48 


Penn. 


Dav. C. 1 


1848 


s.c. 



APPENDIX. 



427 



NAMES. 


Where 
Gradu- 
ated. 


H Pi 
en < 

z. S 
K ^ 


Eh 

<! 

H 
GO 


A. J. AVitherspoon, J). D., 


(12) 


s. c. c. 


1848 


s. c. 


CLASS OF 1852. 








, 


J. H. Alexander, 




0. u. 


1849 




James S. Barr,* 




Day. C. 


1849 


X. c. 


John J. Boozer,* 






1849 


s. c. 


D. L. Butlolph, D. D., 




W. C. 


1849 


s. c. 


James Dou^-lass, 




Day. C. 


1849 


s. c. 


F. C. Morris,* 




0. U. 


1849 


Ala. 


K. K. Porter, D. D.,* 




s. c. c. 


1849 


s. c. 


AY. H. Roane,* 




0. u. 


1849 


Ala. 


James Stacy, D. D., 




0. u. 


1849 


Ga. 


James T. Waite, 






1849 


X. Y. 


James Evans White, 


(11) 


s. c. c. 


1849 


s. c. 



CLASS OF 1853. 

S. Caldwell Alexander, 
William E. Baker, 
William B. Carson, 
William B. Corbett, 
I. N. Cowan,* 
Jno. Simpson Frierson, 
T. J. Girardeau, 
Henry Hardie,* 
Wm. J. McCormick,* 
Eobert A. Mickle, 
J. G. Eiehards, 
D. F. Smith, 
Peter M. Ryburn, 

CLASS OF 1854. 

Joseph Bard well, D. D., 
Marcus M. Carlton, 
Matthew Greene, 
Douglass Harrison, 
T. E. Markham, D. D., 

C. B. H. Martin, D. D., 
Martin McQueen, 

D. D. McBryde, 



(13) 



Day. C. 
N. H. 

C. C. 
E. C. 
H. C. 
S. C. C. 
U. K C. 
O. U. 

O. IJ. 

C. C. 



KH. 

A. C. 

Q. C. B. 

s. c. c. 
o. c. 

H. C. 
Day. C. 
Day. C. 



1850 
1850 
1851 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1852 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1852 



1851 
1851 
1851 
1852 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1851 



N. C. 

Ga. 

Ala. 

S. C. 

s. c. 

Tenn. 

S. C. 

N. c. 
N. Y. 

s. c. 

Ala. 
Ga. 

S. C. 



K C. 
Vermont. 
Ireland. 
>S. C. 
Miss. 

:n. c. 

IN. C. 



428 



APPENDIX. 



NAMES. 


Where 
Gradu- 
ated. 


OS < 

H - 


State. 


Thos. B. Neill, 


S. c. c. 


1852 


S. 0. 


Samuel Orr.* 


0. u. 


1851 


Ga. 


Ilcniy M. Smitli, T). J)., (11) 


J. c. 




Penn. 


CLASS OF 1855. 








James A. Coiisar,* 




1852 


S. C. 


Jaines A. Davies,* 


Dav. 0. 


1852 


S.C. 


Nicholas W. Edtminds, 


S. C. C. 


1852 


s. c. 


B. Scott Kridei-,^'^ 


Dav. C. 


1852 


N. C. 


Eol)ert q. Muliard, I). D., 


F. C. 


1852 


Ga. 


Kobert S. McAllister, 




1852 


Miss. 


W. J. McKiiight, J). D., 


H. C. 


1853 


N. C. 


Eobevt Me Lees,* 




1852 


S.C. 


David H. Porter, D. D.,* 


S. C. C. 


1852 


Ala. 


C. J. Siiliman, 


0. U. 


1852 


Ala. 


L. A. Simonton,* 


0. U. 


1852 


Ga. 


Arthur M. Small,* 


0. U. 


1852 


S.C. 


Eol.ert U. Small.* 


0. U. 


1852 


S.C. 


Charlton 11. Wilson,* (U) 


0. U. 


1852 


S.C. 


CLASS OP 1856. 








AVilliam Alcorn,* 


U. Pa. 


1855 


Ii'cland. 


Jlobert M. Brearley,* 


S. C. C. 


1854 


S.C. 


Thos. J. Davidson,* 


0. U. 


1853 


S. C. 


A. 11. Epstein,* 


P. I. V. 


1854 


llun>;arv. 


AViUiam Hall, 


0. U. 


1853 


Ala. 


John S. Harris,* 


Dav. C. 


1853 


N. C. 


Elmore Kinder,* 


0. U. 


1853 


S.C. 


A. L. Kline, D. I).,* 




1853 


S.C. 


James Mc ho well. 


S. C. C. 


1853 


S.C. 


Geor;;e D. Parks, M. D., 


Dav. C. 




N. C. 


James Mc(^iiecn, 


Dav. C. 


1854 


N. C. 


11. L. Neelv, 






Tonn. 


M. D. Wood, 


0. U. 




S.C. 


Warren 1). Wilkes,* 


E. C. 


1854 


S.C. 


S. (;. Boyce, 


E.G. 




S.C. 


J. C. Phelps, (16) 






Miss. 


CLASS OF 1857. 








Jno. A. Harr,* 


Dav. C. 


1855 


N. C. 



APPENDIX. 



429 





?i a Q 


RED 
AKV. 


Kl 


NAMES. 


«S^ 




< 




'^S< 




H 


S. J. Bingham,* 


0. u. 


1855 


Ala. 


David Chalmers Boggs, 


0. u. 


1854 


S.C. 


Samuel Wilson Davies, D. D., 


H. S. C. 


1854 


Ya. 


Jame8 E. Dun lop, 


U. V. 


1855 


S.C. 


John C. Ilumphiy,* 




1854 


N. Y. 


(Till)ert C. Lane,* 


Mi. C. 


1855 


Yermont. 


Jethro Kum])le, D. D., 


Dav. C. 


1855 


N. C. 


William A. Wood, D. D., (9) 


Dav. C. 


1853 


N. C. 


CLASS OF 1858. 








Samuel Edward Axson, 


0. IT, 


1855 


Ga. 


Gfeorge Henry Coit,* 


A. C. 


1855 


E.I. 


David Fairley, 


Dav. C. 


1855 


N. C. 


Edward 0. Frierson, 


0. U. 


1855 


S.C. 


William T. Hall, D. D., 


Dav. C. 


1855 


N. C. 


Andrew E. Liddell,* 


0. U. 


1855 


Ga. 


John C. McNair,* 


U. N. C. 


1855 


N. C. 


Hugh M. Morrison, 


U. M. 


1855 


Miss. 


Levi H. Parsons, 




1857 


Ala. 


AVilliam F. Pearson, 




1855 


S.C. 


Eufus W. Shive, 


V. M. 


1855 


Miss. 


A. Pickens Smith, D. D., 


0. U. 


1855 


Ala. 


Theodore E. Smith, 


0. U. 


1855 


Ga. 


James A. Walker, (14) 


S. C.M.A. 


1855 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1859. 








James C. Alexander, 


Dav. C. 


1856 


N". C. 


Eobert B. Anderson, D. D., 


N. H. 


1856 


N. C. 


Eobert Bradley, 


0. U. 


1856 


S.C. 


Chester Bridgman, 


A. C. 


1856 


Mass. 


J. DeWitt Burkhead, 


Dav. C. 


1856 


N. C. 


John N. Craig, D. D., 


W. C. Va. 


1858 


Ya. 


John Darroeh, 


N. H. 


1856 


N. C. 


John A. Dantbrth, 


0. U. 


1856 


Ala. 


Henry E. Dickson,* 


C. C. 


1856 


S. C. 


James H. Gaillard, 


U. M. 


1856 


Miss. 


Holmes L. Harvey, 


0. U. 


1856 


Ala. 


Henry F. Hoyt, 


F. C. 


1856 


Ga. 


James C. Kennedy, 




1856 


S.C. 


J. F. B. Mayes, 


Fur. U. 


1857 


S.C. 



430 



APPENDIX. 







fi > 




XAMES. 


WlIERI 

G RADII 

ATKD. 


P (A 

Eh - 
K W 


H 

H 

02 


Koln'i-t W. Mc'Conniok,* 


0. u. 


1857 


Ireland. 


Ai-fhi'i»;il(l .Mcl^iK'cu, 


Dav. C. 


1856 


X. C. 


T. i). Withcrspoon, I). D., 


U. M. 


1856 


Ala. 


Arthur Mo I). Wronn,* (18) 


N. H. 


1856 


Ala. 


CLASS OF ISGO. 








n. M. Brcarley, 


U. N. C. 


1857 


S. C. 


AV'illiaiu Tj. Ciiny. 


Fur. U. 


1857 


S. C. 


El ward ('. Davidson,* 


U. M. 


1857 


Tenn. 


Thomas L. DcVcaux,* 


C. C. 


1857 


S. C. 


William A. (irci,'g, 


0. U. 


1857 


S.C. 


Beiij. T. Hunter, 


0. IT. 


1857 


S.C. 


David \V. Humphreys, 


Dav. C. 


1857 


S.C. 


Henry Keiii;\vin, 


H. C. 


1859 


Ky. 


Duncan J^]. MCIiityre.* 


0. U." 


1857 


s. c. 


Francis P. Mullally, !>• D-, 




1857 


Ireland. 


John S. Park, 


U. M. 


1859 


Tenn. 


John R. Rilev, D. D., 


S. C. c. 


1857 


S. C. 


^Vm. K. Stod.lard,* 


E. C. 


1857 


S.C. 


J. S. N. Thomas, 


Dav. C. 


1857 


N. C. 


Philip H. Thompson,* 


U. Nash. 


1859 


Tenn. 


J. L. Under\V(»od, 


0. U. 


1857 


Ala. 


John S. WillbanUs, (17) 


E. C. 


1857 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1861. 








Samuel C. Alexander, 


J. C. 


1858 


Penn. 


Heniy Howard Jianks,* 


Dav. C. 


1858 


Ark. 


W. L. BoiTir^* 


0. U. 


1858 


S.C. 


Edward H. Buist,* 


S. C. C. 


1859 


S.C. 


William A. Carter, 


0. U. 


1859 


Ala. 


\V. M. Coleman, 


U. N. C. 


1859 


N. C. 


John H. DuHose, 


0. U. 


1858 


Ga. 


C. M. Hutton, 


U. A. 


1858 


Ala. 


Ilohert ('. Johnston,* 


U. Va. 


1858 


S.C. 


Kohert Z. .Johnston, 


Dav. C. 


1858 


N. C. 


Isaac J. Lon<^, D. D., 


Cr. C. 


1860 


Ky. 


Josei)h H. Mack, 1). D., 


Ja. C. 


1859 


Tenn. 


Duncan McDuffie, 


0. U. 


1859 


S.C. 


Daniel M. McLure,* 


0. U. 


1858 


S.C. 


K. P. Nicholson,* 


U. N. C. 


1859 1 


N. C. 



APPENDIX. 



431 




J. M. Eobinson, 

G. 8. RouHebusb, D. D., 

Isaac H. Salter,* 

W. B. AYatts,* 

William Wiley,* 

John Woodruff, 



CLASS OF 1862. 

R. A. Blackford, 
William E. Boirgs, D. D., 
Gilbert R. Brackett, D. D., 
William H. Brooks,* 
J. Douglas A. Brown, 
Orin Carpenter, 
James H. Colton, 
James S. Cozb}', 
J. Edgar Dixon, 
Robert L. Douglass,* 
John T. Eallis, 
M. W. Frierson,* 
8. H. Gallaudet, 
AVilliam J. Ilogan,* 
George W. Lad son,* 
Thomas H. Law, 
James A. McConnell, 
William McDonald, 
Hugh McLees, 
James H. Nail, D. D., 
J. M. P. Otts, D. i)., 
George L. Petrie, 
S. Parsons Pratt, 
F. T. Simpson, 
A. F. Smith,* 
David A. Todd, 
Charles 8. Vedder, D. D., 
John F. Watson,* 
Thomas B. Wells, 
Charles H. White, 
John A. Woodburn, 



(31) 



AV. C. Pa. 

s. c. c. 

W. C. Va. 
O. U. 
C. U. 

IT. X. C. 

o. u. 
J. c. 

Dav. C. 

Cr. C. 

U. M. 

J. C. 

U. A. 

O. U. 
B.C. M.A. 

J. C. 

IT. N. C. 

Dav. C. 

O. U, 
Dav. C. 

O. IT. 

IT. C. 

N. H. 

O. C. 
S. C. c. 

u. c. 

Dav. C. 

Y. C. 

J. C. 

IT. K C. 



1860 
1860 
1859 
1859 
1H59 
1859 
1859 
1860 
I860 
1859 
1859 
1859 
1860 
1859 
1859 
1860 
1859 
1859 
1859 
1859 
1859 
1859 
1860 
1860 
1860 
1859 
1860 
1859 
1859 
1860 
1859 



Penn. 

'8. C. 

Mass. 

Va. 

iS. C. 

|Tenn. 

iN. C. 

Ga. 

Is. C. 

Kv- 

Miss. 

1 

lAla. 
iGa. 

i8.C. 
iPenn. 

JN.C. 

Is. c. 

jAla. 
iS. c. 
lAla. 
IN. Y. 
iGa. 
Miss. 
S. C. 
N. Y. 
,8. C. 
iConn. 

IN. C 



432 



APPENDIX. 



• 




• 




^'AMES. 


HERI 
flADU 
TED. 


TERE 
INAR 


H 
% 




^6< 




H 
CQ 


CLASS ov 1863. 








William II. Adams,* 


Harv. U. 


1861 


Mass. 


C. A. Baker, 


0. U. 


1860 


Ga. 


Thomas P. Cleveland, 


N. H. 


1861 


Ga. 


Robert E. Cooper, 


U. N. C. 


1860 


S. C. 


A. N. Ferj^uson, 


Dav. C. 


1860 


N. C. 


Edward M. (Jreen, 


0. U. 


1860 


Ga. 


H. M. Ilarttield, 


0. C. 


1860 


Miss. 


Theodore Hunter, 


0. U. 


1860 


S. (^ 


C. G. Liddell, 


LaG. C. 


1860 


Miss. 


William MeDuffie,* 


Dav. C. 


1861 


S.C. 


K. M. Mel n tyre. 


U. V. 


1860 


N. C. 


A. M. MeoUliM, 


LaG. C. 


1860 


Miss. 


A. 1). Mister, 




1861 




George J. Porter, 


L. C. 


1860 


Penn. 


N. P. Quarterman, 


O. U. 


1860 


Ga. 


Geori^e Sluter, 


West. C. 


1860 


Mo. 


H. C\ Smith, 


0. C. 


1860 


Miss. 


Samuel P. Weir.* 


U. N. C. 


18(;0 


N. C. 


John A. Witherspoon,* (19) 


S. C. C. 


1860 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1864. 








J. S. Arbulluiot. I). D., 


C. u. 


1861 


Tenn- 


John Y. II. Ditmars, 


0. u. 


1861 


Fla. 


W. II. Fay.* 


o. u. 


1861 


Ala. 


James 11. Gou<i;er, 


Dav. C. 


1861 


N. C. 


William P. Jacol)S, 


C. C. 


1861 


S.C. 


Luther McKinnon, 


Dav. C. 


1861 


N. C. 


James B. McCuUum, (7) 


U. N. C. 


1861 


N. C. 


CLASS OF 1865. 








Samuel E. Chandler,* 




1862 


S.C. 


John J. Kennedy, 


Dav. C. 


1859 


N. C. 


Wallace II. Stratton,* 




1863 


La. 


HuLih Stron-;. 


U. N. C. 


1862 


S.C. 


I^eighton B. Wdson,* (5) 


0. U. 


1863 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1866. 








None. 









APPENDIX. 



433 



NAMES. 


g a « 

« o w 

►^ ra H 


Entered 
Seminary. 


■A 
H 

■< 

Eh 


CLASS OF 1867. 








A. W. Gaston. 


E.&H.C. 


1861 


Ga. 


Robert L. Sni3'the,* (2) 


0. U. 


1863 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1868. 








AVilliam W. Mills, 


s. c. c. 


1866 


s.c. 


S. F. Tenney. (2) 


IT. Ga. 


1866 


Ga. 


CLASS OF 1869. 








William R. Atkinson, 


s. c. c. 


1867 


S.C. 


Benjamin L. Baker, 


0. u. 


1867 


Ga. 


W. W. Brimm, 




1866 


Ga. 


A. J. Davis. 








William N. Dickey, 


Dav. C. 


1867 


N. C. 


Peter Gowan, 




1866 


S.C. 


John B. McKinnon,* 


Dav. C. 




KC. 


A. P. Xicholson, 


s. c. c. 


1861 


S.C. 


Charles M. Richards,* 




1861 


S.C. 


W. Cuttino Smith, 


U. V. 


1860 


S.C. 


Jno. Lowrie Wilson, (11) 


St. c. 


1867 


Tenn. 


CLASS OF 1870. 








John L. Caldwell, 


Dav. C 


1867 


s. c. 


James H. Douglass, 


Dav. C. 


1868 


S.C. 


L. K. Glasgow, 


s. c. c. 


1867 


S.C. 


W. M. Ingram.* 


LaG. C. 


1869 


Tenn. 


James F. Latimer, Ph. D., 




1867 


S.C. 


John G. Law, 




1867 


Tenn. 


James L. Martin, 




1867 


S.C. 


John S. Moore. D. D., 


U. M. 


1867 


Ala. 


S. M. Neel, 


LaG. C. 


1868 


Tenn. 


F. M. Swoope. (10) 


W. C. Ya. 


1868 


Va. 


CLASS OF 1871. 








Eugene Daniel, D. D., 


0. C. 


1868 


Miss. 


Hampden C. DuBose, 


S. C. C. 


1868 


S.C. 


W. W. Evans, 


Cr. C. 


1868 


Ky. 



28 



■434 



APPENDIX. 







Q >; 




NAMES. 


HERI 
ElADU 
TED. 


TERE 
INAR 


< 




^6< 




Eh 


George T. Goetchius, 


V. Ga. 


1868 


Ga. 


J. AV. Heath. 


N. U. 


1868 


Ala. 


Frank L. Leeper, 




1868 


Ala. 


John T. McBiyde, 


s. c. c. 


1868 


S.C. 


John .T. Read. 


0. c. 


1868 


Miss. 


Rieluird D. Smart, 


Wof. C. 


1868 


S.C. 


J. Spratt White, (10) 


U. V. 


1868 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1872. 








\Vm. S. Bean. 


U. Ga. 


1870 


Ga. 


0. M. Green,* 


N. H. 


1871 


Pa. 


J. C. Grow, 




1869 


Ga. 


L. S. Handley, 


U. M. 


1869 


Ala. 


Frank M. Howell,* 


U. M. 


1869 


Miss. 


Milton C. Hutton, 


U. M. 


1869 


Ala. 


Josephus John.son, 


U. M. 


1869 


Miss. 


Thos. C. Johnson, 


U. M. 


1869 


Tenn. 


A. Ross Kennedy, 


Dav. C. 


1869 


S.C. 


Wm. LeConte,* 


s. c. c. 


1869 


S.C. 


T. C. Ligon, 


E.G. 


1869 


S.C. 


Jas. A. Mecklin, 


U. M. 


1869 


Miss. 


J as. W. Query, 


E.G. 


1869 


N. C. 


W. T. Thompson, 




1869 


Va. 


Jos. Washburn, (15) 


W. C. 


1869 


Ga. 


CLASS OF 1873. 








S. Henry Bell, 


Dav. C. 


1870 


N. C. 


Samuel I). Boggs, 


s. c. c. 


1870 


S.C. 


C. E. Ciiichester, 




1870 


S.C. 


Samuel N. (Jarrard, 




1870 


Ahi. 


C. W. (J ration, 


U. M. 


1870 


Miss. 


Thos. L. Ilaman, 


U. M. 


1870 


Miss 


Eobert H. Mc Alpine, 


Dav. C. 


1870 


Ark. 


Daniel K. .MeKarlaud, D. I)., 


U. M. 


1870 


Miss. 


Wilson J. McKay, 


Dav. C. 


1870 


N. C. 


Wm. A. Milner, (10) 


Dav. C. 


1870 


Ga. 


CLASS OF 1874. 








Harry C. Ansley, 


U. Ga. 


1871 . 


Ga. 



APPENDIX. 



435 



NAMES. 







Edward H. Briggs. 
Jos. C. Carolhers, 
Thos. H. Cunningham,* 
Wm. H. Dodge, 
R. Means DuBose, 
J. DeWitt Duncan,* 
John G. Hall, 
Chas. E. Hemphill, 
Jas. R. Jacobs, 
Thos. T. Johnston, 
Robert M. Kirkpatrick, 
Nicholas M. Long, 
David S. McAllister, 
Leslie R. McCormick, 
P. M. McKay,* 
Carl McKinley, 
Geo. W. McMillan, 
Alfred L. Miller, 
Robert A. Miller, 
Jas. K. P. Newton, 
Robert D. Perry, 
Samuel R. Preston, 
James A. Smith, 
James W. Spratt, 
James H. Thornwell, 

CLASS OP 1875. 

Julius J. Anderson, 
James S. Black, 
David O. Byers, 
Wm. B. Crawford,* 
Albert B. Curry, 
William A. Dabney, 
Thos. R. English, 
Erasmus E. Erwin, 
James Y. Fair. 
J. Wm. Flinn,' 
H. B. S. Gari'iss, 
I. M. Ginn, 
J. Harvey Hammet, 
O. J. Harris, 



(26) 



U. Ga. 

U. Ga. 
Dav. C. 

s. c. c. 

Dav. C. 
IJ. V. 

K. C. T. 
Dav. C. 
King C. 
Dav. C. 

s. c. c. 

K. C. T. 

Dav. C. 

Dav. C. 

Dav. C. 

U. M. 

King C. 
Dav. C. 
Dav. C. 

s. c. c. 



Dav. C. 

King C. 
Dav. C. 



Dav. C. 
Dav. C. 

U. M. 

O. U. 
Dav. C. 



1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 



1872 
1872 
! 1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1871 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1872 



Ga. 

iMiss. 
S. C: 
Ga. 
S. C. 
Kv. 
S.C. 

s. c. 

S.C. 
Canada. 
Ala. 
Tenn. 

N. C. 

S.C. 

Fla. 

Ga. 

N. C. 

S.C. 

S.C. 

Miss. 

S.C. 

Va. 

N. C. 

S.C. 

S.C. 



Ala. 

N. C. 
Tenn. 
Ark. 
Ga. 

Ga. 

S.C. 
S.C. 

s. c. 

Miss. 
N. C. 

Ga. 

S.C. 
S.C. 



436 



APPENDIX. 



NAMES 


Where 

(tRADL- 
ATEI). 


Enterku 
Seminary. 


• State. 


Jas. E. Jones, 




1872 


Ga. 


Richard C. Ligou, 


E. C. 


1872 


S.C. 


Thos. M. McConnell. 


King C. 


1872 


Va. 


Wm. E. Mcllwaiiu'. 


E. C. 


1872 


X. C. 


D. C. Rankin, 




1872 


Tenn. 


Robert A. Reid, 


E. C. 


1872 


S. C. 


John M. Rhea, 


King C. 


1872 


Tenn. 


Robert X. Smith, 


O. l^. 


1872 


(ra. 


Jerry Witlierspoon. 1). D.. (2'ii') 


V. M. 


1872 


Miss. 


CLASS OF 1870. 









Jos. Y. Allison, ' 

Samuel C. Caldwell, 

A. M. Hassell, 

John Henderson. I 

W. T. Hollings worth, 

J. J. Johnson, 

W. W. Killough, ' 

M. R. Kirkpatrick, ' 

D. A. MeRae, 

S. Leslie Mcnn'is, 

R. 0. B. Mori-ow, j 

James AV. Rogan, 

W. M. Stratton, | 

W. G. F. Wallace, 1 

Andrew W. Wilson,* (15) 

CLASS OF 1877. 

Kobcrt Adams, 
William Jioyd, 
M. C. Hritt, 
.1. 'Palliilah Bruce, 
IvlwartI 1'. l)avis, 
James E. Fogartie, 
J.J. Henry, 
I)()nald Mcl^ueen, 
Samuel W. Newell, 

E. Newton,* 

George A. Trenholm. (11)1 





1873 


N. C. 


r. M. 


1873 


Miss. 




1873 


Texas. 




1873 


Canada 


or. 


1873 


Ga. 




1873 


Ga. 




1873 


Ark. 


Dav. C. 


1873 


Ala. 




1873 


N. {*. 


E. C. 


1873 


S. C. 


U. M. 


1873 


Ala. 


King C. 


1873 


Tenn. 




1873 


La. 


Dav. C. 


1873 


Ala. 


Dav. C. 


1873 


S.C. 


U. Ga. 


1874 


Ga. 


Au8. C. 


1874 


Texas. 


Dav. C. 


1874 


Ga. 




1874 


Ga. 


Dav. C. 


1874 


Ga. 


Dav. C. 


1870 


*S. ( •. 


U. T. 


1870 
1874 


Canada 
S. (". 


U. M. 


1874 


Mi.^^s. 


U. Ga. 


1874 


Ga. 




1876 


S. C. 



appendix. 



437 



NAMES. 


i . 


Entered 
Seminary. 


State. 

il 


CLASS OF 1878. 








J. L. Brownlee, 


E. {.". 


1877 


S.C. 


W. S. Plumer Bryan. 


Dav. C. 


1875 


s. c. 


D. Irvin Craii;-, 




1875 


N. c. 


Heuiy G. Gilland, 


St. C. 


1875 


Miss. 


Zebulon B. Graves, 


U. M. 


1875 


Mo. 


Thos. P. Hay, 




1875 


S. C. 


T. J. Home. 


Ark. C. 


1875 


Ark. 


Tbos. M. Lowrv. 


E. C. 


1875 


S.C. 


John C. McMuilen, 


Dav. C. 


1873 


Ala. 


Frank J. Mundj, 




1873 ! 


N.J. 


Alex. E. Xorris. 


Dav. C. 


1873 


S. C. 


Jas. L. Williamson. (12) 


Dav. C. 


1873 


S.C. 



CLASS OF 1879. 



Clarence V. Cavitt, 
H. C. Fennel. 
Harvey W. Flinn. 
Chas. W. Robinson. 
John D. Ivowe. 
E. Geddings Smith, 
Horace M. Whaling-, 
Wm. G. AVoodbridge, 

CLASS OF 1880. 

Samuel E. Bishop, 
Frank J. Brooke. 
J. R. C. Browc, Jr.. 
Thos. B. Craig. 
A Mclver Fraser, 
David E. Frierson, 
Baxter D. D. Greer, 
J. L. D. Houston. 
Robert A. Lapsley, 
Thos. J. Lee. 
John F. Mayne,* 
John A. McLees, 
J. T. Plunkett, 
L. H. Robinson, 



(8)! 



R. C. 

£. C. 

U. M. 

Dav. C. 

Dav. C. 



1877. 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876- 
1876 
1876 



Texas. 

S. C. 

Miss. 

N. C. 

N. C. 

S.C. 

Va. 

Miss. 



Dav. C. 


1877 


S. C. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


Va. 


R. C. 


1877 


Ya. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


S. C. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


s. c. 




1877 


s. c. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


Ala. 


Ark. C. 


1877 


Ark. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


Ala. 


Cent. U. 


1877 


Ky. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


Ala. 


Dav. C. 


1877 


S.C. 


S.W. P. u. 


1877 


Tenn 


E. C. 


1877 


S.C. 



488 



APPENDIX. 









Q >• 








S 5 ^. 


» ti 


,; 


NAMES. 






w Z 


H 

^ 








H » 


*^ 






'^ '3 '^ 


Z S 


H 










CO 


L. A. Simpson, 




Dav. C. 


1877 


Ga. 


Clias. M. Slie])her(l, 






1877 


Tenn. 


J. McL. St'iibrook, 




Dav. C. 


1877 


S. C. 


Calvin Ij. Stewart, 




Dav. C. 


1877 


s.c. 


Kobei-t !V. Webb, 




S.W. P. U. 


1877 


Tenn. 


Samuel L. Wilson, 




Dav. C. 


1877 


s.c. 


AV. 11. Wycou«rh, 


(21) 


Ark. C. 


1877 


Ark. 


CLASS OF 1881. 










Wra. y. Davis, 




N. H. 


1878 


Ky- 


Wm. T. Matlbews, 




E. C. 


1878 


N. C. 


Jas. Ij. McLin. 




E. C. 


1878 


S.C. 


Jas. W. MeClure, 






1878 


Ky- 


Wm. (t. Neville, 




Ad. C. 


1878 


s. c. 


Jas. L. Williams, 


(6) 


Dav. C. 


1878 


N. C. 


CLASS OF 1882. 










Henry D. Lindsay, 




• E. C. 


1879 


S.C. 


James P. Miller, 




Ad. C. 


1879 


S.C. 


Alex. M. Sale, 






1879 


Ga. 


Samuel 1. Woodbridge, 


(4) 


Rut. C. 


1879 


Md. 


CLASS OF 1883. 










Thos. F. Boozer, 




• Ad. C. 


1879 


S.C. 


Wm. ('. Fleminii:. 






1882 


Va. 


Tliorntoii (". Wlialing, 




R. C. 


1882 


Va. 


Horace B. Zeiiiow, 


(4) 


Dav. C. 


1882 


S.C. 


CLASS OF 1884. 










Malcolm lilack. 






1883 


Texas. 


Milton M. Hooper, 




U. M. 


1882 


Miss. 


Ivlwin .Mullei-, 




U. C. 


1882 


S.C. 


Walter K. Sliive, 


(4) 


Dav. C. 


1883 


Te.xas. 


CLASS OF 1885. 










Kdward Hailev. 




S.W. P. u. 


1882 


Ga. 


Wm. A. Caldwell, 




c. c. 


1882 


S.C. 



APPENDIX. 



439 




John H. Foster, 

Chalmers Fraser, 

Sherwood L. Grigsby, 

Samuel R. Hope, 

James R. Howerton, 

John F. Lloyd, 

Wm. S. Lowry, 

Robert E. Me Alpine, 

Wm. M. McCullough, 

John L. MeLees, 

Ephraim C. Murray. 

Henry H. Newman. 

William H. Neel, 

George W. Thompson, 

John C. Williams. (17) 

CLASS OF 188ll. 

George A. Blackburn, 

Thos. J^ Burgess. 

T. H. DeGraffenreid, 

Jos. H. Lumpkin, 

Jas. C. Oehler, 

Jas. M. Plowden, 

W. Stuart Red, 

Wm. H. White, 

Jas. A. Wilson, 

Elias B. Witherspoon, (10)1 



Oxf. C. 

Dav. C. 
S.W. P. U. 

Dav. C. 
S.W. P. U. 

Ark. C. 
S.W.P.U. 
S.W. P. U. 

Aus. C. 

Ad. C. 
U. C. 

Dav. C. 

S.AV. P. U. 

Ark. C. 



S.W. P. U. 
Dav. C. 
Dav. C. 
Dav. C. 
Dav. C. 



Aus. C. 



Dav 
U. 



. C. 
M. 



1882 
1882 
1882 
1882 

18w2 
1882 
1882 
1882 
1882 
1882 
1882 
1883 
1882 
1882 
1882 



1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1«83 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1883 



Ala. 

Ga. 

Tenn. 

S. C. 

Tenn. 

Ark. 

Tenn. 

Ala. 

Texas. 

S. C. 

s. c. 

Tenn. 
N. C. 
Tenn. 
Ark. 



Tenn. 

S. C. 

s. c. 

Ga. 
X. C. 

s. c. 

Texas. 

S. C. 

s. c. 

Miss. 



SPECIAL COURSE. 

Entered. 



J. S. Brockinton, 1882 

John H. Dixon (Lie), 1882 

Milton A. Henderson, 1882 

John R. MeAlpine (Lie.), 18S2 

Elam A. Sample, 1882 

George G. Wood bridge, (6) 1882 

Total. 586. 
N. B. — It is but fair to state that many of those who are not 
marked as Graduates were Students at College for a longer or 
shorter time, but entered the Seminary before eompk'ting their 
collei;iate course. 



State. 
S. C. 

s. c. 

N. C. 

s. c. 

N. c. 

Miss. 



440 



APFKNDIX. 



AB15KEVIATI0NS. 



* — Deceased. 

A. C. — Amherst College. 

Ad. C. — Adger College. , 

Ark. C. — Arkansas College. 

Aus. C — Austin College. 

C. C— Charleston College. 

C. U. — Cumberland University. 

Cent. U. — Central University. 

Cr.C— Centre College. 

Daft. C— Dartmouth College. 

Dav. C. — Davidson College. 

E. C— Erskine College. 

E. & H. C— Emory and Henry College. 

F. C— Franklin College. 
Fur. U. — Furnian University. 
Gl. U. — University of Glasgow. 
H. C. — Hanover College. 
Harv. U. — Harvard University-. 

H. S. C. — Hampden Sidney ("ollege. 

J. C. — Jefferson College. 

.la. C. — Jackson College. 

K. C. — Knoxville College. 

K. C. T— Knox College, Toronto. 

L. C. — LaFayette College. 

LaG. C. — LaGrange College. 

Ma. C. — Madison College. 

Mi. C— Middlebiiry College. 

M. U. — Miami University. 



N. H.— Nassau Hull (Princeton). 

N. U. — Newton University. 

0. C— Oakland College. 

Oxf. C— Oxford College, Ala. 

0. U. — Oglethorpe University. 

P. I. V. — Polytechnic Institute, Vienna. 

R. C. — Roanoke College. 

Rut. C— Rutgers College. 

S. C. C. — South Carolina College. 

S. C. M. A.— S. C. Military Academy. 

St. C— Stewart College. 

S. W. P. U. — Southwestern Presbyterian 

University'. 
T. C— Tusculum College. 
U. A. — University of Alabama. 
U. C— Union College. 
U. M. — University of Mississippi. 
U. N. C. — University of North Carolina. 
U. Ga. — University of Georgia. 
U. T. — University of Toronto. 
U. V. — University of Virginia. 
W. C— Williams College. 
West. C. — Westminster College. 
W. C. Pa.— Washington College, Pa. 
W. C. Va. — Washington College, Va. 
Wof. C— Woflford College. 
Y. C— Yale College.